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audi e tron onboard charger

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง audi e tron onboard charger

ฟังเหตุผล ทำไมรถล้ำ ๆ อย่าง 2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS ยังใช้กระจกมองข้างแบบดั้งเดิม

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Review: 2019-2020 Audi e-tron เอสยูวีพรีเมียมพลังงานไฟฟ้า

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Review 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback รถไฟฟ้าเสียบปลั๊ก 5.299 ล้านบาท ครบทั้งแรงทั้งหรูแบบไร้คู่แข่ง

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าทรงเอสยูวีคูเป้จากค่ายสี่ห่วง

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เปิดตัว 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback ค่าตัว 5.299 ล้านบาท จำกัดโควต้า 15 คันในไทย

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการในไทย

Audi เปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าสปอร์ตรุ่นใหม่ 2022 Audi e-tron GT และ Audi RS e-tron GT เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท

Coupe คือ 2022 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อีทรอน จีที) เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท และ Audi RS e-tron GT (อาวดี้

ชมคันจริง 2020 Audi e-Tron Sportback ขายไทยในราคา 5.299 ล้านบาท มีดีแค่หลังคาลาดลงรึเปล่า?

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ดูเพิ่มเติม

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Audi เดินหน้าเข้าสู่ยุครถยนต์ไฟฟ้าเต็มตัวภายใน 2035 หลัง Audi e-tron ขายได้ 9,227 คัน ขึ้นอันดับ 1 ใน Norway

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รีวิว Q&A audi e tron onboard charger

Is it possible to recharge an electric car without a garage or a drive? I only have on street parking, will this be an issue?

Is it possible to recharge an electric car without a garage or a drive? I only have on street parking, will this be an issue? Well, the simple answer is yes, it is an issue. Li-Ion batteries simply need time to charge, they cannot be filled up like a gas tank. There is a simple way around this problem - they have to be charged while the car is standing around, doing nothing. So the solution of this problem is - there has to be a charger where you can plug in and get the car charged while you do other business. Probably the best alternative is at your workplace. If you don’t drive much, even a 230V 16A outlet, capable to deliver up to some 3.2 kW might be enough. Another possibility: a Type 2 charger. They are capable to deliver up to 22 kW, but there the limiting factor is most probably the onboard charger in the car, capable to take in most cases some 6–7 kW. The exception are Tesla Model 3 Long Range, Model S, Model X and Audi e-Tron, capable of charging at 11 kW or more. You need to examine if that is an option for you since you don’t want wasting your time, waiting for your car to charge. The last option are some rapid-chargers, placed in cities, mostly they are placed at some shopping malls. In most cases they are 50 kW CCS/CHAdeMO or (a few) Tesla Urban Chargers (up to 72 kW). Those are capable to charge your car in some 30–40 minutes to a pretty high state of charge, some 80% or even more; once you go beyond that, the charging speed significantly drops due to battery limitations, as a result you are wasting time of some other customer who might want/need it too. If there are some in your town? Great. If you don’t have neither option - it is simply not the time for you to buy an EV. Sorry.

Why does Tesla not lead the market of electric vehicles in Europe?

Why does Tesla not lead the market of electric vehicles in Europe? Europe is a significantly different market than USA. It is more densely populated. Travel distances are shorter. People in different countries are of different nationalities, which means that most of us don’t have relatives across the whole Europe either. Having a range of 500+ km (300+ miles) or even much more is far less important than in USA. I’ve just had a debate with a guy who protested that 180 km isn’t a short trip and he is right. Medium trips start at 150 km (100 miles) and long trips start at 400 km (250 miles). US citizens might double these numbers. In contrast to US citizens, people aren’t used to travel to holidays over distances of 1500+ km (1000 miles) by using a car; while some use a train (since the railroad network is far better than in USA), we either travel considerably shorter - or we fly. Europe has its own automotive industry which started to build decent EVs too: Volkswagen, Audi, BMW, Renault, Peugeot. And last but not least, once we look at the list of most sold EVs in 2020 (*), it goes like this, which clearly shows that the market is more diverse: Renault Zoe - 99,261 Tesla Model 3 - 85,713 Volkswagen ID.3 - 56,118 (sold since September 2020) Hyundai Kona - 47,796 Volkswagen Golf - 33,650 (on its way out) Peugeot e208 - 31,287 Kia Niro - 31,019 Nissan Leaf - 30,916 Audi e-Tron - 26,454 The Zoe hit the sweet spot: it is a small compact, but still beyond a city car (roughly the size of the Renault Clio which is also very popular), has decent range as a commuter - and it has a 22 kW onboard AC charger, very useful for people who cannot charge at home, but can charge somewhere on some public Type-2 charger decently fast. While it is still a commuter, it can make 300 km with a single charging stop (taking about 45 minutes) and it can make 500 km with 3 stops in about 7 hours. Far from good, but it can do it if you have some patience, and early adopters have it. So, while it is a compromise and the first car only for some people, it is actually a fairly good second car. And it is significantly cheaper. We like hatchbacks and crossovers more than sedans - and the Tesla Model Y isn’t offered in Europe yet, only the Model 3. Once it gets produced, it will face the competition from Volkswagen ID.4 and Skoda Enyaq . While Tesla may have superior performance, Europeans aren’t even nearly as impressed with 0–60 mph times as US citizen are. It’s more like “0–100 km/h in less than 4 seconds? OK, nice. And?” If you will go through the list - people prefer smaller cars, sales of VW ID.3 will show this in 2021 even more because it will also take most of sales of its older uncle, the VW e-Golf, most likely becoming the most sold EV in Europe. And last but not least - people are used to European / German fit and finish, a topic which is known to need some improvements at Tesla. As a result - while Tesla doesn’t have problems with sales in Europe, it didn’t produce the vehicle which would be in the perfect for the European market. Yes, the Model Y will most likely sell better than the Model 3, but what is actually needed is also a vehicle in the “Golf” / compact / (smaller) crossover class. Tesla simply needs to build one (or more) vehicles which will be more suitable for the European market. A Model 3 + Model Y in a smaller package. (*) Plug-in electric vehicles in Europe - Wikipedia

What are some modern electric cars?

Volkswagen ID.4 160 km/h (100 mph)[1] 5[2] 402 km (250 mi) (EPA, North America) 501 km (311 mi) (Europe)[3] 2020 - Present Volkswagen ID.3 160 km/h (99 mph)[4] 5[5] 45 kWh: up to 330 km (205 mi) 58 kWh: up to 420 km (260 mi) 77 kWh: up to 550 km (340 mi) (WLTP) 2019 - Present Aiways Aiways U5 160 km/h (99 mph)[6] 10 s[6] 5[6] DC fast charging time (30% ~ 80%): 27min AC standard charging time (0% ~ 100%): 10.5h[6] 400 km (249 mi) (WLTP)[7] ? Audi Audi e-tron 55(2018) 200 km/h (124 mph) 5.7 s 5 8.5 hours, DC Charging 150 KW 80% in 30 min 328 km (204 mi) (EPA), 433 km (269 mi) (WLTP) 2019 Audi Audi e-tron 50 190 km/h (118 mph) 6.8 s 5 6 hours, DC Charging 120 KW 80% in 30 min 329 km (204 mi) (WLTP) ? BMW i3 150 km/h (93 mph) 8 s 4 4h - 6h with the 240 V charging unit or 30 – 40 minutes at public DC charging stations (when charging from 0 to 80%) 246 km (153 mi)[8] MY 2019 (120 A·h) (EPA) 183 km (114 mi)[9] MY 2017/18 (94 A·h) (EPA) 130 km (81 mi)[9]MY 2014/17 (60 A·h) (EPA) Released in Europe in 2013 and in 2014 in the U.S. A gasoline-powered range extender option is available to increased range to 240 km (150 mi) (EPA rating).[10] Starting with the model year 2017, released in July 2016, two battery options are available, 94 A·h and 60 A·h.[9] For the 2019 model year, a larger 120 A·h battery became the only option, and the Range Extender was discontinued in some markets.[8] BYD BYD e6 160 km/h (100 mph) 8 seconds 5 Fast charging within 15 minutes to 80%, and 40 minutes to 100% 400 km (250 mi) Market Release 2009, Cumulative sales in China totaled 34,862 units through December 2016. Chevrolet Bolt EV 150 km/h (93 mph) (speed limited) 6.5 s 5 383 km (238 mi) Production started in October 2016, deliveries started in late 2016[11] Citroën C-Zero 130 km/h (81 mph) 15.9 s 4 7 hours when charged from household; 30 minutes when charging from a quick charger system[12] 150 km (93 mi) Rebranded Mitsubishi i-MiEV; since 2010 Available in Europe Ford Ford Focus Electric 135 km/h (84 mph) 5 5.5 hours for the 2017 model using a SAE J1772-2009 charging station powered from a standard 240 volt socket 2017 model's EPA certified range is 185 km (115 mi) 2011–2018 Honda Clarity Electric 7.7 s 143 km (89 mi) For lease only, in some US states from 2017 to 2020. Hyundai Ioniq Electric MY20 165 km/h (103 mph)[13] 9.9 s[13] 4 Domestic socket (220 V / 12 A): 16 h Type 2 charger (3.6 kW): 11.5 h Type 2 charger (22 kW): 6 h CCS type 2 charger (50 kW): 57 min CCS type 2 charger (100 kW): 54 min[13] 311 km (193 mi) (WLTP)[13] 270 km (170 mi) (EPA)[14] Production commenced in late 2016, with sales commencing in 2017 Hyundai Kona Electric 167 km/h (104 mph)[15] 6.4 s[16] 5 470 km (292 mi) (WLTP) Presented on Geneva Motor Show 2018, sales starting summer 2018[17] Jaguar Land Rover Jaguar I-Pace 200 km/h (124 mph), electronically limited 4.8 s 5 350 km (215 miles) (EPA) 2018 Kandi K23 112 km/h (70 mph) 4 7.5 hours on Level 2 (240 v @ 32 amp) 302 km (188 miles) 2018 Kandi K27 100 km/h (62 mph) 4 7 hours on Level 2 (240 v @ 16 amp) 161 km (100 miles) 2018 Kia Soul EV 145 km/h (90 mph) 11.2 5 4–5 hours (208 V - 6.6 kW: 4h 50min, 240 V - 6.6 kW: 4h 10min.) Type 3: 33 minutes for up to 80%. Type 1: Up to 24 hours (2016,2017) 93 mi (150 km) (2018) 111 mi (179 km) (2020) 243 mi (391 km) (EPA) 2014 Kia e-Niro 39.2 kWh 155 km/h (96 mph)[18] 9.8 s[18] 5 289 km (180 mi) (WLTP)[19] 385 km (239 mi) (EPA)[20] ? Kia e-Niro 64 kWh 167 km/h (104 mph)[18] 7.8 s[18] 5 455 km (283 mi) (WLTP)[21] ? Kyburz Race 140 km/h 4 s 2 0-100% in under 4 hours 220 km (137 mi) 2016 Lightning Lightning GT 200 km/h (124 mph) 5 s 2 under an hour 240 km (149 mi) Production expected to begin in 2020 Mahindra e2o plus 82 km/h (51 mph) 4 5 – 8 hours (Home socket: 220 V, 16 A), 1.5 hours (Fast Charge: Commercial 3-phase AC, up to 12 kW) 110–140 km (68–87 mi) November 2016[22] Mahindra e-Verito 85 km/h (53 mph) 5 6 – 8 hours (Home Socket: 220 V, 16 A), 2.01 hours (Fast Charging: with 15 kW charger) 110–180 km (68–112 mi) January 2017[23] Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive 160 km/h (99 mph) 7.9 s 5 9 hours when charging from 220/240 V outlet; 2.4 hours from 400 V 200 km (124 mi) 2015 Mercedes-Benz EQC 180 km/h (112 mph) 4.9 s 5 12 hours 354 km (220 mi) 2019 MG Motor ZS EV 140 km/h (87 mph) 8.2 s 5 7.45 hours 263 km (163 mi)(WLTP) 2018 Micro Mobility Systems Microlino 90 km/h (56 mph) 2 [24] 1 hours w/ Type 2 connector, 4 hours w/ domestic power [24] 120–215 km (75–134 mi) (depending on battery) [24] Late 2018 (initially only in Germany and Switzerland) Mitsubishi i-MiEV 130 km/h (81 mph) 4 7 to 14 hours when charged from household, depending on the type of power; 30 minutes when charging from a quick charger system (80% charged)[25] 170 km (106 mi) Released in Japan in July 2009 for fleet customers. Available in Japan, Hong Kong, Australia, Europe, the U.S., Canada and some Latin American countries. As of June 2016, and accounting for all variants of the i-MiEV, including the rebadged Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero sold in Europe, about 37,600 units have been sold worldwide since 2009.[26] Motores Limpios Zacua 85 km/h 2 8 hours 160 km (99 mi) 2017 in Mexico MW Motors Luka EV 148 km/h (92 mph) 9.3 s 2 9 hours standard domestic socket. 2 hours with 3 phase rapid charger 300 km (186 mi)(unverified) July 2016 NIO ES8 200 km/h (124 mph) 4.4 s 7 0.8h (0%-80% SOC)DC Charge 7.5-8h (0-80% SOC)AC Charge 355 km (221 mi) (NEDC) Released in China in 2017 NIO ES6 200 km/h (124 mph) 4.7s 5 Intelligent e-AWD system consists of a 160kW PM motor and a 240kW induction motor, a duo of efficiency and performance. 410–510 km (255–315 mi) Released in China in 2019 NIO EC6 5.6s (320kW) 4.7s (400kW) 5 320kW model with PM motor front and rear. 400kW model with PM front and induction motor in rear. 615 km with optional 100kW battery pack To release in China in 2020 Nissan Leaf 150 km/h (93 mph) 5 Up to 20 hours when charged from 110/120 V outlet; 8 hours when charging from 220/240 V outlet; 30 minutes for 440 V "quick charge" (to 80% of battery capacity) 252 km (157 mi) with 40 kWh battery [27] 200 km (120 mi) (NEDC) Released in the U.S. and Japan in December 2010, is available in 46 countries. The Leaf is the top selling electric car in history, with global sales of more than 250,000 units through December 2016.[28] 2016 LEAFs have an optional 40 kWh battery. ECOmove QBeak 90 km/h (56 mph) 4 8 hours 250 km (155 mi) Available in Denmark for now.[29] Peugeot i0n 130 km/h (81 mph) 15.9 s 4 7 hours when charged from household; 30 minutes when charging from a quick charger system[12] 150 km (93 mi) Rebranded Mitsubishi i-MiEV; since 2010 Available in Europe. Peugeot Peugeot e208 Polestar 2 4.7 s 5 470 km (292 mi) (WLTP), 275 mi (443 km) (EPA) 2020 (Belgium, Canada, China, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US) Rayttle E28 80 km/h (50 mph) 2 130 km (81 mi) Chinese clone of the Renault Twizy. Sales began in China in September 2014.[30] Renault / Renault Samsung Fluence Z.E. / SM3 Z.E. 135 km/h (84 mph), electronically limited 5 22 kWh battery: 6 to 8 hours on a 220 V 10 A or 16 A domestic socket; 30 minutes on a 400 V 32 A fast charging station; or battery swap in 5 minutes (Better place) 213 km (132 mi) (36 kWh battery)[31] 135 km (84 mi) + 15 km limp home mode (22 kWh battery) Released in France in 2010, Israel in Jan 2012, UK in Jan 2012, Turkey in May 2012, South Korea in 2013. Renault Zoe 135 km/h (84 mph), electronically limited 13.5 s 11.4 s (R110) 5 Six to nine hours with 3.7 kW, 30 minutes with 43 kW (80%) 400 km (250 mi) 41 kWh battery 210 km (130 mi) 22 kWh battery Released in France in December 2012. Global cumulative sales totaled to nearly 130,000 units by the end of 2018.[32][33] Renault Twizy 80 km/h (50 mph) (Urban 80 version) 2 3.5 hours 100 km (62 mi) From March 2012. Available in Europe. As of June 2016, global sales totaled 17,873 units, mostly in Europe.[34] SEAT Mii Electric 130 km/h (81 mph) 12.3 s 4 0-80% 1 Hour 260 km (162 mi) (WLTP) Available in Europe since 2019 Skoda CITIGOe IV 130 km/h (81 mph) 12.3 s 4 0-80% 1 Hour 260 km (162 mi) (WLTP) Available in Europe since 2019 Smart Smart electric drive 125 km/h (78 mph) 11.5 s 2 145 km (90 mi) Available in Europe, the United States and Canada. Global sales totaled about 12,250 units through December 2014. The second generation, launched in 2009, sold over 2,300 units through 2012,[35] and almost 10,000 units of the third generation, launched in 2013, have been sold through December 2014.[36][37] Sono Motors Sion 140 km/h (87 mph)[38] 9 s (approximately)[38] 5[38] Eight hours with 3.7 kW, 30 minutes with 50 kW (80%)[38][39] 250 km (160 mi) (this is real world range according to the company[40]) 35 kWh battery[38] To be released in Germany in mid-2019. Prototype for test-drives in Europe. Preorder: EUR 16.000,- + EUR 4.000,- (battery)[38] Stevens ZeCar 90 km/h (56 mph)[41] 5[42] 6–8 hours[43] 80 km (50 mi) March 2008 Tata Motors Tata Nexon 120 km/h (75 mph) 9.9 s 5 8 hours 300 km (186 mi)(IDC) 2019 Tesla Model S Long Range 250 km/h (160 mph)[44] 3.8 s[45] 5 + 2[Note 1] 8 hours with home charging; 50% in ~20 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger[46] 610 km (379 mi) (WLTP)[45] 629 km (391 mi) (EPA)[47] First released in the U.S. in June 2012.[28] Tesla Model S Performance 261 km/h (162 mph)[44] 2.5 s[45] 5 + 2[Note 1] 8 hours with home charging; 50% in ~20 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger[46] 593 km (368 mi) (WLTP)[45] 560 km (348 mi) (EPA)[47] First released in the U.S. in June 2012.[28] Tesla Model X Long Range 250 km/h (160 mph)[48] 4.6 s[49] 5-7[49] 8 hours with home charging; 50% in ~20 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger[46] 507 km (315 mi) (WLTP)[49] 565 km (351 mi) (EPA)[50] First released in the U.S. in September 2015.[51] Tesla Model X Performance 250 km/h (160 mph)[48] 2.8 s[49] 5-7[49] 8 hours with home charging; 50% in ~20 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger[46] 487 km (303 mi) (WLTP)[49] 491 km (305 mi) (EPA)[50] First released in the U.S. in September 2015.[51] Tesla Model 3 Long Range 233 km/h (145 mph)[52] 4.6 s[53] 5[53] 7.3h for 100%, ~14% per hour with home charger, 50% in ~30 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger 560 km (348 mi) (WLTP)[53] 518 km (322 mi) (EPA)[54] 2017 Tesla Model 3 Performance 261 km/h (162 mph)[52] 3.4 s[53] 5[53] 7.3h for 100%, ~14% per hour with home charger, 50% in ~30 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger 530 km (329 mi) (WLTP)[53] 481 km (299 mi) (EPA)[54] 2017 Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus 225 km/h (140 mph)[52] 5.6 s[53] 5[53] 7.3h for 100%, ~14% per hour with home charger, 50% in ~30 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger 409 km (254 mi) (WLTP)[53] 400 km (250 mi) (EPA)[54] 2017 Tesla Model Y Long Range 217 km/h (135 mph)[55] 5.1 s[55] 5-7[55] 7.3h for 100%, ~14% per hour with home charger, 50% in ~30 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger 505 km (314 mi) (WLTP)[55] 509 km (316 mi) (EPA)[56] Released in the US on March 13, 2020 Tesla Model Y Performance 241 km/h (150 mph)[55] 3.7 s[55] 5-7[55] 7.3h for 100%, ~14% per hour with home charger, 50% in ~30 minutes from a Tesla Supercharger 480 km (298 mi) (WLTP)[55] 507 km (315 mi) (EPA)[56] Released in the US on March 13, 2020 Venturi Fétish 200 km/h (124 mph) 4 s 2 3 hours with external charge booster, 8 hours with onboard charging system 340 km (211 mi) 2006 to present Volkswagen e-Golf MY2020 150 km/h (93 mph)[57] 9.6 s[57] 5 SE and SEL Premium in under 6 hours at a 240 V charging station. Optional (standard on SEL Premium) DC Fast Charging to 80% in 1 hour at a DC fast charging station. 232 km (144 mi) (WLTP)[57] Released in Europe in March 2014. Updated model with new battery management system released in Europe in July 2017. Volkswagen e-up! MY2019 130 km/h (81 mph)[58] 11.9 s[58] 4 Charge time AC 2.3 KW 100% SOC: 16:12 Charge time DC 40 KW 80% SOC: 01:00[58] 256 km (159 mi) (WLTP)[58] Updated in 2019 Xpeng G3 400 170 km/h (110 mph)[59] 8.5 s[59] 5[59] DC Charging Time (30% to 80%): 38min AC Charging Time (30% to 80%): 4.3h[59] 401 km (249 mi) (NEDC)[59] ? Xpeng G3 520 170 km/h (110 mph)[59] 8.6 s[59] 5[59] DC Charging Time (30% to 80%): 30min AC Charging Time (30% to 80%): 5.5h[59] 520 km (323 mi) (NEDC)[59] ? Xpeng P7 High Performance 170 km/h (110 mph)[60] 4.3 s[60] 5[60] DC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 31min AC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 6.5h Three-phase Electric Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 4.2h[60] 552 km (343 mi) (NEDC)[60] ? Xpeng P7 Long Range 170 km/h (110 mph)[60] 6.7 s[60] 5[60] DC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 28 min AC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 5.7h Three-phase Electric Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 3.6h[60] 568 km (353 mi) (NEDC)[60] ? Xpeng P7 Super Long Range Standard 170 km/h (110 mph)[60] 6.7 s[60] 5[60] DC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 31min AC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 6.5h Three-phase Electric Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 4.2h[60] 706 km (439 mi) (NEDC)[60] ? Xpeng P7 Super Long Range Smart/Premium 170 km/h (110 mph)[60] 6.7 s[60] 5[60] DC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 31min AC Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 6.5h Three-phase Electric Charging Time (30% to 80% charge): 4.2h[60] 656 km (408 mi) (NEDC)[60]

Are there any applications for many (deca-, kilo-, etc.) farad capacitors?

There are great answers so far. Here is material copied from Wikipedia: Consumer electronics[edit ] In applications with fluctuating loads, such as laptop computers, PDA's , GPS , portable media players , hand-held devices , and photovoltaic systems , supercapacitors can stabilize the power supply. Supercapacitors deliver power for photographic flashes in digital cameras and for LED life flashlights that can be charged in, e.g., 90 seconds. As of 2013, portable speakers powered by supercapacitors were offered to the market. Tools[edit ] A cordless electric screwdriver with supercapacitors for energy storage has about half the run time of a comparable battery model, but can be fully charged in 90 seconds. It retains 85% of its charge after three months left idle. Grid power buffer[edit ] A group of EVs and HEVs during their charging process draw very high current for a short duration of time which creates power pulsation on the grid. Power pulsation not only reduces the efficiency of the grid and cause voltage drop in the common coupling bus, but it can cause considerable frequency fluctuation in the entire system. To overcome this problem, supercapacitors can be implemented as an interface between the charging station and the grid to buffer the grid from the high pulse power drawn from the charging station. Low-power equipment power buffer[edit ] Supercapacitors provide backup or emergency shutdown power to low-power equipment such as RAM , SRAM , micro-controllers and PC Cards . They are the sole power source for low energy applications such as automated meter reading (AMR) equipment or for event notification in industrial electronics. Supercapacitors buffer power to and from rechargeable batteries , mitigating the effects of short power interruptions and high current peaks. Batteries kick in only during extended interruptions, e.g., if the mains power or a fuel cell fails, which lengthens battery life. Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), where supercapacitors have replaced much larger banks of electrolytic capacitors. This combination reduces the cost per cycle, saves on replacement and maintenance costs, enables the battery to be downsized and extends battery life. A disadvantage is the need for a special circuit to reconcile the differing behaviors. Rotor with wind turbine pitch system Supercapacitors provide backup power for actuators in wind turbine pitch systems, so that blade pitch can be adjusted even if the main supply fails. [127] Voltage stabilizer[edit ] Supercapacitors can stabilize voltage for powerlines . Wind and photovoltaic systems exhibit fluctuating supply evoked by gusting or clouds that supercapacitors can buffer within milliseconds. This helps stabilize grid voltage and frequency, balance supply and demand of power and manage real or reactive power. Energy harvesting[edit ] Supercapacitors are suitable temporary energy storage devices for energy harvesting systems. In energy harvesting systems the energy is collected from the ambient or renewable sources, e.g. mechanical movement, light or electromagnetic fields , and converted to electrical energy in an energy storage device. For example, it was demonstrated that energy collected from RF (radio frequency ) fields (using an RF antenna as an appropriate rectifier circuit) can be stored to a printed supercapacitor. The harvested energy was then used to power an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) circuit for over 10 hours. [131] Incorporation into batteries[edit ] The UltraBattery is a hybrid rechargeable lead-acid battery and a supercapacitor invented by Australia's national science organisation CSIRO . Its cell construction contains a standard lead-acid battery positive electrode, standard sulphuric acid electrolyte and a specially prepared negative carbon-based electrode that store electrical energy with double-layer capacitance . The presence of the supercapacitor electrode alters the chemistry of the battery and affords it significant protection from sulfation in high rate partial state if charge use, which is the typical failure mode of valve regulated lead-acid cells used this way. The resulting cell performs with characteristics beyond either a lead-acid cell or a supercapacitor, with charge and discharge rates, cycle life, efficiency and performance all enhanced. UltraBattery has been installed in kW and MW scale applications in Australia, Japan and the U.S.A. in frequency regulation, solar smoothing and shifting, wind smoothing and other applications. ] Street lights[edit ] Street light combining a solar cell power source with LED lamps and supercapacitors for energy storage Sado City, in Japan's Niigata Prefecture, has street lights that combine a stand-alone power source with solar cells and LEDs. Supercapacitors store the solar energy and supply 2 LED lamps, providing 15 W power consumption overnight. The supercapacitors can last more than 10 years and offer stable performance under various weather conditions, including temperatures from +40 to below -20 °C. Medical Supercapacitors are used in defibrillators where they can deliver 500 joules to shock the heart back into sinus rhythm . [134] Transport[edit ] Aviation[edit ] In 2005, aerospace systems and controls company Diehl Luftfahrt Elektronik GmbH chose supercapacitors to power emergency actuators for doors and evacuation slides used in airliners , including the Airbus 380 . Military[edit ] Supercapacitors' low internal resistance supports applications that require short-term high currents. Among the earliest uses were motor startup (cold engine starts, particularly with diesels) for large engines in tanks and submarines. Supercapacitors buffer the battery, handling short current peaks, reducing cycling and extending battery life. Further military applications that require high specific power are phased array radar antennae, laser power supplies, military radio communications, avionics displays and instrumentation, backup power for airbag deployment and GPS-guided missiles and projectiles. Automotive[edit ] Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën has started using supercapacitors as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, which permits faster initial acceleration. Mazda's i-ELOOP system stores energy in a supercapacitor during deceleration and uses it to power on-board electrical systems while the engine is stopped by the stop-start system. Bus/tram[edit ] Maxwell Technologies , an American supercapacitor-maker, claimed that more than 20,000 hybrid buses use the devices to increase acceleration, particularly in China. Guangzhou, In 2014 China began using trams powered with supercapacitors that are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails, storing power to run the tram for up to 4 km — more than enough to reach the next stop, where the cycle can be repeated. Energy recovery[edit ] A primary challenge of all transport is reducing energy consumption and reducing CO 2 emissions. Recovery of braking energy (recuperation or regeneration ) helps with both. This requires components that can quickly store and release energy over long times with a high cycle rate. Supercapacitors fulfill these requirements and are therefore used in a lot of applications in all kinds of transportation. Railway[edit ] Main article: Railway electrification system Green Cargo operates TRAXX locomotives from Bombardier Transportation Supercapacitors can be used to supplement batteries in starter systems in diesel railroad locomotives with diesel-electric transmission . The capacitors capture the braking energy of a full stop and deliver the peak current for starting the diesel engine and acceleration of the train and ensures the stabilization of catenary voltage. Depending on the driving mode up to 30% energy saving is possible by recovery of braking energy. Low maintenance and environmentally friendly materials encouraged the choice of supercapacitors. [140] Cranes, forklifts and tractors[edit ] Main articles: Crane (machine) and Forklift truck Container yard with rubber tyre gantry crane Mobile hybrid diesel-electric rubber tyred gantry cranes move and stack containers within a terminal. Lifting the boxes requires large amounts of energy. Some of the energy could be recaptured while lowering the load resulting in improved efficiency. A triple hybrid forklift truck uses fuel cells and batteries as primary energy storage and supercapacitors to buffer power peaks by storing braking energy. They provide the fork lift with peak power over 30 kW. The triple-hybrid system offers over 50% energy savings compared with diesel or fuel-cell systems. Supercapacitor-powered terminal tractors transport containers to warehouses. They provide an economical, quiet and pollution-free alternative to diesel terminal tractors. Light-rails and trams[edit ] Main articles: Light rail and Tram Supercapacitors make it possible not only to reduce energy but to replace overhead lines in historical city areas, so preserving the city's architectural heritage. This approach may allow many new LRV city lines to replace overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route. Light rail vehicle in Mannheim In 2003 Mannheim adopted a prototype light-rail vehicle (LRV) using the MITRAC Energy Saver system from Bombardier Transportation to store mechanical braking energy with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. It contains several units each made of 192 capacitors with 2700 F /2.7 V interconnected in three parallel lines. This circuit results in a 518 V system with an energy content of 1.5 kWh. For acceleration when starting this "on-board-system" can provided the LRV with 600 kW and can drive the vehicle up to 1 km without catenary supply integrating the LRV into the urban environment by driving without catenary lines. Compared to conventional LRVs or Metro vehicles that return energy into the grid, onboard energy storage saves up to 30% and reduces peak grid demand by up to 50%. Supercapacitors are used to power the Paris T3 tram line on sections without catenary overhead wires and to recover energy during braking . In 2009 supercapacitors enabled LRV's to operate in the historical city area of Heidelberg without catenary overhead wires preserving the city's architectural heritage. The SC equipment cost an additional €270,000 per vehicle, which was expected to be recovered over the first 15 years of operation. The supercapacitors are charged at stop-over stations when the vehicle is at a scheduled stop. This approach may allow many LRV city lines to serve catenary overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route installation. In April 2011 German regional transport operator Rhein-Neckar, responsible for Heidelberg, ordered a further 11 units. In 2009, Alstom and RATP equipped a Citadis tram with an experimental energy recovery system called "STEEM". The system is fitted with 48 roof-mounted supercapacitors to store braking energy provides tramways with a high level of energy autonomy by enabling them to run without catenary power on parts of its route, recharging while traveling on powered stop-over stations. During the tests, which took place between the Porte d’Italie and Porte de Choisy stops on line T3 of the tramway network in Paris , the tramset used an average of approximately 16% less energy. A supercapacitor-equipped tram on the Rio de Janeiro Light Rail In 2012 tram operator Geneva Public Transport began tests of an LRV equipped with a prototype roof-mounted supercapacitor unit to recover braking energy. Siemens is delivering supercapacitor-enhanced light-rail transport systems that include mobile storage. Hong Kong's South Island metro line is to be equipped with two 2 MW energy storage units that are expected to reduce energy consumption by 10%. In August 2012 the CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive corporation of China presented a prototype two-car light metro train equipped with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. The train can travel up 2 km without wires, recharging in 30 seconds at stations via a ground mounted pickup. The supplier claimed the trains could be used in 100 small and medium-sized Chinese cities. Seven trams (street cars) powered by supercapacitors were scheduled to go into operation in 2014 in Guangzhou , China. The supercapacitors are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails. That powers the tram for up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi). As of 2017, Zhuzhou's supercapacitor vehicles are also used on the new Nanjing streetcar system, and are undergoing trials in Wuhan . In 2012, in Lyon (France), the SYTRAL (Lyon public transportation administration) started experiments of a "way side regeneration" system built by Adetel Group which has developed its own energy saver named ″NeoGreen″ for LRV, LRT and metros. In 2015, Alstom announced SRS, an energy storage system that charges supercapacitors on board a tram by means of ground-level conductor rails located at tram stops. This allows trams to operate without overhead lines for short distances. The system has been touted as an alternative to the company's ground-level power supply (APS) system, or can be used in conjunction with it, as in the case of the VLT network in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, which opened in 2016. Buses[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric bus Further information: Capa vehicle and Solar bus MAN Ultracapbus in Nuremberg, Germany The first hybrid bus with supercapacitors in Europe came in 2001 in Nuremberg , Germany. It was MAN's so-called "Ultracapbus", and was tested in real operation in 2001/2002. The test vehicle was equipped with a diesel-electric drive in combination with supercapacitors. The system was supplied with 8 Ultracap modules of 80 V, each containing 36 components. The system worked with 640 V and could be charged/discharged at 400 A. Its energy content was 0.4 kWh with a weight of 400 kg. The supercapacitors recaptured braking energy and delivered starting energy. Fuel consumption was reduced by 10 to 15% compared to conventional diesel vehicles. Other advantages included reduction of CO 2 emissions, quiet and emissions-free engine starts, lower vibration and reduced maintenance costs. Electric bus at EXPO 2010 in Shanghai (Capabus) recharging at the bus stop As of 2002 in Luzern , Switzerland an electric bus fleet called TOHYCO-Rider was tested. The supercapacitors could be recharged via an inductive contactless high-speed power charger after every transportation cycle, within 3 to 4 minutes. In early 2005 Shanghai tested a new form of electric bus called capabus that runs without powerlines (catenary free operation) using large onboard supercapacitors that partially recharge whenever the bus is at a stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charge in the terminus . In 2006, two commercial bus routes began to use the capabuses; one of them is route 11 in Shanghai. It was estimated that the supercapacitor bus was cheaper than a lithium-ion battery bus, and one of its buses had one-tenth the energy cost of a diesel bus with lifetime fuel savings of $200,000. A hybrid electric bus called tribrid was unveiled in 2008 by the University of Glamorgan , Wales , for use as student transport. It is powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells , batteries and ultracapacitors. ] Motor racing[edit ] World champion Sebastian Vettel in Malaysia 2010 Toyota TS030 Hybrid at 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race The FIA , a governing body for motor racing events, proposed in the Power-Train Regulation Framework for Formula 1 version 1.3 of 23 May 2007 that a new set of power train regulations be issued that includes a hybrid drive of up to 200 kW input and output power using "superbatteries" made with batteries and supercapacitors connected in parallel (KERS ). About 20% tank-to-wheel efficiency could be reached using the KERS system. The Toyota TS030 Hybrid LMP1 car, a racing car developed under Le Mans Prototype rules, uses a hybrid drivetrain with supercapacitors. In the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans race a TS030 qualified with a fastest lap only 1.055 seconds slower (3:24.842 versus 3:23.787) than the fastest car, an Audi R18 e-tron quattro with flywheel energy storage. The supercapacitor and flywheel components, whose rapid charge-discharge capabilities help in both braking and acceleration, made the Audi and Toyota hybrids the fastest cars in the race. In the 2012 Le Mans race the two competing TS030s, one of which was in the lead for part of the race, both retired for reasons unrelated to the supercapacitors. The TS030 won three of the 8 races in the 2012 FIA World Endurance Championship season . In 2014 the Toyota TS040 Hybrid used a supercapacitor to add 480 horsepower from two electric motors. Hybrid electric vehicles[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle See also: Hybrid vehicle drivetrain Mazda2 (since 2010) Supercapacitor/battery combinations in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are well investigated. A 20 to 60% fuel reduction has been claimed by recovering brake energy in EVs or HEVs. The ability of supercapacitors to charge much faster than batteries, their stable electrical properties, broader temperature range and longer lifetime are suitable, but weight, volume and especially cost mitigate those advantages. Supercapacitors lower specific energy makes them unsuitable for use as a stand-alone energy source for long distance driving. The fuel economy improvement between a capacitor and a battery solution is about 20% and is available only for shorter trips. For long distance driving the advantage decreases to 6%. Vehicles combining capacitors and batteries run only in experimental vehicles. As of 2013 all automotive manufacturers of EV or HEVs have developed prototypes that uses supercapacitors instead of batteries to store braking energy in order to improve driveline efficiency. The Mazda 6 is the only production car that uses supercapacitors to recover braking energy. Branded as i-eloop, the regenerative braking is claimed to reduce fuel consumption by about 10%. Russian Yo-cars Ё-mobile series was a concept and crossover hybrid vehicle working with a gasoline driven rotary vane type and an electric generator for driving the traction motors. A supercapacitor with relatively low capacitance recovers brake energy to power the electric motor when accelerating from a stop. Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide quick bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën fit supercapacitors to some of its cars as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, as this permits faster start-ups when the traffic lights turn green. Gondolas[edit ] Aerial lift in Zell am See , Austria In Zell am See , Austria , an aerial lift connects the city with Schmittenhöhe mountain. The gondolas sometimes run 24 hours per day, using electricity for lights, door opening and communication. The only available time for recharging batteries at the stations is during the brief intervals of guest loading and unloading, which is too short to recharge batteries. Supercapacitors offer a fast charge, higher number of cycles and longer life time than batteries. Emirates Air Line (cable car) , also known as the Thames cable car, is a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) gondola line that crosses the Thames from the Greenwich Peninsula to the Royal Docks . The cabins are equipped with a modern infotainment system, which is powered by supercapacitors. Developments[edit ] As of 2013 commercially available lithium-ion supercapacitors offered the highest gravimetric specific energy to date, reaching 15 Wh/kg (54 kJ/kg). Research focuses on improving specific energy, reducing internal resistance, expanding temperature range, increasing lifetimes and reducing costs. Projects include tailored-pore-size electrodes, pseudocapacitive coating or doping materials and improved electrolytes.

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    มีระบบป้องกันการลื่นไถลของรถและรุ่นย่อยของAudi E Tron ได้แก่

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    ระบบควบคุมการเปลี่ยนเกียร์ที่พวงมาลัยของAudi E Tronมีอะไรบ้าง

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    มีระบบควบคุมการเปลี่ยนเกียร์ที่พวงมาลัยและรุ่นย่อยของAudi E Tron ได้แก่

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