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ets 2 audi a8

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง ets 2 audi a8

ส่องข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi A8 ซีดานลักชัวรี่สไตล์ผู้นำ

Audi A8 นี้ก่อนตัดสินใจเป็นเจ้าของข้อดี Audi A81.ห้องโดยสารนั่งสบายภายในของ Audi A8 มีความกว้างขวาง

Audi เปิดตัว 2021 Audi TT สเปคใหม่ พร้อมแคมเปญดอกเบี้ย 0% 5 ปีไม่มีบอลลูนกับอีก 10 รุ่นฮิต

Audi (อาวดี้) ประเทศไทยนำ Audi TT Coupé (อาวดี้ ทีที คูเป้) และ Audi TT Roadster (อาวดี้ ทีที

รีวิว 2020 Audi TT Coupe รถสปอร์ตเพื่อการใช้งานในชีวิตประจำวัน

ออดี้ บริษัทรถยนต์พรีเมียมจากเยอรมนี นำเสนอ 2020 อาวดี้ ทีที คูเป้ (2020 Audi TT Coupe) ออกจำหน่ายด้วยราคา

รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi A6 Avant ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ!

พรีเมียม และเทคโนโลยีที่ทันสมัย 2020 Audi A6 Avant ก็เป็นหนึ่งในรถยนต์ที่ Audi มาพร้อมมาตรฐานความเป็นรถหรู

ควักเพิ่ม 2 แสน! ทำไมถึงควรเลือก 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback มากกว่า e-tron สแตนดาร์ด

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) รุ่นใหม่เปิดตัวลุยตลาดบ้านเราแล้วด้วยราคา 5.299

ข้อดีข้อเสียที่ควรรู้ก่อนถอย Audi A4 Sedan

Audi A4 Sedan ด้วยดีไซน์โดดเด่นสวยหรู ทำให้หลายคนอยากจับจองเป็นเจ้าของAudi A4 Sedan เป็นหนึ่งในรถซีดานของค่าย

Review: 2019-2020 Audi e-tron เอสยูวีพรีเมียมพลังงานไฟฟ้า

Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S Line ราคา 5.299 ล้านบาท ขับเคลื่อนด้วยขุมพลังมอเตอร์ไฟฟ้า 2 ตัว ที่ให้กำลังสูงสุดถึง

Review: Audi A8 ซีดานหรูสไตล์ผู้นำ

6.799 ล้านบาทในรุ่น Audi A8 L 55 TFSI quattro Premium และ 7.999 ล้านบาทในรุ่น Audi A8 L 55 TFSI quattro

รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi Q8 ก่อนยกให้เป็นรถคู่ใจ

Audi Q8 รถยนต์ครอสโอเวอร์ที่มาพร้อมความเป็นเอกลักษณ์สไตล์ Audi ด้วยชื่อแบรนด์ก็บ่งบอกแล้วว่าต้องหรูดูดี

2021 Audi e-tron GT เตรียมบุกไทยปีนี้ พร้อมตระกูล RS อีกหลายรุ่น

Audi Thailand (อาวดี้ ประเทศไทย) ประกาศยืนยันว่าพวกเขาพร้อมที่จะเดินหน้าทำตลาดรถยนต์รุ่นใหม่อีกหลายรุ่นในปีนี้

ดูเพิ่มเติม

รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi Q3 รถที่หลายคนอยากเป็นเจ้าของ

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถหรูจากเยอรมันส่ง 2020 Audi Q3 รถอเนกประสงค์รุ่นเล็กดีไซน์หรูที่มีความเป็นสปอร์ตมากขึ้น

Audi เปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าสปอร์ตรุ่นใหม่ 2022 Audi e-tron GT และ Audi RS e-tron GT เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท

Audi (อาวดี้) เปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าสปอร์ตรุ่นใหม่ให้เลือก 2 รุ่นซีดาน 4 ประตูรูปทรงเพรียวบางพร้อมแนวหลังคาที่ต่ำและเส้นสายสไตล์

Review: Audi Q5 รถเอสยูวีสุดหรู

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์สุดหรูที่ส่ง Audi Q5(อาวดี้ คิว5) รถอเนกประสงค์ขนาดกลาง มีให้เลือกได้แก่ Audi

Audi เดินหน้าเข้าสู่ยุครถยนต์ไฟฟ้าเต็มตัวภายใน 2035 หลัง Audi e-tron ขายได้ 9,227 คัน ขึ้นอันดับ 1 ใน Norway

ที่ค่ายรถพยายามจะเข็นออกมาเพื่อตอบสนองมาตราการลดมลภาวะของหลายประเทศ แต่ก็ต้องดูกันในระยะยาว ว่าจะใช่คำตอบของอนาคตหรือไม่Audi

Review: Audi A6 Avant รถหรูสายสปอร์ต

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์ยักษใหญ่ส่ง 2020 Audi A6 (อาวดี้ เอ6) สู่ตลาดรถยนต์ประเทศไทย ชื่ออย่างเป็นทางการคือ

แบงค์บอกต่อ CX-5 ลดเหลือ 1,160,000 บาทกับ Audi อัดดอกเบี้ย 0% ก่อนงาน Motor Expo 2020

Mazda และ Audi นำรถมาลดราคา และขนแคมเปญงาน Motor Expo 2020 เพื่อให้ลูกค้าได้ออกมาจับจองกันก่อน พร้อมแล้ววันนี้Mazda

2020 Audi A4 Sedan ความคุ้มค่าราคา 2.499 ล้านบาท กับค่าตัวที่หายไป 2 แสนบาท

Audi A4 (อาวดี้ เอ4) ดูเหมือนจะเป็นรถยนต์นั่งขนาดเล็กที่ค่าย Audi Thailand นั้นไม่ค่อยได้ให้ความสำคัญในการทำตลาดอย่างต่อเนื่องในช่วงที่ผ่านมา

Review: Audi Q3 ครอสโอเวอร์สุดพรีเมี่ยม

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยักษ์ใหญ่ส่ง Audi Q3 2020 (อาวดี้ คิว 3) ลงตลาดรถครอสโอเวอร์ มีรุ่นย่อยให้เลือก คือ

Audi Q2 เอสยูวีไซส์เล็กสุดหรูเพื่อคนรุ่นใหม่ พร้อมราคา 2.249 ล้านบาท

Audi Q2 (อาวดี้ Q2) SUV ขนาดกะทัดรัดจากค่ายหรู ด้วยราคาที่ถูกกว่าค่ายใหญ่อย่าง BMW และ Benz เลยทำให้

รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi TT รถสปอร์ตคูเป้สุดหรู

ไม่ว่า Audi TT จะออกมากี่รุ่นก็ยังคงโดดเด่นเป็นเอกลักษณ์ดีไซน์ล้ำแบบ Audi สไตล์ Super Car ที่เอาใจคนรักความเร็ว

รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi Q2 ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ

กับราคาประมาณ 2 ล้าน ทำให้หลายคนสนใจและอยากเป็นเจ้าของ AutoFun ก็เลยรวบรวมข้อมูลข้อดีข้อเสียมาให้ผู้อ่านทุกท่านก่อนตัดสินใจเป็นเจ้าของรถ

อาวดี้เตรียมเปิดตัว 2021 Audi e-tron GT พร้อมสู้ Porsche Taycan ได้หรือไม่?

สมรรถนะเป็นอย่างไร2018 Audi e-tron GT Conceptเมื่อช่วงปลายปี 2018 ค่ายรถหรูอย่าง Audi ได้เปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้า

แบงค์บอกต่อ Audi แคมเปญ 0% แถมช่วยผ่อนคนละครึ่งหลายรุ่น และ Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV แพคเกจดูแล 5 ปี

แบงค์บอกต่อ มาดูแคมเปญ Audi (อาวดี้) ประเทศไทย หลังเปิดตัว 2021 Audi TT ใหม่ (อาวดี้ ทีที) กับ Mitsubishi

เป็นไปได้? ผู้บริหาร Audi ชี้รถพลังไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่เล็กลงในอนาคต

ซีอีโอ Audi (อาวดี้) ออกมาให้ความเห็นว่ารถยนต์ไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่ขนาดเล็กลงในอนาคต เมื่อเทคโนโลยีการชาร์จไฟและจุดชาร์จไฟมีพัฒนาการก้าวหน้ามากขึ้นจากการแข่งขันด้านพละกำลังทั้งแรงม้าและแรงบิดของรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาปในอดีต

Review: Audi A6 Avant รถหรูสไตล์ผู้นำ

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์หรูจากเยอรมันส่ง 2020 Audi A6 Avant ในรหัส 40 TFSI ลงสู้คู่แข่งด้วยราคาเริ่มต้น

Audi Thailand รับหวั่น 'หนี้เสีย-โควิดรอบสอง' กระทบเศรษฐกิจครึ่งปีหลัง

Audi Thailand (อาวดี้ ประเทศไทย) ประกาศตัวเลขผลการดำเนินงานที่เยี่ยมยอดในประเทศไทย ด้วยการรักษาอัตรการเติบโตเอาไว้ได้ที่

Audi เปิดตัวเอสยูวีโหด 2021 Audi RS Q3 Sportback เคาะ 4.75 ล้านบาท ถูกกว่า Mercedes-AMG GLC

Audi (อาวดี้) ประเทศไทย เปิดตัวรถรุ่นใหม่รวดเดียว 3 รุ่น นำทัพด้วย 2021 Audi RS Q3 Sportback (อาวดี้

Review: 2020 Audi A4 สปอร์ตซีดานเพื่อผู้นำทุกไลฟ์สไตล์

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์หรูจากฝั่งยุโรป ส่ง 2020 Audi A4 (อาวดี้ เอ4) รถซีดานสายสปอร์ต ที่มีการออกแบบทันสมัย

ส่องข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi A7 รถหรูดีไซน์เด่นก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ

Audi A7 (อาวดี้ เอ 7) Sportback รถซาลูนสุดหรู หนึ่งรถยนต์หรูจากค่ายเยอรมัน ที่มีดีไซน์อันเป็นเอกลักษณ์

รวมข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi A5 Coupé ที่ควรรู้ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ

A5 Coupé ให้ก่อนตัดสินใจข้อดี Audi A5 Coupé1.Audi A5 - ดีไซน์เรียบหรูดูทันสมัย Audi A5

วิดีโอรถยนต์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง ets 2 audi a8

ets 2 audi a8-ets 2 audi a8-[Ets 2] [Обзор мода] Audi A8 Alpha

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ets 2 audi a8-Recorriendo Kilometros En Euro truck Simulator 2 Directo

ets 2 audi a8-City Car Driving ● AUDI A8 D3 ● FAST DRIVING

ets 2 audi a8-ets 2 audi a8-Winter Mod (1.36) Ets 2 / BMW M5 Mod {Download Link In Description}

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ets 2 audi a8-Audi A6 Stance Euro Truck Simulator 2 1.38 (POV + Autobahn)

ets 2 audi a8-ETS2 1.32.2.32S RODONITCHO NISSAN 370Z 1.2 1.32

ets 2 audi a8-ETS2 | TruckesMP | Ayudando al Fratz | Envíos | Nuevos Autos | Volkswagen ID

รีวิวโพสต์ ets 2 audi a8

ETS 2 – Audi A8 + Template (1.30.X) download -

TESTEI O AUDI A8 REBAIXADO NO ETS 2: via @YouTube

Very good work!! How to download Audi A8 and put to ETS 2 game? Thanks

Am apreciat un videoclip pe @YouTube, ETS 2_Audi_A8_Alpha_v1.26

Dodao sam videozapis Audi A8 By Diablo Upgrade + Template ETS 2 v1.28.1.3s na popis za reprodukciju na usluzi

ETS 2 - Audi A8 http://goo.gl/iMUog3

ETS 2 – Audi A8 Alfa Araba Yaması V1

Audi A8 By Diablo - ETS 2 v1.33 MODS: putem @YouTube

ETS 2 Mod - Audi A8 v 1.0 BETA Testlewat @YouTube

Euro Truck Simulator 2 Driving With Audi A8||Ets 2 Driving With Audi a8: via @YouTube

รีวิว Q&A ets 2 audi a8

Is there anything I can do to reduce the road noise in my VW Jetta Sportwagen? It is extremely loud. New tires are helping but it's still bad.

I suggest sitting in the car with windows up, and having someone blast a narrow stream of high-pressure water at each area of the car while you take note inside of the loudest noise penetration, then insulate THAT area. You have three challenges: stop making sound, block sound getting in, absorb sound you cant stop or can’t block. And it’s not just the sound you hear, it’s the sound you feel, as well, that is objectionable … all these things do one or more of these three: 1 - seal air gap openings with extra weatherstripping between opening body panels, nice, big, soft supplemental [ self-adhesive automotive weatherstripping ], such that all exposed seams are sealed … for example. making three separate seals for door panels ( VW already has two in many places ) with new additional seals where the outer edge of the door has a gap at the surface to the fender, this reduces wind noise and isolates the interior from the external noise, even noise from your own car. 2 - disassemble all interior panels, including and especially the roof liner, and fill the space with non-VOC volatile organic compound [ automotive sound deadening materials ], use the existing materials as examples of what to add, you will find loads of different materials already mounted behind everything, foam blocks, fiber pads, but still plenty of space left to fill. 3 - cover all hard interior surfaces with soft material such as [ self-adhesive padded vinyl ], [ Ultrasuede ], and [ EVA foam “foamtech” “foamiran” ] or equivalent in various thicknesses ( and coat it with [ Turtle Wax Inside Protectant with Scotchguard ] to male it appear more durable ). 4 - spray the underside of the car with [ rubberized undercoating ], again and again and again ( I added almost 50 pounds of spray undercoating to a VW Type 2 camper van over a period of sequential spray coating sessions, letting it set between sprays so nothing dripped, even in the thick places ). 5 - apply [ exhaust system heat and sound deadening wrap ] ( it will reduce under-hood and under-body temperatures, too ). 6 - Turn up the radio — I installed a [ Nakamichi ADS 2002 portable sound system ] ( ooo, that dates me ) that, even in a convertible ( Fiat Spyder ), overwhelmed any road noise — I could not even hear the complaints of people I passed by as they yelled from sidewalks and from other cars ( ! ) ... you could wear [ noise-cancelling headphones ], get a DMV permit based on a medical prescription first. 7 - apply [ security laminate film ] to your stationary windows, even custom forming with [ soft formable Lexan / Plexiglass ] on the interior surface ( incredible custom challenge, but can be done ), even consider modifying opening window system to allow extra thickness of additional interior lamination ( Mercedes has models with “twindow” ). 8 - remove all flooring and undercoat the inside of your car with non-VOC volatile organic compound non-out-gassing [ low VOC undercoating ], and [ sound-deadening pads ], consider [ cork sheets ], cork is lightweight, is many times more sound absorbent that other materials, and is also anti-microbial, apply [ low VOC rubberized carpet backing spray ] to the backs of your carpets, then replace your carpets, then cover your carpets with more carpet, then cover that with thick rubber mats under your feet ( NOT MacNeil WeatherTech echoey hard-plastic “liners” ) — and make extra sure that you lock down the driver’s carpet and mats so that nothing slides to push on the accelerator pedal. 9 - seal the engine compartment hood with [ self-adhesive automotive weatherstripping ] so that no sound escapes up and back from there, add [ thick underhood sound deadening pads ] inside of the hood, and fill the frame of the hood with [ flexible sound deadening acoustic foam-in-place spray ], and or cut up foam panels and push it into channel opening to fill all space in the hood structure. 10 - open the wheel wells inside the fenders and fill the space behind the shrouds with [ sound deadening foam and blocks ], then spray [ rubberized undercoating ] on both sides of the shrouds and replace them, then seal all overlaps and layers and seams and gaps with rubberized undercoating, building up sequential coats to bridge all gaps. 11 - get the [ smallest diameter and widest wheels for VW Sportwagen ] that will fit over your brakes ( as small as 15″ for some models of brakes, but as wide as 7″, 7.5″ or 8″ — the offset must match the original design of ET 45 to ET 54 or the car will handle poorly and unsafely and stress the tires and suspension ), then mount the [ tallest aspect ratio tires that will fit inside your fenders and carry the weight of the car ] ( I select tires with a 44 psi or more load rating, and weight capacity that can EACH tire carry at least 1/2 the weight of the entire car, you have to read the sidewall of each tire ), selecting tires for their quietness rating ( I prefer wet traction reviews ), then tune the tire pressures front and rear for safety and four-wheel drift with smooth and predictable breakaway, slightly favoring under-steer ( start with the manufacturer recommendations, 35 psi all around, then test, always keeping the rear equal or higher than the front, I have found that for 60 to 80 series tires, ~44 psi in the rear and ~36 psi in the front works for me, and for 50 to shorter aspect ratio tires I’ve found ~40 psi in the rear and ~32 psi in the front works for me, but it all depends on the tires and the sidewalls and the width of the wheels and so much more ). 12 - fill gaps between non-opening panels, such as seams between bumper and fender, between lamps and body, and so on, using [ tubes of Silicone / RTV ] which are available in many colors to match almost any car’s paint, and it fills and wipes smooth and is workable before drying to remove any overage, search under the car, too, with well-supported jacks, or with time on a lift if you can find a public garage. 13 - cover every non-glass surface and crevice with [ Sorbothane ], inside and out, for shock absorption, vibration isolation, and vibration damping ( I sit on a 1/8″ thick Sorbothane mat covered with a terry-towel under my butt ). Many of the above tasks may put your car out of usefulness for a full day or even longer while you disassemble, apply the remedy, and reassemble — it’s a lot of work, but not effective without a lot of work. All solutions above are Google-searchable by their descriptions for specific details and suppliers — search terms in bold with brackets [ ]. __________ Note: we have 1998 to 2006 VW B5/5.5 Passat sedans ( similar to the Audi A4 ) with 80 to 60 aspect ratio tires on rims as small as 14″, … and we have 2011 to 2018 MK6/A6 Golf / Jetta Sportwagens ( or Estate or Variant, similar to the Audi A3 ) with 45 aspect ratio tires on rims as large as 17″ ( though folks squeeze 20″ rims under there ! ) … … and the Passats are just mounted more isolating, smooth, and quiet, … where the Golfs / Jettas are smaller, tighter, mounted and suspended more directly, and transmit more [ NVH noise, vibration, and harshness ] to the interior, ... so, consider alternative vehicles, even from VW / Audi if NVH has crossed a critical intolerable threshold for you, ... go for a [ VA Phaeton ] ( common basis with the Audi A8, and Bentley Continental GT and Flying Spur ) ! .

What impact will autonomous vehicle operation have upon how automobile insurance companies in the U.S.A calculate premiums, types of coverage, etc…?

While it is true that statistically claims should go down, there’s no way to forecast this and IMO, the insurance companies are going to be kiddish on how to insure a fleet of AV’s when there is no telling what could go wrong. Look at what happened with the defective air bags… millions of cars effected… what happens when any component in the AV system - or the OS software ends up having a major glitch. What happens when the cyber security in a car fails to stop a hacker who hijacks the car and takes the occupants on a 120 MPH run away drive? Figuring out the insurance challenge isn’t a simple thing… Who is insuring what is a complex matter and odds are high that the hundreds of suppliers are going to have to insure their parts to allow them to survive the litigation that will most certainly come. Here’s an interesting article (reproduced here due to site requiring a login) Four Ways Autonomous Vehicles will Change Auto Insurance Four Ways Autonomous Vehicles will Change Auto Insurance The motorcar is a wonderful invention. But, it comes with the unintended consequence of being a danger in the wrong hands. Human hands. However, the rapid evolution of the autonomous vehicle is about to redefine the risk profile for the motorcar. And this is going to have a profound impact on auto insurance. For this month’s InsurTech Insights, Rick Huckstep sought the expertise of David Williams from AXA UK to look at the rise of the autonomous vehicle and its impact on auto insurance. Autonomous vehicles are never drunk, drowsy, or distracted The first modern automobile is generally considered to be the Benz Motor Car No1. Patented in 1886 by Karl Benz, this is “the missing link between cars and horse drawn buggies ” in the days before auto insurance existed. Compare and contrast Car No1 with its 21st century counterparts and there’s a world of difference. Especially when it comes to advances in vehicle safety technology; blind spot monitoring, lane control, emergency braking, traction control, and drowsiness detection et al are now entering the global car pool. Over time, these features will all make a significant impact to reducing the 1.25 million deaths worldwide due to vehicle crashes (as reported for 2014). However, the fact is that no matter how good these safety features are, they cannot fully compensate for the number one factor in road traffic accidents, us! In the United States, 94% of crashes involve human error from speeding, alcohol, distraction or drowsiness. The National Safety Council estimated approximately 40,000 Americans died on the road in 2016, a 6% increase over the previous year. In the UK, according to this report by Matthew Avery of Thatcham Research , 23% of motor claims relate to parking incidents. Of these, three quarters occurred during reversing. This accounted for £1.7bn of claims caused by human error that would be eliminated by autonomous vehicles. Hurrah for autonomous vehicles, but what do we mean? The problem with talking about autonomous vehicles is that not all autonomous vehicles are the same. Which is why there is standard J3016 to define them. This international standard for autonomous vehicles was defined in 2014 by the Society for Automotive Engineers International (SAE) . It’s based on six levels of classification from zero, for no automation, through to Level 5 for full automation. Image Source: CleanTechnica This chart explains it well. Levels 0-3 are when a human driver is needed to take control, even if there is some level of partial automation being used. Levels 4 & 5 define the conditions when the automated driving system is in control, with a human driver possibly being able to take over in some circumstance, but not acting as the fall back position. To put this into context, Tesla’s much vaunted Autopilot system is (only) at Level 2 today, even though they might market themselves higher. The first production ready Level 3 car is expected later this year in the form of the Audi A8 . Changes in legislation will define the pace of adoption for autonomous cars Whilst autonomous vehicle technology is being developed at a fast pace, the biggest barrier to its adoption are the rules and regulations of the road. Every jurisdiction is different, but they all have one thing in common. They all have laws written for the conventional motorcar in the hands of a conventional human being. Liability sits with the driver… and this has to change. To find out more about how governments and the industry are preparing for the changes heading our way, I sought the advice of an industry expert. David Williams from AXA UK is a 30-year veteran of the insurance industry and heavily involved with the UK Government’s Centre for Connected & Autonomous Vehicles strategic program. David told me; “I believe the UK undoubtedly leads the way with our not signing the Vienna convention giving us a head start. The Automated and Electric Vehicle Bill (AEV) is going through Parliament as we speak. Regulations and a code of practice for testing autonomous vehicles has been in place in the UK for a while now.“ If you don’t know, the UK Government’s AEV Bill is the legislation that will enable auto insurance for autonomous cars in the UK. Some claim that the US is leading the way. Maybe in Silicon Valley, but when it comes to regulation it’s a mixed picture. Some states permit driverless cars on the road whereas others do not. Last month, Reuters reported that US Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao of President Trump’s administration is about to “rewrite regulations that pose a barrier to robot vehicles” . Safer cars don’t automatically mean insurance costs go down So, with all this technology coming our way, making it safer on the roads, is this going to drive down insurance costs? I put this question to David, “You’d think so, wouldn’t you. But the fact is that motor repair costs in the UK have gone up by 32% in the last three years. This is largely due to the costs from extra technology fitted in cars, much of it safety equipment. “Safer cars don’t automatically mean lower insurance premiums. Not whilst we are in a transition period. Over the longer term, yes they willcome down. But only as safety feature technology becomes wide spread and as its unit costs come down. Then you’d expect to see the safety dividend flow through to lower insurance costs.” What does this all mean for auto insurance? The argument for autonomous cars is pretty clear-cut. Technology makes for better drivers than us fallible humans. Which leads to the near elimination of accidents caused by distraction, tiredness and inexperience. Resulting in people having free time to work, sleep, play and eat during their journeys. No one will ever crash. Therefore, no more need for auto insurance! However, before we sound that death knell, let’s remember that autonomous vehicle tech is still in its infancy. Accidents do happen, as we saw with the Tesla fatality while on Autopilot in 2016 . And today’s news of an Uber self-driving car involved in a fatal accident. And Waymo, Google’s autonomous vehicle project, with over four million miles under its belt still reports “disengagements” while in autonomous mode in their latest reports to the DMV . However, the good news is that the tech can and will only get better. Just as the trolley debate and the moral and ethical questions raised by artificial decision-making will find an acceptable medium, IMHO. In the long run there will be far fewer accidents and much lower levels of claims. But this is, of course, a double-edged sword for insurers with significantly lower premiums. The question is no longer whether auto insurance will change or not, because it will definitely change. The real questions are when and how will it change. With the help of David, I set out four impacts of autonomous vehicles on auto insurance. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE IMPACT No 1: Fewer claims, less fraud and lower premiums In the US, auto insurance accounts for around $175bn of the P&C market. Over the past decade, the frequency of both liability and physical damage claims resulting from motor accidents has broadly remained unchanged. However, bodily injury average cost per claim has risen by around 30% over the same period time. Autonomous vehicles would reverse this trend. The move towards autonomy would see substantial savings in lower claims administration and payouts for insurers. But these savings would be matched by significant reductions in premiums. In the UK last year, auto insurers underwrote circa £8bn in private motor insurance premiums. Some estimates I’ve seen predict a fall of as much as 50% to 80% in auto insurance premiums! With this reduction in accidents and incidents will come a decline in fraud. Not just because there are less incidents, but because the information available to the insurer will be significantly better. The fraudulent customer has little or no time to think up embellished answers when the data the insurer needs comes from the telematics and sensor data in the car and your mobile phone. Insurers are able to determine a better picture of what happened without the customer’s input. I asked David if he agreed with my perspective on this. “Yes, of course. However, this does assume complete and comprehensive cooperation between motor manufacturers and insurers when it comes to sharing data. There’s a long way to go on this one to get that right. And let’s not forget that there are regulatory issues to consider on data privacy. It all sounds great in theory.” The battle over access and ownership of data is going to run and run. That’s a story for another day. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE IMPACT No 2: Shift of liability from The Driver to The Vehicle When, on October 8th 2015, the boss of Volvo, CEO Haken Sammuelsson, said, “Volvo will accept full liability whenever one of its cars are in autonomous mode” it sounded like he was signalling the end of auto insurance. Volvo was the first to say it and other manufacturers have followed suit. Essentially, that when the manufacturer’s autopilot is in the driving seat, insurance liability will shift from the driver to the manufacturer. the UK’s AEV bill shifts liability to the vehicle, not the manufacturer However, the reality is that auto manufacturers are not that keen on taking on the insurance risk. After all, they’ve just spent $billions on R&D to make our roads safer and reduce accidents by 80-90%. They didn’t do this to then have to carry 100% liability for whatever happens on the road. Which is why the UK’s AEV bill shifts liability to the vehicle, not the manufacturer. David explained; “The AEV bill in the UK makes clear when liability will move from ‘The Driver’, and that is only when you are talking about level 4 or 5 vehicles. From that point the liability transfers to The Vehicle, but an RTA (Road Traffic Act) compliant insurance policy is still required, and the insurer deals with the claim in the first instance. “Many people thought liability would simply transfer to the manufacturer, but its not that simple, and the AEV bill makes sure there are no gaps.” This is an important point. Because the AEV bill will impose strict obligations on the insurer to payout in the event of an incident involving the insured vehicle, regardless of fault. Then the insurer can pursue recovery as secondary action. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE IMPACT No 3: Your claims history and driving behavior will become irrelevant As liability shifts to the vehicle, the way that the auto insurance policy is priced will fundamentally change. Risk profiling based on a driver’s age and claims history will no longer be the basis for premium pricing. Instead, risk rating is going to reflect variables such as software levels in the same way that they adjust for no-claims history today. It’s going to be a challenge for insurers to keep pace with changes to vehicles David explained, “Insurers are going to have to develop a whole new set of skills and expertise in-house that fully understand the intricate details of every motor vehicle. This is not just a mechanical requirement but a technology one too. It’s going to be a challenge for insurers to keep pace with changes to vehicles that are regularly being updated and changed within the term of a policy.” Of course, this does also raise a question about the telematics segment of InsurTech. If the driver is no longer relevant, then neither is driver behavior. It’s going to be a long time before telematics based insurance becomes redundant, but redundant it will be. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE IMPACT No 4: Manufacturers eliminate the need for insurance all together This is the long shot of the 4. Here goes! Motor manufacturers understand customer service. They do anything to encourage you into a showroom and love it when you take your car for a service at a main dealer. Courtesy cars, coffee on arrival, they clean your car and will even deliver it back to you. There is no equivalent in insurance! So, imagine the motor manufacturer bundling in a whole manner of services with your brand new vehicle. Including forms of cover that your auto insurance policy provides you today. This makes perfect sense given that car manufacturers really do know the meaning of brand loyalty built on trust and customer service. And they have the infrastructure and balance sheet to do it. For over a year now, Tesla have been talking about offering a single price for the car . I asked David for his perspective on this notion of manufacturer’s eliminating the need for auto insurance. “I’m not so sure, Rick. The service bundle argument is a valid approach in theory. But despite all the manufacturers having financial services arms and being in prime position, they sell a very small proportion of motor insurance. “As for Tesla’s talk about bundling in insurance, this is mainly because their customers are struggling to get insurance at a reasonable price. I know of several UK insurers that have refused to insure them.” You can read more of my thinking on this one in this article I wrote a few month’s back . Do Autonomous Vehicles mean the end for auto insurance? I’ve seen reports calling this the beginning of the end for auto insurance. I don’t see it that way. It’s definitely going to change, but it will still exist. From the fundamental shift of liability from The Driver to The Vehicle. From the way risk is profiled, rated and priced to the substitution of cover from one insurance line to another. The auto manufacturers say that they will take on liability but have yet to put their money where their mouth is. Who knows, maybe they will follow through with the promise and we’ll see a shift to commercial cover. Or they might develop a hybrid model by self-insuring off their own balance sheets and buying wholesale off the reinsurers. But that isn’t likely to be a significant segment of the new world order for auto insurance, IMHO. There will still be auto insurance; it will just be in a very different form.

President Trump said Germans are not buying Chevrolets, but Americans are buying Mercedes. Trump has proposed tariffs on imported German cars in response. Is this an unfair one-way street?

Lets look at the data for 2015 and 2016 for German car purchases. As you can tell the top 10 of 2015 are the same top 10 of 2016 with minor trading of ranking for some models You will also note that All cars on the list are from German Manufacturers. Skoda which is based in next door Czech Republic is actually part of the VW Group, hence also essentially a German company. Lets look further down the list > The top ranked American brand is Ford Focus at a measly #13 and Ford Fiesta at #19. Even in the #11 to #20 ranking the only other non German brands are SEAT and Mini both of whom are German owned (SEAT >VW Group and Mini > BMW Group). So essentially of the top 20 selling cars in Germany 18 are German Cars and only 2 are American. If there was any doubt that what Trump stated is correct, this data should put it to rest. Another interesting fact is that BMW top ranked vehicle is #12 for a tiny series 2 vehicle (too small to sell in America) . Hence companies like BMW would not even be a financially viable company without the North American Market where they sell way more vehicles than even in Germany. I am not a fan of GM, or Fiat/Chrysler. I am less critical of Ford who has done a good job turning the company around in the past decade. However, no one can say that this bias towards German cars in Germany, is purely a result of product mix and product offering. As an owner of an Audi A8 supposedly the best in the Audi lineup, I can tell you from personal experience that Germans make garbage cars too (Personally I would never ever buy Audi again, since the car needs a fortune to maintain and it seems every other day there is one issue or another). The market in Germany is stacked against the US suppliers and as the data indicates even more so against all other nations. Can anyone speaking honestly say that Honda, Nissan and Toyota don’t make quality efficient and compact size cars? (Thats the argument used against US made cars). Yet, non of these excellent companies even show up in the top 20 list . Imagine that? The trade agreements with the EU benefited one country, Germany, significantly more that other countries in the EU. The EU resulted in making the already significant German Industry far more dominant within the EU and enabled them to become even stronger in other markets, ie US et al (recommend reading Michael Porters’s competitiveness of Nations). In fact “German Miracle” you keep hearing about is essentially a result of domestic biases and policies that Germany implemented which are almost verbatim to what Trump is advocating now. I did not vote for Trump, but on trade and business issues, I am in near total agreement and hope he succeeds. What we need is fair trade much more than we need free trade. If you want to term that as protectionism, so be it. Unlike in America, in Germany you can still find many goods made in Germany and relatively very few made in China. This is not by accident To summarize, our trade balance and agreements with the EU and specifically Germany is unfair to American producers of all goods including cars. Personally I am happy that we finally have someone bold enough to put his foot down and say “ I don’t care what we signed up to, clearly it is not working for us and I am going to do something about it”. For too long, we sent freshly minted (usually politically appointed) amateurs to negotiate our trade deals. Most of these amateurs could not successfully run a small convenience store, yet are given the right to negotiate deals with many Billions and possibly Trillions of implications on the US economy. Meanwhile, counterpart nations send negotiators who could even go to a Vegas Casino and make the House lose

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