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how much does my audi a8 weight

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง how much does my audi a8 weight

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ที่ค่ายรถพยายามจะเข็นออกมาเพื่อตอบสนองมาตราการลดมลภาวะของหลายประเทศ แต่ก็ต้องดูกันในระยะยาว ว่าจะใช่คำตอบของอนาคตหรือไม่Audi

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รถไฟฟ้าพรีเมียมได้หรือไม่ แต่ก่อนจะไปวิเคราะห์ AutoFun จะพาไปรู้จัก Audi e-tran GT ว่าดีไซน์ การออกแบบ

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รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi A6 Avant ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ!

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Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์ยักษใหญ่ส่ง 2020 Audi A6 (อาวดี้ เอ6) สู่ตลาดรถยนต์ประเทศไทย ชื่ออย่างเป็นทางการคือ

ดูเพิ่มเติม

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Audi เปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าสปอร์ตรุ่นใหม่ 2022 Audi e-tron GT และ Audi RS e-tron GT เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท

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Audi ผู้นำด้านยนตรกรรมรถยนต์ที่มีชื่อเสียงมาอย่างยาวนาน ส่ง 2020 Audi A8 (อาวดี้ เอ8) ด้วยราคาเริ่มต้น

Audi เปิดตัวเอสยูวีโหด 2021 Audi RS Q3 Sportback เคาะ 4.75 ล้านบาท ถูกกว่า Mercedes-AMG GLC

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Review: 2020 Audi A4 สปอร์ตซีดานเพื่อผู้นำทุกไลฟ์สไตล์

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รู้จักข้อดีข้อเสีย Audi Q8 ก่อนยกให้เป็นรถคู่ใจ

Audi Q8 รถยนต์ครอสโอเวอร์ที่มาพร้อมความเป็นเอกลักษณ์สไตล์ Audi ด้วยชื่อแบรนด์ก็บ่งบอกแล้วว่าต้องหรูดูดี

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Audi Q2 (อาวดี้ Q2) SUV ขนาดกะทัดรัดจากค่ายหรู ด้วยราคาที่ถูกกว่าค่ายใหญ่อย่าง BMW และ Benz เลยทำให้

Audi เปิดตัว 2021 Audi TT สเปคใหม่ พร้อมแคมเปญดอกเบี้ย 0% 5 ปีไม่มีบอลลูนกับอีก 10 รุ่นฮิต

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Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์หรูจากเยอรมันส่ง 2020 Audi A6 Avant ในรหัส 40 TFSI ลงสู้คู่แข่งด้วยราคาเริ่มต้น

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วิดีโอรถยนต์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง how much does my audi a8 weight

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รีวิว Q&A how much does my audi a8 weight

Is the Audi Quattro and Volkswagen 4Motion the same AWD system?

There are different versions of these. Some will be more similar than others. Audi’s quattro name applies to a bunch of different methods of providing AWD. most commonly, it is a system that uses a center crown differential. This system allows the car to permanently send power from the engine to all 4 wheels. The system also allows the car to change the distribution of torque from front to rear and in some cars from left to right wheels as well. This type of system is mostly applied to their cars with longitudinal engine layouts like the A5, A6, A7, and A8. in their smaller cars like A3 and some A4s, they use a different system that drives mostly the front wheels and only engages the rear when the cars computer and sensors dictate that there is not enough traction. VW’s 4Motion is very similar to this system. These systems are great for fuel economy as you don’t have the constant tax of driving 4 wheels rather than 2 but it does mean that they are purely reacticve systems rather than predictive. they can have some strange and inconsistent behaviors as the computer must react to changing conditions rather than just always working in all wheel drive mode. As an example of what this could be like, imagine it is snowing heavily. A car is approaching an intersection at which they will do a right turn. The car is slowing down getting ready to turn. The driver, not being very experienced with winter driving and not having slowed enough has gotten the front wheels sliding. They are understeering. The car continues to slow and not turn. The driver turns the wheel more and hits the accelerator. At this point, the system drives the front wheels which are turned heavily but not providing any change in behavior. The system activates the rear wheels and the car begins to drive. At this point with the steering turned over quite a lot and the rear wheels being driven past their maximum traction level, the car will want to snap into a spin. The car started understeering and ended oversteering right after. Having learned from this experience, the next time, the driver doesnt turn the wheel as much and doesnt accelerate hard. because he has not tripped the traction requirement, the car has not activated the rear wheels and the car just keeps plowing straight ahead at the shock of the driver who was expecting much heavier rotation. The car has produced inconsistent behavior I am a driving enthusiast and have gone through a number of different performance driving courses including loose and low grip surfaces. I prefer the performance of a full time AWD system than one that activates and deactivates at will, even if it means more expensive maintenance and higher fuel consumption. What I personally don’t like about audi’s full time system is how the weight dristribution of the car is affected. because of the longitudinal engine and gearbox layout and the requirement to send power to the front wheels also, this pushes the engine far in front of the front wheels. When in a performance driving scenario, this very uneven distribution makes the car much less willing to turn. When this full time system is used in a different layout like in the Audi R8 which has the engine behind the driver, the cars get an amazing level of traction that inspire a lot of confidence. Having driven a rented R8 as well as a Lamborghini Gallardo which uses a similar system, i can say that the rear biased, full time AWD system in these cars is my favorite drivetrain layout. the amount of comfort i felt in the cars allowed me to push them harder than i normally would because i knew i had loads of traction to spare.

When will electric cars be better than gasoline ones?

I was going to comment on Michael Barnard's answer, but I think offering an answer that rebuts his points is probably better. So here we go. First, I appreciate Mike's love for the Model S, but his answer - like a lot of popular praise for Tesla's product line - is very selective in the way that comparisons are made. Second, let's talk about how much people actually spend when they buy a new Model S. CNBC reported that the average transaction price for a new Model S was $93k, and this was reported before the debut of the "D", which likely increased that figure (see Tesla cars are worth more used than new , the transaction price stat is buried in the middle of the article). Let's just say for sake of argument that we're talking about a $100k luxury vehicle. Three, let's also assume that a person is open to a wide range of vehicles when they have $100k to spend (which is true in my experience). Now, let's go thru Mike's list: 1. Passenger capacity - Someone with $100k to spend and passenger capacity on the brain doesn't buy a sedan - they buy an Escalade, a Yukon Denali, Navigator, etc. Sedan buyers aren't usually interested in people hauling, so I'm not sure that the two rumble seats in the Model S are a huge "get." I'd say that's a minor feature, in fact, and I'd love to see the take rate on this option (i'd guess it's miniscule). Anyone who knows, please comment. 2. A P85D+ is a monster in the acceleration department. It's easily the quickest sedan available. Of course, it's also $125k. If I'm concerned about acceleration, I have lots of options at $125k, all of which are better racing vehicles. A Z06 Vette, for example, costs about $90k, leaving me enough money to buy a truck and a trailer to haul it from race to race. Or lots of money for brakes and tires. But yes, if I need a sedan and want incredible performance, the P85D+ is the winner. This is the best argument for buying a Tesla Model S in my opinion...provided you've got $125k lying around. 3. A low center of gravity does not always make for a great handling car. Most people talk about "lateral g" and feel when assessing a vehicle's handling ability. But the real metric used to determine a car's handling ability is to compare it's lap time to similarly powerful vehicles. The world standard race course is called "Nurburgring", and unfortunately the Model S can't complete a lap at this track without overheating. If the vehicle was capable of doing a lap at full speed, we'd have a lap time, and then we could compare it to other sedans. But right now we don't have the key data point we need to really evaluate the car's handling using the world standard. Considering the 4600lbs curb weight of the Model S, I'd say handling isn't really a strength of the vehicle. Not to mention, you can't actually race it without going into limp mode. 4, 5, and 6 are all correct, and all sort of the same point: The Model S doesn't burn hydrocarbons (at least directly) for fuel. That's a pretty huge benefit. 7. If a person with $100k to spend is worried about cargo capacity, they don't buy a sedan. But yes, if someone buys a Model S, they can jam a little more crap in it. I'd say this is a nice benefit, but not a game changer for people buying this type of vehicle. 8. Safety is universally excellent at the $100k price point. The Tesla's rating is great, but it's not a substantial difference. You probably won't die in a car that costs $100k unless you're really unlucky or really driving hard. I doubt that luxury car buyers choose the Model S because it's slightly better in some test than some other car...they're all very safe. 9. Price is where Mike's answer starts to collapse. I can purchase a diesel A8 - which is more luxurious and has nearly 900 miles of driving range - for $10k less than the average Model S transaction price. I can also buy a dozen sporty sedans with more luxury features for tens of thousands of dollars less than the typical Model S. The Model S isn't "cheap" per se, and it certainly doesn't have to be. It offers a lot of great technology, and frankly I'd be worried if it was actually less costly than a similarly sized (and similarly equipped) sedan. But since the Model S isn't really luxurious (see below), it's not fair to compare it straight across to an S-Class, A8 Sedan, etc. 10. Mike's statements on range are very misleading. First, the maximum range of a Model S with an 85kWh battery pack is 265 miles according to the EPA, and Tesla doesn't recommend charging your battery pack more than 80%. So the "real world" max range of a Model S is actually closer to 200 miles, and if it's a particularly hot or cold day, or if you're driving it hard, that number falls to 150 miles. Second, a diesel A8 has nearly 900 miles of range (max). Most gas-powered vehicles have a maximum range of 400 miles. Frankly, this is a HUGE difference, and it goes a long way towards explaining why consumers are still buying A8s, S-Class M-B, BMW 7-series, etc. every day. The Model S can't go more than 200 miles without a charge, at least if you follow Tesla's battery recommendations...and that's if everything goes perfectly. Finally, some other factors Mike forgot: 11. Luxury features. The Model S isn't nearly as luxurious as similarly priced cars from Audi, M-B, or BMW. I'd argue that the Model S isn't even as luxurious as a Platinum F-150. But don't take my word for it - from Car & Driver's 2015 Tesla Model S P85D - First Drive Review : Luxurious isn’t how we’d describe the Model S’s interior. Austere and simple is more like it. Aside from the massive touch screen in the middle of the instrument panel, and the attractive gauge display, there’s not much wretched excess here The Model S is a luxury car compared to a Toyota Corolla - or even a Toyota Avalon - but it's not a freaking S-class. Sit inside both if you don't believe me. The difference is stark. 12. Reliability/durability. There are some big concerns about Tesla's ability to build reliable and durable vehicles. From problematic drive units to dead battery packs to all sorts of little issues with units tested by Edmunds.com (see 2013 Tesla Model S Long-Term Wrap-Up ) and Consumer Reports (Consumer Reports' Tesla Model S Has More than Its Share of Problems) , reliability is a big question mark. Say what you will about the gas-guzzling S-Class, or BMW 7-Series, or Audi A8, but they have a much better record for reliability than the Model S...and the Lexus LS puts them all to shame. 13. Resale value. Currently, demand for the Model S is strong enough to support very high resale value for the Model S. The car is clearly winning the resale value comparison as of today. However, please note that electric car resale value is a moving target. The Leaf was enjoying high resale value, for example, but the recent drop in gas prices - combined with slowing demand for the vehicle - has caused resale values for the Leaf (and the Volt) to plummet: Resale Prices Tumble on Electric Cars Could this happen to the Model S? I guess we'll wait and see. But resale values for Lexus, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Audi are pretty consistent year in and year out. I'd hesitate to say that about the Model S. 14. Convenience. Here's the comparison that makes or breaks the Model S. If you own your own home, can afford to have a charger installed in your garage, don't have a commute that strains your battery pack, and have a gasoline vehicle you can use for long trips, the Model S is incredibly convenient. If you can't add a charger to your garage, or you don't have a garage, or regularly bump up against the practical driving range of a Model S, or don't have a "spare" gas-powered car lying around (as many Model S owners do)...the car isn't nearly as attractive as something like the diesel A8 sedan I mentioned before. Before all you Musk-rats attack me, please understand my point: The Tesla Model S is a great car, but it is not "clearly" better than gas cars. It might be better for you, but it's not better for everyone. Not everyone can afford the damn thing, and even people who can might choose another vehicle (and often do). The question asked is vague, but I don't think the person asking was wondering if electric cars were better than gasoline cars if you have $100k to spend and don't mind dealing with limited driving range. If you look at the bigger picture, the answer to the question is: Who knows. It all depends on how battery technology evolves in terms of increasing energy density and decreasing costs. It could be 5 years, could be 10 years, and could be never.

What is manual transmission fluid?

I love manual transmissions but... In its current form, in passenger cars, yes there is a chance it will go extinct before the gasoline powered car does, because of fuel economy requirements. Specifically, it's worth recalling that the CAFE standard for 2025 is 54.5 mpg, and I expect fuel efficiency standards to go up one more time after that while we still have gasoline powered cars. That corresponds to a window sticker EPA rating in the 40-50mpg range, when today's non-hybrid cars almost all have a sticker showing 30mpg or less. (graphic from Car and Driver showing the fuel efficiency standards vs. the CAFE ratings for cars today...you'll notice every single non-hybrid falls under the black line, including all the diesel cars, and if you plotted some bigger hybrid cars like the Lexus GS450h or Acura RLX hybrid, they would also be far below the line) Many of these data points are models equipped with the latest automatic transmissions. Automatic transmissions today are employing tricks like coasting in neutral, using a taller gear while slipping the transmission at low speed (google Porsche PDK "virtual gears"), and it's only a matter of time before electrical systems get a slight upgrade and we start getting cars that will turn off the engine while coasting rather than just idling, just as a Prius does. With smaller engines and forced induction, fuel economy might climb another 10-20%, which you can see is still inadequate for meeting that black line. So let's put the manual vs. automatic question aside for a minute and examine the question of how are manufacturers going to meet these targets? Let's look at some of the highly efficient cars on the market today to answer that question. The Mercedes-Benz CLA250 is perhaps the most highway-mpg optimized sedan out there today, with an incredibly low drag coefficient and small turbocharged motor paired to a very efficient 8 speed transmission. It is rated at 38mpg highway for the tougher EPA estimate, and as you can see in the chart, 40mpg CAFE. If our CLA250 example received a 10% boost in both city and highway fuel economy, it would still not meet the 2025 requirements. (see Appendix 1,2 for technical details why 10% is as much as we can expect) What this means is that nearly every car will have to be a mild hybrid or full hybrid by 2025. The problem with hybrid drivetrains and manual transmissions is that a manual transmission removes the low speed advantage of a hybrid (M/T cannot move under electric power alone in traffic), does not allow coasting with engine off, and is not nearly as effective at regenerative braking. This doesn't necessarily spell death for the manual transmission, but it makes it very difficult for higher power and heavier manual transmission equipped cars to exist. By the next round of fuel efficiency standards sometime around 2035, it is possible manual transmissions will be dead, because so few cars can be equipped with one that manufacturers may decide it's not worth it. My thoughts on the future of the manual transmission: Today, manual transmissions test worse than automatics for EPA fuel economy tests, largely because they have a silly shift schedule that keeps the car in each gear until 15, 25, 35, etc. mph, which are the default EPA thresholds. If shifted to higher gears more often, the gap can be closed a bit. The car manufacturer is allowed to specify their own shift schedule, which generally improves the numbers a lot. For example, high displacement V8 American muscle cars with manual transmission have rather high fuel economy ratings because they use very tall cruising gears to improve the highway number, and specified shift schedules to improve the city number (sometimes forcing skip shifts, like on the Mustang, which makes you go from 1st to 4th). The issue is that under EPA testing this is likely the best you can ever do, because the car has to be in gear. A good hypermiler does all these things with a manual transmission, and can achieve extraordinary fuel economy, but it takes a lot of work, and I suspect it would raise quite a few eyebrows at the EPA if the manufacturer specified that you should step on the clutch and turn the engine off during the highway portion of the test :) The survival of the manual transmission in higher powered cars and heavy cars depends on an increased regenerative braking capacity and low speed fuel savings. One way this can be done is with a very powerful electric motor which can provide braking torque far greater than the engine's. My personal crackpot idea is to use one motor spinning with the engine and one motor attached to the input shaft of the transmission. Instead of starting the car using the clutch, slightly releasing the clutch pedal will shunt electrical power from the motor attached to the engine to the motor on the input shaft, moving the car along with no clutch wear, and high fuel efficiency. Instead of using the synchronizers in the gearbox to synchronize gear shifts, the electric motor will slow down or speed up the shaft as necessary. This would save synchro wear. The reduced clutch and synchro wear is a huge advantage because those are extremely expensive items to replace, which today is tipping the maintenance cost equation in favor of automatic transmissions. I hope someone builds a car with this system, but I'm not holding my breath. Appendix: As far as aerodynamics go, the CLA250 has a 0.22 Cd, and the very low drag concept cars that still look like normal cars with normal sized tires and a normal sized length instead of a giant tail have only gotten to maybe 0.19. Mercedes Benz says they are targeting a 0.2 Cd across their fleet but this is likely the lowest you can ever get on a car. Let's remember that going from a steel frame to a full aluminum frame can only save a few hundred pounds, which is usually only 10% of a car's weight. For example the Audi A8 aluminum space frame concept saved 100kg on a rather large car, which is only 220lbs, on a car that weighs nearly 2 tons. The energy consumption due to road load and braking in the city test can thus only be decreased perhaps 10% due to weight savings, and that's a highly optimistic figure. Many cars already have start-stop systems today which increase the city rating by ~10%, which covers the majority of wasted fuel during city driving.

How much better is a performance brake disc compared to a stock version?

Here’s some relative facts about brakes, performance brakes, performance brake marketing companies, car magazines and car enthusiasts who like cool stuff. Peter Fabian gave a nice overview, especially his point about street vs race. First of all, there’s not really a thing called “performance brakes” from an engineering and reality standpoint. There most certainly is from a marketing standpoint. So now that I’ve confused you, let me explain. Automotive brakes are designed to behave a certain way. They have a functional design envelope and most cars are about the same, some a little better, some a little worse. A larger/thicker/heavier rotor may actually be a more stable braking experience. A thinner/smaller/lighter rotor may feel much the same, but may be more prone to decay from heat, as well as “warping” in certain thermal situations. There’s no magic to brake design. The “performance brake” marketing business has done a magical job convincing people they need different brakes. In reality, they don’t, unless they drive at the limit of speed ALL the time. Almost nobody does. Now, lets look at the brake components for cars. Lets focus on disc brake assemblies. There are rotors, calipers, pads and lines. Each has a role to play. But unless you completely re-engineer the entire system, the behavior won’t be that much different. You might think it is, but not really. On my 2011 heavily modded Mustang GT, I changed to the giant Brembo, multi piston calipers, slotted and grooved rotors, and fancy brake pads. I also changed the brake lines to the wheels with the Ford performance lines. The end result, nearly no difference, other than higher maintenance costs, constantly warping rotors, and a odder brake feel. On my 2008 Dodge Dakota pickup, I tried numerous brands of slotted and drilled rotors. They all sucked. Went back to stock replacements with ceramic brake pads. On my departed Audi A8, I tried 4 different setups of fancy rotor and pad. They all sucked, warped, and did absolutely ZERO to improve brake performance. But they were expensive. On my recently departed Audi R8, I played with several different brands of fancy pads, and went back to near stock, as they worked better, had better bite, made MUCH less noise, and lasted longer. Rotors are $4000 a set so I didn’t bother messing with those On my 420HP Mercedes E550 Cabriolet, I tried several fancy pad and rotor setups. They all sucked. I ended up using EBC stock replacement rotors, and they work fine. I used EBC because they were much less than OEM, but basically the same. I’ve done the same with dozens of cars over the years. The differences are mostly cosmetic, and make us car enthusiasts feel special. But brake performance has way more to do with the car’s suspension, tires, weight distribution, than the bits that are installed. There’s a ton of debate in the car aftermarket about the value of fancy brake components. There have been numerous papers written and published within the SME (Society of Mechanical Engineers) about whether cross drilling of passenger car rotors adds any performance benefit. Same with slots, but they are much less controversial. Most of the research into drilled rotors has been negative. So you have to ask, why do you think they are important? Is it because the aftermarket suppliers have done effective marketing? You want less fade, you want better pedal feel, you want more bite, ………maybe buy a different car. Most of the theory of drilled rotors doesn’t pan out in real world testing and day to day driving. Drilling causes weakening of the crystalline structure of the steel or iron the rotor is made out of. It causes heat concentration around the holes, which causes cracking and warping. Slots are more interesting, but its unclear whether they do anything actually. I’ve used them, and they warp like all the others, but cost more. Fade isn’t any better or worse. As far as pads go, there are zillions of them. They are cheap to make, cheap to paint, cheap to put into fancy boxes, and cheap to market. The differences are there if you want to try 50 different pads under identical circumstances. Its like testing skis, they all work fine, but are slightly different. Calipers, those are selected during design of the car, and the hub carrier/upright/spindles are engineered to adapt to the bolt pattern and accommodate the diameter of the rotor the caliper is designed to support. No magic. And its super hard to use a different caliper unless the manufacturer allowed for it with a multi purpose bolt pattern. Very seldom occurs. And calipers are of either floating (pistons on one side) or fixed (pistons on another side). Ask 2 people which are better, get 9 different answers. Both designs work fine, and while fixed calipers tend to be used in higher end cars, floating calipers can be and usually are, just as effective. Maybe not in Formula 1, but in real world, the entire planet works fine with floating calipers on passenger cars and they work fine. Ultimately, to assume that “performance” brakes are a thing is sketchy at best. There aren’t infinite factories that make rotors and pads, there are a limited number of companies/factories that make them. And they are sold under zillions of brand names, with paint, sometimes holes drilled, fancy boxes, etc. So while the whole mess of brake parts is intoxicating to us car enthusiasts, the differences are minuscule, especially for the costs. Are there massively engineered brake systems that actually make a difference in day to day driving? Possibly, but after trying dozens of brands, designs, and types over the years, I haven’t found anything worth the cost or hassle. They may be different, but that doesn’t mean better.

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