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audi e tron ambient lighting standard

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง audi e tron ambient lighting standard

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รีวิว Q&A audi e tron ambient lighting standard

Are there any applications for many (deca-, kilo-, etc.) farad capacitors?

There are great answers so far. Here is material copied from Wikipedia: Consumer electronics[edit ] In applications with fluctuating loads, such as laptop computers, PDA's , GPS , portable media players , hand-held devices , and photovoltaic systems , supercapacitors can stabilize the power supply. Supercapacitors deliver power for photographic flashes in digital cameras and for LED life flashlights that can be charged in, e.g., 90 seconds. As of 2013, portable speakers powered by supercapacitors were offered to the market. Tools[edit ] A cordless electric screwdriver with supercapacitors for energy storage has about half the run time of a comparable battery model, but can be fully charged in 90 seconds. It retains 85% of its charge after three months left idle. Grid power buffer[edit ] A group of EVs and HEVs during their charging process draw very high current for a short duration of time which creates power pulsation on the grid. Power pulsation not only reduces the efficiency of the grid and cause voltage drop in the common coupling bus, but it can cause considerable frequency fluctuation in the entire system. To overcome this problem, supercapacitors can be implemented as an interface between the charging station and the grid to buffer the grid from the high pulse power drawn from the charging station. Low-power equipment power buffer[edit ] Supercapacitors provide backup or emergency shutdown power to low-power equipment such as RAM , SRAM , micro-controllers and PC Cards . They are the sole power source for low energy applications such as automated meter reading (AMR) equipment or for event notification in industrial electronics. Supercapacitors buffer power to and from rechargeable batteries , mitigating the effects of short power interruptions and high current peaks. Batteries kick in only during extended interruptions, e.g., if the mains power or a fuel cell fails, which lengthens battery life. Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), where supercapacitors have replaced much larger banks of electrolytic capacitors. This combination reduces the cost per cycle, saves on replacement and maintenance costs, enables the battery to be downsized and extends battery life. A disadvantage is the need for a special circuit to reconcile the differing behaviors. Rotor with wind turbine pitch system Supercapacitors provide backup power for actuators in wind turbine pitch systems, so that blade pitch can be adjusted even if the main supply fails. [127] Voltage stabilizer[edit ] Supercapacitors can stabilize voltage for powerlines . Wind and photovoltaic systems exhibit fluctuating supply evoked by gusting or clouds that supercapacitors can buffer within milliseconds. This helps stabilize grid voltage and frequency, balance supply and demand of power and manage real or reactive power. Energy harvesting[edit ] Supercapacitors are suitable temporary energy storage devices for energy harvesting systems. In energy harvesting systems the energy is collected from the ambient or renewable sources, e.g. mechanical movement, light or electromagnetic fields , and converted to electrical energy in an energy storage device. For example, it was demonstrated that energy collected from RF (radio frequency ) fields (using an RF antenna as an appropriate rectifier circuit) can be stored to a printed supercapacitor. The harvested energy was then used to power an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) circuit for over 10 hours. [131] Incorporation into batteries[edit ] The UltraBattery is a hybrid rechargeable lead-acid battery and a supercapacitor invented by Australia's national science organisation CSIRO . Its cell construction contains a standard lead-acid battery positive electrode, standard sulphuric acid electrolyte and a specially prepared negative carbon-based electrode that store electrical energy with double-layer capacitance . The presence of the supercapacitor electrode alters the chemistry of the battery and affords it significant protection from sulfation in high rate partial state if charge use, which is the typical failure mode of valve regulated lead-acid cells used this way. The resulting cell performs with characteristics beyond either a lead-acid cell or a supercapacitor, with charge and discharge rates, cycle life, efficiency and performance all enhanced. UltraBattery has been installed in kW and MW scale applications in Australia, Japan and the U.S.A. in frequency regulation, solar smoothing and shifting, wind smoothing and other applications. ] Street lights[edit ] Street light combining a solar cell power source with LED lamps and supercapacitors for energy storage Sado City, in Japan's Niigata Prefecture, has street lights that combine a stand-alone power source with solar cells and LEDs. Supercapacitors store the solar energy and supply 2 LED lamps, providing 15 W power consumption overnight. The supercapacitors can last more than 10 years and offer stable performance under various weather conditions, including temperatures from +40 to below -20 °C. Medical Supercapacitors are used in defibrillators where they can deliver 500 joules to shock the heart back into sinus rhythm . [134] Transport[edit ] Aviation[edit ] In 2005, aerospace systems and controls company Diehl Luftfahrt Elektronik GmbH chose supercapacitors to power emergency actuators for doors and evacuation slides used in airliners , including the Airbus 380 . Military[edit ] Supercapacitors' low internal resistance supports applications that require short-term high currents. Among the earliest uses were motor startup (cold engine starts, particularly with diesels) for large engines in tanks and submarines. Supercapacitors buffer the battery, handling short current peaks, reducing cycling and extending battery life. Further military applications that require high specific power are phased array radar antennae, laser power supplies, military radio communications, avionics displays and instrumentation, backup power for airbag deployment and GPS-guided missiles and projectiles. Automotive[edit ] Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën has started using supercapacitors as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, which permits faster initial acceleration. Mazda's i-ELOOP system stores energy in a supercapacitor during deceleration and uses it to power on-board electrical systems while the engine is stopped by the stop-start system. Bus/tram[edit ] Maxwell Technologies , an American supercapacitor-maker, claimed that more than 20,000 hybrid buses use the devices to increase acceleration, particularly in China. Guangzhou, In 2014 China began using trams powered with supercapacitors that are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails, storing power to run the tram for up to 4 km — more than enough to reach the next stop, where the cycle can be repeated. Energy recovery[edit ] A primary challenge of all transport is reducing energy consumption and reducing CO 2 emissions. Recovery of braking energy (recuperation or regeneration ) helps with both. This requires components that can quickly store and release energy over long times with a high cycle rate. Supercapacitors fulfill these requirements and are therefore used in a lot of applications in all kinds of transportation. Railway[edit ] Main article: Railway electrification system Green Cargo operates TRAXX locomotives from Bombardier Transportation Supercapacitors can be used to supplement batteries in starter systems in diesel railroad locomotives with diesel-electric transmission . The capacitors capture the braking energy of a full stop and deliver the peak current for starting the diesel engine and acceleration of the train and ensures the stabilization of catenary voltage. Depending on the driving mode up to 30% energy saving is possible by recovery of braking energy. Low maintenance and environmentally friendly materials encouraged the choice of supercapacitors. [140] Cranes, forklifts and tractors[edit ] Main articles: Crane (machine) and Forklift truck Container yard with rubber tyre gantry crane Mobile hybrid diesel-electric rubber tyred gantry cranes move and stack containers within a terminal. Lifting the boxes requires large amounts of energy. Some of the energy could be recaptured while lowering the load resulting in improved efficiency. A triple hybrid forklift truck uses fuel cells and batteries as primary energy storage and supercapacitors to buffer power peaks by storing braking energy. They provide the fork lift with peak power over 30 kW. The triple-hybrid system offers over 50% energy savings compared with diesel or fuel-cell systems. Supercapacitor-powered terminal tractors transport containers to warehouses. They provide an economical, quiet and pollution-free alternative to diesel terminal tractors. Light-rails and trams[edit ] Main articles: Light rail and Tram Supercapacitors make it possible not only to reduce energy but to replace overhead lines in historical city areas, so preserving the city's architectural heritage. This approach may allow many new LRV city lines to replace overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route. Light rail vehicle in Mannheim In 2003 Mannheim adopted a prototype light-rail vehicle (LRV) using the MITRAC Energy Saver system from Bombardier Transportation to store mechanical braking energy with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. It contains several units each made of 192 capacitors with 2700 F /2.7 V interconnected in three parallel lines. This circuit results in a 518 V system with an energy content of 1.5 kWh. For acceleration when starting this "on-board-system" can provided the LRV with 600 kW and can drive the vehicle up to 1 km without catenary supply integrating the LRV into the urban environment by driving without catenary lines. Compared to conventional LRVs or Metro vehicles that return energy into the grid, onboard energy storage saves up to 30% and reduces peak grid demand by up to 50%. Supercapacitors are used to power the Paris T3 tram line on sections without catenary overhead wires and to recover energy during braking . In 2009 supercapacitors enabled LRV's to operate in the historical city area of Heidelberg without catenary overhead wires preserving the city's architectural heritage. The SC equipment cost an additional €270,000 per vehicle, which was expected to be recovered over the first 15 years of operation. The supercapacitors are charged at stop-over stations when the vehicle is at a scheduled stop. This approach may allow many LRV city lines to serve catenary overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route installation. In April 2011 German regional transport operator Rhein-Neckar, responsible for Heidelberg, ordered a further 11 units. In 2009, Alstom and RATP equipped a Citadis tram with an experimental energy recovery system called "STEEM". The system is fitted with 48 roof-mounted supercapacitors to store braking energy provides tramways with a high level of energy autonomy by enabling them to run without catenary power on parts of its route, recharging while traveling on powered stop-over stations. During the tests, which took place between the Porte d’Italie and Porte de Choisy stops on line T3 of the tramway network in Paris , the tramset used an average of approximately 16% less energy. A supercapacitor-equipped tram on the Rio de Janeiro Light Rail In 2012 tram operator Geneva Public Transport began tests of an LRV equipped with a prototype roof-mounted supercapacitor unit to recover braking energy. Siemens is delivering supercapacitor-enhanced light-rail transport systems that include mobile storage. Hong Kong's South Island metro line is to be equipped with two 2 MW energy storage units that are expected to reduce energy consumption by 10%. In August 2012 the CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive corporation of China presented a prototype two-car light metro train equipped with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. The train can travel up 2 km without wires, recharging in 30 seconds at stations via a ground mounted pickup. The supplier claimed the trains could be used in 100 small and medium-sized Chinese cities. Seven trams (street cars) powered by supercapacitors were scheduled to go into operation in 2014 in Guangzhou , China. The supercapacitors are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails. That powers the tram for up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi). As of 2017, Zhuzhou's supercapacitor vehicles are also used on the new Nanjing streetcar system, and are undergoing trials in Wuhan . In 2012, in Lyon (France), the SYTRAL (Lyon public transportation administration) started experiments of a "way side regeneration" system built by Adetel Group which has developed its own energy saver named ″NeoGreen″ for LRV, LRT and metros. In 2015, Alstom announced SRS, an energy storage system that charges supercapacitors on board a tram by means of ground-level conductor rails located at tram stops. This allows trams to operate without overhead lines for short distances. The system has been touted as an alternative to the company's ground-level power supply (APS) system, or can be used in conjunction with it, as in the case of the VLT network in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, which opened in 2016. Buses[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric bus Further information: Capa vehicle and Solar bus MAN Ultracapbus in Nuremberg, Germany The first hybrid bus with supercapacitors in Europe came in 2001 in Nuremberg , Germany. It was MAN's so-called "Ultracapbus", and was tested in real operation in 2001/2002. The test vehicle was equipped with a diesel-electric drive in combination with supercapacitors. The system was supplied with 8 Ultracap modules of 80 V, each containing 36 components. The system worked with 640 V and could be charged/discharged at 400 A. Its energy content was 0.4 kWh with a weight of 400 kg. The supercapacitors recaptured braking energy and delivered starting energy. Fuel consumption was reduced by 10 to 15% compared to conventional diesel vehicles. Other advantages included reduction of CO 2 emissions, quiet and emissions-free engine starts, lower vibration and reduced maintenance costs. Electric bus at EXPO 2010 in Shanghai (Capabus) recharging at the bus stop As of 2002 in Luzern , Switzerland an electric bus fleet called TOHYCO-Rider was tested. The supercapacitors could be recharged via an inductive contactless high-speed power charger after every transportation cycle, within 3 to 4 minutes. In early 2005 Shanghai tested a new form of electric bus called capabus that runs without powerlines (catenary free operation) using large onboard supercapacitors that partially recharge whenever the bus is at a stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charge in the terminus . In 2006, two commercial bus routes began to use the capabuses; one of them is route 11 in Shanghai. It was estimated that the supercapacitor bus was cheaper than a lithium-ion battery bus, and one of its buses had one-tenth the energy cost of a diesel bus with lifetime fuel savings of $200,000. A hybrid electric bus called tribrid was unveiled in 2008 by the University of Glamorgan , Wales , for use as student transport. It is powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells , batteries and ultracapacitors. ] Motor racing[edit ] World champion Sebastian Vettel in Malaysia 2010 Toyota TS030 Hybrid at 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race The FIA , a governing body for motor racing events, proposed in the Power-Train Regulation Framework for Formula 1 version 1.3 of 23 May 2007 that a new set of power train regulations be issued that includes a hybrid drive of up to 200 kW input and output power using "superbatteries" made with batteries and supercapacitors connected in parallel (KERS ). About 20% tank-to-wheel efficiency could be reached using the KERS system. The Toyota TS030 Hybrid LMP1 car, a racing car developed under Le Mans Prototype rules, uses a hybrid drivetrain with supercapacitors. In the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans race a TS030 qualified with a fastest lap only 1.055 seconds slower (3:24.842 versus 3:23.787) than the fastest car, an Audi R18 e-tron quattro with flywheel energy storage. The supercapacitor and flywheel components, whose rapid charge-discharge capabilities help in both braking and acceleration, made the Audi and Toyota hybrids the fastest cars in the race. In the 2012 Le Mans race the two competing TS030s, one of which was in the lead for part of the race, both retired for reasons unrelated to the supercapacitors. The TS030 won three of the 8 races in the 2012 FIA World Endurance Championship season . In 2014 the Toyota TS040 Hybrid used a supercapacitor to add 480 horsepower from two electric motors. Hybrid electric vehicles[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle See also: Hybrid vehicle drivetrain Mazda2 (since 2010) Supercapacitor/battery combinations in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are well investigated. A 20 to 60% fuel reduction has been claimed by recovering brake energy in EVs or HEVs. The ability of supercapacitors to charge much faster than batteries, their stable electrical properties, broader temperature range and longer lifetime are suitable, but weight, volume and especially cost mitigate those advantages. Supercapacitors lower specific energy makes them unsuitable for use as a stand-alone energy source for long distance driving. The fuel economy improvement between a capacitor and a battery solution is about 20% and is available only for shorter trips. For long distance driving the advantage decreases to 6%. Vehicles combining capacitors and batteries run only in experimental vehicles. As of 2013 all automotive manufacturers of EV or HEVs have developed prototypes that uses supercapacitors instead of batteries to store braking energy in order to improve driveline efficiency. The Mazda 6 is the only production car that uses supercapacitors to recover braking energy. Branded as i-eloop, the regenerative braking is claimed to reduce fuel consumption by about 10%. Russian Yo-cars Ё-mobile series was a concept and crossover hybrid vehicle working with a gasoline driven rotary vane type and an electric generator for driving the traction motors. A supercapacitor with relatively low capacitance recovers brake energy to power the electric motor when accelerating from a stop. Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide quick bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën fit supercapacitors to some of its cars as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, as this permits faster start-ups when the traffic lights turn green. Gondolas[edit ] Aerial lift in Zell am See , Austria In Zell am See , Austria , an aerial lift connects the city with Schmittenhöhe mountain. The gondolas sometimes run 24 hours per day, using electricity for lights, door opening and communication. The only available time for recharging batteries at the stations is during the brief intervals of guest loading and unloading, which is too short to recharge batteries. Supercapacitors offer a fast charge, higher number of cycles and longer life time than batteries. Emirates Air Line (cable car) , also known as the Thames cable car, is a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) gondola line that crosses the Thames from the Greenwich Peninsula to the Royal Docks . The cabins are equipped with a modern infotainment system, which is powered by supercapacitors. Developments[edit ] As of 2013 commercially available lithium-ion supercapacitors offered the highest gravimetric specific energy to date, reaching 15 Wh/kg (54 kJ/kg). Research focuses on improving specific energy, reducing internal resistance, expanding temperature range, increasing lifetimes and reducing costs. Projects include tailored-pore-size electrodes, pseudocapacitive coating or doping materials and improved electrolytes.

Would you buy an electric car that isn't a Tesla?

As someone who isn’t a Tesla owner, BUT is on the search for a new daily driver and have tested out extensively Tesla. I would say…YES ABSOLUTLY. BUT it depends. I won’t buy any electric Kia or entry-level family car (Model 3) because for that price I would be happy to buy a performance vehicle or save it for something better in terms of quality and design. However, because of my lifestyle and the fact that I drive 1) very few miles and distance 2) always against the traffic flow. 3) Single and don’t need to do any family thing I could easily own a sport car or even a supercar as my daily driver with no problem. But, I could easily own an electric car too. As someone who grew up with more upscale vehicle, when I drove and tested out Tesla, I expected that it would blow my brain off because of how advance it suppose to be or it is. I was impressed, but not too impress either. I have to say that I could see why someone would easily buy another brand that isn’t Tesla: Shit quality (the biggest reason actually and something that people who have and actually appreciate luxury vehicle will understand). Ahem I remember when Tesla used to have good interior with a lot of option like any luxury car. Now, because of underproduction and high-demand they have eliminated many options, which is a major drawback for many people who are used to luxury cars. Before and After: “Vegan Leather”- okay personally, I think this should just be an option or at least offer consumer to have full and real leather. But wait they can’t. Cause of production problem. Like its still fake leather and its the same shit that most other car brands even the most cheapest one offer. Panels and attention to details is very very low. Some people, like me, appreciate and have an eye for every single components a car has and how its made and the quality. NO PREVIOUS LUXURY CAR OWNER WANT TO BE TOLD THAT “PLEASE CHECK YOUR CAR IF ANY PANELS OR PAINT IS BAD”. WE DONT EXPECT THAT. Interior design (very important if you are used to luxury vehicle) In the case of the Model 3/Y. I don’t like how simple it is, especially for the price. Like it doesn’t even have a front gauge cluster, just a big screen in the middle. It has its appeal for some people, but personally I don’t like it that much due to that fact that I like to go fast and be able to read easily without taking my eyes from the front view. Personally, I like to have some tiny details and focus on details, such as buttons and trims parts. Or thing you never notice (like the rim of a cupholder being made out of aluminum instead of plastic). Exterior design (subjective, but understandable). Model Y/3 look like a fucking frog. It isn’t beautiful at all. In addition to that, for some people it could be too quirky and not subtle. Warranty Tesla doesn’t have the best warranty for an electric car. That honors goes to Jaguar. Performance When it comes to taking it to the track or going in corners. Some people like a nimble steering and feel. Suspensions and driving I’m going to be honest but the suspension was not the best I ever driven. Lack of customization and real luxury (a big blow to Tesla) Tesla only offer 5 colors (white, black, midnight grey, blue, and red), two rims, two interior option (three for Model S/X), No sunroof option, No ambient lights, No 3D camera compared to BMW, Audi and MB, No special order request or individual premium, no personalization or changes to badges, and other things. You get it Tesla are not luxurious due to the fact that they are more catered now to the mass. Its not bad, but they have done it in a way that compromise their luxury touch for those who are used to luxury car and to the original buyers of Tesla’s. When it comes to their model as someone who is used to luxury cars, Model 3/Y personally is less luxury as more of an economy or just premium car. But not luxury. I say this because the Model Y/3 is often compared to traditional luxury car brand by car journalist due to the price. In my opinion, within Tesla, the best in my opinion is Model S/X cause its their flagship to start with. However, they have lowered their quality and their customization possibility. Now which electric car would I buy, that isn’t Tesla? Well here’s my list: Audi E-Tron Look at that beauty. I drove this SUV. For people who are transition from petrol to electric, I would say Audi is definitely the winner. Quality? Go to the dealership see one sit in one and see the difference. Its immediate. They have two body style: Sportback Normal For those who care about rear visibility and practicality its easy to guess why Audi E-tron Normal is a great choice compared to let say a Model Y. Now lets see the option they have: Oh wait. We see that they have over 5 colors! Wow! ALSO THEY HAVE INTERIOR AMBIENT LIGHT. So whats the con of this SUV?: Well to start with the price jumps super fast (German characteristic) and for the fully packed version of it, One could buy a Model S/X. Audi E-Tron GT The only problem with this car is that its slighty cheaper than the Taycan. WTF!? I want it to be the same price as the Model S or cheaper. Porsche Taycan (honestly my favourite of all the electric cars) Hey They even offer a Station Wagon version! Now this one is my favorite. Beside the performance, it offer such a great handling. I would argue even better than Tesla when it comes to corners. This is just the tip of the ice-berg on Porsche options, as Porsche have soo many options. Now the only thing I don’t like about this car is that, well they charge me for every single detail of this car, when other brand such as Tesla and even Audi comes standard. However, if you (like me), likes very very simple Porsche and want an electric car that is soo simple that it actually feels more traditional than a high-tech electric car. Configure it to the cheapest option and buy this. Jaguar I-Pace Another good contender. Its very elegant, excellent built quality (more impressive given that its a Jaguar) and also has a superior warranty over Tesla in many ways. There are many other that I won’t be mentioning that are coming in the future, but I haven’t driven or sat at it yet. Given that the US will come late in terms of Electric car model compared to Europe, there’s very few options currently. However, I think Tesla are just very weird (in a good and bad way) and that could deter people from buying one cause theirs a lot of people that like things their used to already. [EDIT] As you can see clearly I am more of a Model S/X person and I personally want something that is more close to that. For those people who argue “Tesla is a revolutionary car company ya, uuu Tesla is not trying to be luxurious, ooo u buy a Tesla for its tech.” Please understand I don’t care about the miles. Its my money and clearly for does who aren’t car people then obviously tech will be seen more of a lux. As you can see, being affordable is something that I really don’t care. What I care is “good and reasonable price”, and performance and quality overall. In summary, a well balance and well rounded car. Very german in my own opinion. I am not willing to pay over $100k or over $95k on an electric car too easily because I could get a Porsche 911 or something like that.

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