Premiumสำหรับ 2021 Lexus UX300e ที่เพิ่งเปิดตัวนี้จะมีความสามารถเพียงพอที่จะได้ส่วนแบ่งตลาดรถไฟฟ้าสุดหรูจาก Audi
BMW Operating System เจนเนอเรชั่นใหม่ซึ่งข่าวระบุว่าผลิตด้วยวัสดุคริสตัล BMW iX Audi
2035ซึ่งจะมีการแจ้งแผนออกมาในอีกไม่กี่เดือน พร้อมสถานะของโรงงานที่จะต้องเปลี่ยนไปผลิตแบบไฟ้าแบบเต็มตัวยอดขาย e-Tron
ขณะที่ Chevrolet (เชฟโรเลต) เป็นแบรนด์ยอดนิยมในอียิปต์ ส่วน Toyota ครองส่วนแบ่งตลาดเกือบ 100% ในเยเมนAudi
แม้ว่าคู่แข่งมากหน้าหลายตาจะเดินหน้าเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าบนแพลตฟอร์มของตัวเองกันอย่างต่อเนื่อง ไม่ว่าจะเป็น Audi
2021 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน จีที) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้ารุ่นล่าสุดจากเยอรมนี ที่เปิดตัวในเยอรมนีเมื่อเดือนก่อน
2021 Audi RS Q3 Sportback (อาวดี้ อาร์เอส คิว3 สปอร์ตแบค) เอสยูวีท้ายลาดพื้นฐานจาก Audi Q3 จะมาขายไทยวันที่
3จากการรายงานของ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV-กรมการขนส่งนอร์เวย์) ในปี 2020 รถที่ขายดีที่สุดคือ Audi
2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) รุ่นใหม่เปิดตัวลุยตลาดบ้านเราแล้วด้วยราคา 5.299
ว่าถูกเรียกคืนในประเทศออสเตรเลีย เนื่องจากพบปัญหาเกี่ยวกับระบบคันเกียร์อัตโนมัติ ซึ่งอาจทำให้เกียร์ P
Audi e-Tron รถครอสโอเวอร์พลังไฟฟ้าล้วน ซึ่งทำยอดขายไม่ดีนักในสหรัฐอเมริกา จึงได้ออกกลยุทธ์ใหม่ เปิดตัวรุ่นล่างสุดที่มีราคาเอื้อมถึงง่ายขึ้น
ๆ ร้อน ๆ ก็คือ Audi Q5 (อาวดี้ คิว5) ที่มาพร้อมชุดแต่งเอสไลน์ ทั้งภายในและภายนอก รวมไปถึงช่วงล่างที่ได้รับการปรับแต่งใหม่
ไม่มีส่วนประกอบที่เป็นอันตรายต่อธรรมชาติ เช่น ของเหลว กรด หรือตะกั่ว จึงปลอดภัยต่อมนุษย์และสิ่งแวดล้อมAudi
จะพบว่ารถพลังไฟฟ้ามีสัดส่วนยอดขายเพียง 1% เท่านั้นสมาคมยานยนต์แห่งนอร์เวย์ (OFV) ระบุว่ารถพลังไฟฟ้าที่มียอดขายสูงที่สุดในปี 2020 คือ Audi
ซีอีโอ Audi (อาวดี้) ออกมาให้ความเห็นว่ารถยนต์ไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่ขนาดเล็กลงในอนาคต เมื่อเทคโนโลยีการชาร์จไฟและจุดชาร์จไฟมีพัฒนาการก้าวหน้ามากขึ้นจากการแข่งขันด้านพละกำลังทั้งแรงม้าและแรงบิดของรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาปในอดีต
โดยเฉพาะสปอยเลอร์หลังในตัวแบบเชิดขึ้นที่บั้นท้าย เครื่องยนต์จะใช้เทคโนโลยีของ Subaru บล็อก 4 สูบนอน ขนาด 2.4 ลิตร ไม่มีระบบอัดอากาศAudi
Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์หรูจากยุโรป ส่งรถเอสยูวีอเนกประสงค์หรูพลังงานไฟฟ้าอย่าง 2019-2020 Audi e-tron
Mazda และ Audi นำรถมาลดราคา และขนแคมเปญงาน Motor Expo 2020 เพื่อให้ลูกค้าได้ออกมาจับจองกันก่อน พร้อมแล้ววันนี้Mazda
Audi Thailand (อาวดี้ ประเทศไทย) ปรับแผนงานฝ่าวิกฤต COVID-19 เน้น 3 นโบายหลัก เพิ่มความหลากหลายของสินค้า
ซึ่งรวมไปถึงรถยนต์สปอร์ตไฟฟ้า Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน จีที) ที่จะเปิดตัวในตลาดโลกในสัปดาห์หน้า
2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการในไทย
Coupe คือ 2022 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อีทรอน จีที) เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท และ Audi RS e-tron GT (อาวดี้
All-New 2020 Audi TT RS (2020 อาวดี้ ทีที อาร์เอส) เปิดตัวในประเทศไทยด้วยฝึมือของอาวดี้ ไทยแลนด์ และทำราคาแบบหยุดโลกที่
2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าทรงเอสยูวีคูเป้จากค่ายสี่ห่วง
2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) เปิดตัวขายในไทยแล้วด้วยราคา 5,299,000 บาท เป็นรถเอสยูวีพลังไฟฟ้าล้วน
2022 Audi Q4 e-tron2022 Audi Q4 e-tron และ Q4 e-tron Sportback (2022 อาวดี้ คิว4 อี-ทรอน) เผยโฉมอย่างเป็นทางการ
บริษัท ไมซ์สเตอร์ เทคนิค จำกัด ผู้จำหน่ายรถยนต์ Audi ในประเทศไทยเตรียมเปิดตัว 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback
เพิ่มความเป็นไฟฟ้าที่ดูแลง่าย จึงทำยอดจองเยอะมาก ต้องต่อคิวรอนานเป็นปี ด้วยราคาขายเพียง 2.29 ล้านบาทAudi
Audi e-tron GT Concept ในงาน Los Angeles Auto Show หลังจากที่มีการเปิดตัว Audi e-tron Quattro และ รถอเนกประสงค์
It’s not the size, its how you use it :P (Originally answered: Is the reason the Tesla can go so much more than the other EVs, because of the size of the battery pack?) Jokes aside, it really isn’t just the size of the battery. As mentioned in Kevin Davidson’s answer in this question thread, the Audi e-Tron has a 95 kWh battery with 205 miles, whereas Model S top spec has a 100 kWh battery since the day it was launched. I think this is the fairest comparison (no point bringing in the Model 3 since there is nothing to compare it with in the same weight category). So with the Model S, Tesla initially had a 335 mile car. Recently though, Tesla announced that the Model S new refresh has a 370 mile range. So what happened? For the context of the question, one must consider at least these parameters: “Cell” design (battery related) “Module” design (battery related) “Pack” design (battery related) Motor design (materials/electronics/programming related) Aerodynamics (vehicle engineering related) Overall weight reduction (meh, that one’s obvious) Let’s discuss points 1 through 4, since 5 and 6 are kinda obvious and too broad to discuss. 1. At the cell level, you might already know that the Model S uses standard off-the-shelf Panasonic 18650 cells (AA-like cells with 18mm diameter and 65mm cylindrical length). They did not tweak the chemistry much, or if they did we don’t know (but just pointing out that cell chemistry is one aspect of gaining an advantage in range). Weight reduction is possible through high-energy-density chemistries (this is an iterative process and they’ve improved energy density with Model 3. It will improve even further for Model Y due to the recent Maxwell Technologies buyout). 2. At the module level, you come across the physical packaging of the cells - you have to make sure to pack as many cells as possible, the material used to bind them together physically, as well as the battery management system electrical connections which will ensure all the cells charge and discharge evenly, for optimum performance. 3. At the pack level, you begin to consider the thermal aspects (actually that starts at the module level too). The air gaps between each cell/module, the glue used to hold each cell in place and its thermal conductivity, the cooling/heating system design and how energy efficient it can be (THIS can have a direct effect on range since heating/cooling takes up energy from the battery which could otherwise be used to drive you x miles more). 4. Coming to motors, the Model S has an AC induction motor with a pure copper rotor (a difficult to manufacture item which is part of Tesla’s core IP (this blog post by co-founder Martin Eberhard talks a bit about their thought process). Both front and rear motors on the Model S were of this type. The software controlling the invertor circuitry is also part of the core IP and the reason Tesla is able to control the motors better, offering efficient energy consumption leading to longer range. AC Induction motors are (or were at the time) the most efficient type of motor for use in pure electric vehicles, as said by Tesla Principal Power Electronics Engineer Wally Rippel in this blog post from 2007 , and since everyone then was using brushless DC motors if I am not mistaken, the Model S of yore had the stupendous 335 mile range. With the “Raven” update to the Model S (the new Model S with 370 miles range launched in March 2019), Tesla replaced the old front AC motor to the Model 3’s new, highly efficient PMSRM (partial Permanent Magnet Switched Reluctance Motor). This is the same motor that is going to be powering the semi truck (4 motors at 4 wheels), and is unique in its construction in that it is a hybridization of two different types of motors - the Switched Reluctance type and the permanent magnet type. While the specifics are too technical to get into here, suffice to say that no other car company in the world is close to this kind of motor in production vehicles. This alone, without any changes to battery design, has given Tesla a 35-mile bump in range to get to the unheard-of 370-mile range in the Model S today. P.S.: With the Model 3, a lot of changes have taken place in the battery design, from cell level to module level to pack level. The cells are 2170 (21mm dia, 70mm length), leading to improved surface area for thermal conductivity - better heating and cooling at the cell level. The chemistry has been tweaked a little, for better energy density. The entire thermal system is brand new, and works off the same system as the cabin cooling/heating system to aid in efficiency. Thus if Tesla were to replace the battery pack in the Model S with the Model 3’s, they could easily go past 400 mile range. But it is not possible to do this as a simple swap, as the cooling heating system of the Model S was completely different and not designed with the 2170 cell architecture in mind. But mark my words - a 100 kWh battery pack with 2170 cells is going to be key to achieving 400+ mile range! Cheers, Harshal. If you are buying a Tesla, use my code to get Free Supercharger Miles .
First few might not interest you, it might be because it looks which is "too" futuristic or too stupid as well. But here's the list of 30 concept cars here that should make you go crazy thinking why aren't these master piece(s) on production?! Ford probe Built to achieve better aerodynamics than a jet fighter, named to sound like an uncomfortable medical procedure. Seriously, though, the Probe was a four-seater with a lower drag coefficient than any production car today. It also looked like it was hovering, from a certain angle. Alfa romeo Caimano image: A sportier version of the small Alfasud saloon, the Caimano offered great views of the sky and trees if you were inside it, and if you were outside it you got a great view of some people feeling uncomfortably hot inside their airless fishbowl of a car. It did look rather cool, but best driven at night. Ferrari 512 s modulo In 1970, after a decade of increasingly bizarre concept designs, Ferrari decided to make a car that was almost completely flat - and as a result, almost completely impossible to drive. It is beauitfully aerodynamic, but very few people would actually be able to get inside the Modulo, let alone pilot it. Still, it'd look nice in the drive, until you accidentally parked on top of it. Italdesign aztec image: Sculpted from carbon fibre, Kevlar, aluminium and pure, distilled madness, the Aztec is the height of '80s automotive lunacy. The driver and passenger sit in separate cockpits, so if you want to have a conversation you need to use an intercom. Under the hood is a more conventional 250bhp Audi five-cyliner engine. ItalDesign never intended to build the Aztec, but a Japanese multi-millionaire decided it was his kind of crazy and ordered 50 (they stopped after 18). Ford GT90 Leaving aside that dated background, it's hard to tell the space-age Ford GT90 was first revealed to the world more than 17 years ago. Pumping out 720bhp from a quad-turbocharged V12, it could accelerate to 60mph in 3.1 seconds and up to 100mph in 6.2 seconds, before going onto a lightning top speed of 235mph. We're talking Bugatti Veyron performance, but way before it even existed. Because of the heat spewed out from the V12, the spiritual successor to the GT40 was said to use Space Shuttle ceramic tiles to keep the exhaust from melting body panels. BMW GINA The BMW GINA – a rather torturous acronym for "Geometry and functions In 'N' Adaptations" – does away with traditional rigid body materials in favour of a man-made fabric skin that is durable, resilient and able to cope with high and low temperatures. The result is a car that can change shape thanks to a moveable frame. Besides looking revolutionary, that spandex (we kid you not) exterior means the GINA can 'grow' itself a spoiler for high-speed cruising, and its headlights are revealed via a mechanism that looks like the opening of an eyelid. Volkswagen Aqua Driving into the sea or a lake doesn't have to be ruin your day. On the contrary, with the Volkswagen Aqua and its hovercraft-style air cushion, you can cruise across water, ice and snow and move seamlessly between any surfaces at up to 62mph. The Aqua is even good for the environment because of its two hydrogen-powered motors – and that mahoosive front window ensures you won't accidentally squish any family pets as you leave for work in the morning. Fiat EYE The Fiat Eye is definitely not the choice to go for if you are trying to attract the attentions of the opposite sex – partly because it only has one seat, but mainly because it looks like something from Tron. But this gyroscopically-balanced vehicle is actually quite sophisticated. Not only does it stay upright in the same way a Segway does, you control the Fiat Eye and all of its functions with your voice. Siri, eat your heart out. Peugeot Honey-B We know you've always secretly dreamed about a car that looks reminiscent of a garden honey bee. What, you haven't? Oh, this is awkward. Well this is what we've been waiting for, anyway – the Peugeot Honey-B. This bizarre SUV-type vehicle is powered by hydrogen fuel cells, has four-wheel drive and steering and sports full panoramic windows so everyone can see just how cool you are as you drop your kids off at the hive. Sorry, school. Buick Centurion Concept Some cars just command attention and the Buick Centurion from 1956 is one eye-catching example. Taking design cues from the cockpit of an aeroplane, this bubble-top concept cuts through the air with ease, and its two-tone paintjob allows it to do so in style. Although it probably has the turning circle of a P&O ferry, its 325bhp V8 engine meant it would be no slouch when pulling away from the lights, even if it did weigh nearly two tons. Lamborghini Gallardo Concept S Most twin-seaters like the Caterham R500s and Ultimas GTRs of this world tend to look a bit, well, nerdy. Not the Lamborghini Concept S. This 5-litre V10-powered concept, of which there are only two in existence, looks just as gutsy and inspiring as its Gallardo production brother. At one point the tractor and supercar manufacturer decided to make 100 cars for the richest motoring enthusiasts, but later decided to keep the Gallardo Concept S as a style exercise only. Audi Quattro Concept Combining four-wheel drive with a turbocharged engine for the first time ever in motoring history, the original Audi Quattro inevitably became a bit of an icon, not to mention a rally king. Plus it looks tougher than Jason Statham. Audi rightfully decided to celebrate the original Quattro's 30th anniversary with the Audi Quattro concept, and was planning on selling between 200 and 500 cars. Sadly the concept – and its 2.5-litre turbocharged engine – were canned in 2012. Lamborghini Estoque Lamborghini and family car are not words you would expect to see nestled together, but at one point the Italian manufacturer considered the idea. The Estoque, unveiled in 2008 at the Paris Motor Show, was a 4-door sedan powered by a 5.2-litre V10 engine. Naturally, a car that could get your kids to school faster than just about everything on the road wasn't going to come cheap, especially with that legendary raging bull adorning the front. If Lamborghini ever releases this car, which it probably won't, expect a price tag of around $230,000. Scion FR-S The Scion brand was manufactured by Toyota – which decided to create something sporty with the help of ex-rival Subaru. The result was the Scion FR-S – a rear-wheel-drive gaze-magnet that looks cooler than Steve McQueen. While the FR-S concept isn't for sale, it did result in two almost identical cars with different badges, the Toyota GT 86 and the Subaru BRZ. You can get your paws on either for under £30,000. Send in the differences between the two cars on a postcard. Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG E-Cell Some concepts actually make it to production, and one example is the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG E-Cell. Based on the current fire-breathing SLS model, the E-Cell uses four electric motors instead of a gravity-defying V8. The result is a more eco-friendly car that can get to 60mph in 4 seconds and then on to 155mph. Best of all, all those 525 ponies and 650lb/ft of torque are available from 4,000 revs. We're less sure about the colour, though, which looks like the aftermath of beer and kebab night. Mazda RX-9 Mazda discontinued the oil-thirsty, twin-rotary RX-8 in 2011 (boo!) but the spirit will live on in the Mazda RX-9 (applause). This attractive, almost Jaguar-like concept, set to become a production car in 2013, packs a 300bhp twin-turbo, erm, diesel. Not quite as high-revving as its predecessor, then, but it's still going to be rapid and a hell of a lot more eco-friendly than its predecessor. Lotus Hot Wheels Haters say that those who appreciate a good car never really grew up. If that's the case, then we're going to absolutely love the Lotus Hot Wheels concept from 2007. As a 1:5 scale model designed by Lotus for the toy car maker, unless you are incredibly short, you won't be getting in it. Bit of a shame, that – the open-top two-seater missile wouldn't look out of place with Tony Stark behind the wheel. Audi Locus Turkey isn't known for its car design, but maybe it should be with design talent on tap like Ugur Sahin, the chap who created the stunning Audi Locus. This mesmerising set of wheels is curvier than Kim Kardashian and has a behind that would shame Jennifer Lopez. Nature is meant to be the design theme, which is probably why those flowing lines are so easy on the eye. The car's, not Kim's. Lamborghini Miura concept Creating a modern version of what many petrolheads would say is one of the prettiest cars of all time was never going to be easy, but the Muira Concept – created to mark the original car's 40th birthday – sure gets our pulse racing. Conceived by Lamborghini design chief Walter de Silva, the concept Muira body sits on top of the Murcielago supercar, making it as beautiful as it is deadly. General Motors Firebird 1 Is it a plane? Is it a car? Actually it's both rolled into one bizarre creation. The General Motors Firebird 1 comprises wheels strapped to what looks incredibly like a jet fighter with stubby wings. Don't laugh back there - this was cutting edge back in 1953. As what can only be described as a Thunderbirds toy, the Firebird 1 was actually created to see whether a gas turbine engine would be viable in the cars of the future. Obviously it wasn't, but the 370hp experiment certainly raises a smile, even though it never took off. Ford Nucleon It sounds like a nuclear experiment, and funnily enough, that's exactly what the Ford Nucleon was. Although it was just a scale model, Ford wanted to show that you could in theory, based on scientific knowledge at the time, power a car with steam and uranium fission. Ignoring the safety issues of crashing in a mobile nuclear bomb, the Ford Nucleon wasn't such a mad idea given that nuclear power is relatively clean – well, except for the glowing green waste. Probably why Bethesda designers decided to include the car in the nuclear-scarred landscapes of Fallout 3. Buick Y-job What list of the best concept cars ever would be complete without the first? The Buick Y-Job – which sounds a bit sordid if you ask us – was unveiled in 1938, complete with electric windows and headlamps that could hide away. We're talking revolutionary stuff at the time. Because experimental cars were called 'X', designer Harley J. Earl decided to go one letter along in the alphabet, partly because he could do what he wanted but mainly because the term 'Y' pops up in the most advanced aviation prototypes, technically making it more badass. Holden Monaro Coupe 60 While most car companies strive for efficiency, Aussie manufacturer Holden (known as Vauxhall in the UK, folks) likes to adopt the American Mantra of big engine, big smiles. Continuing the trend is the Holden Monaro Coupe 60. Built to celebrate sixty years of production, the Monaro Coupe 60 comes equipped with a monstrous V8, brutish looks and the ability to spend all of its time going sideways, thanks to all that rear-wheel drive torque. What's not to like – except the tyre replacement costs? Peugeot Onyx Peugeot often makes supercar concepts, but we've never seen the French manufacturer actually make one we could all buy. But our hopes are high the Onyx makes it to the production phases – because it looks so sharp it could cut you in half. A carbon fibre shell with a split paintjob surrounds a 3.7-litre V8 hybrid. Ignoring how dull the word hybrid sounds, this French missile developers 600bhp and it only weighs 1,100kg. That works out at 2kg of weight for every horse power. Imagine a horse dragging two bags of sugar. As you can imagine, it should leave your mate's Citroen Saxo behind in a cloud of, erm, hybrid smoke. Aston Martin AMV 10 Aston Martin doesn't have a V10 engine to strap to its much-desired cars, but if it did, we are ever hopeful the AMV 10 would be the first car to showcase it. Because, let's face it, it's clearly a work of art. Whereas most offerings from the prestigious brand have indicate sophistication and power, the AMV 10 looks positively terrifying – like it would laugh as it wrapped you around a tree at 180mph. Aston Martin's One-77, so-called that because it's only making 77 of the $1million car, may offer the same rear lights and a roaring V12, but it looks much less tame. Not that we would turn one down. Corvette Stingray Concept Remember Sideswipe from Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen? Well, this is what the character transformed into – the Corvette Stingray Concept, built to celebrate 50 years of the Stingray model. Combining style cues from the original car with modern elements such as scissor-style doors, a rear-view camera with night-vision and a hybrid engine, it sounds a little too refined to be the successor of an unruly 1950s V8. But then you see it has four large exhausts at the back and the most sinister rear lights a car has ever known, so equilibrium is restored. Mazda Furai Koenigsegg and Zonda, eat your hearts out. Mazda's Furai race concept is incredibly striking, fast enough to leave your face behind and you could actually go and drive it - if you can persuade the Japanese manufacturer to let you. It's a fully-functional concept, which alone makes it special, but it's the blue LED lighting that looks like a menacing smile we found ourselves most captivated by. Like a modern-day Knight Rider, only without the Hoff and a talking dashboard. Mercedes-Benz C111 The 60s and 70s lay claim to some of the maddest concept cars ever, with more angles between them than a GCSE maths textbook. But what these wheels lacked in style, they more than made up with sheer power. Mercedes-Benz and its C111 managed to take a 230bhp diesel up to 200mph in 1978, while averaging 14.7mpg at just under that speed over 12 hours. Not concent with breaking multiple speed records, a 500bhp V8 variant hit 250mph in 1979. Jaguar E-Type Enzo Ferrari, founder of Ferrari, said the Jaguar E-Type was the most beautiful car ever made, and that's saying something when his name is attached to some magnificent Italian automotive finery. So naturally the idea of a remake induced a few sleepless nights. Thankfully the E-Type 'Growler' (no, not that sort of growler) concept, now known as the Lyonheart K, is available to buy, if you can somehow get yourself on the waiting list. Honestly, you'd have more luck growing a third arm than becoming the owner of one. Still, we can dare to dream about owning what could easily be the second most beautiful car ever made. Maserati birdcage Everything a concept car should be: mad, expensive, ludicrous and completely desirable. Few looks ugly, unrealistic and 'Thank god it's not on production'. But many looks bad-ass and are really mean with mind numbing performance. Well, I wanted the Corvette Stingray, Lamborghini Gallardo Concept S, Peugeot Onyx and Mazda Furai to be on production. But they haven't :( Images and few info credits goes to Stufftv.
After reading a few articles of new buyers being disappointed with the build quality of Tesla I would suggest you move forward with great caution. It's bad enough that there was this buyer whose trim colour was cream at one corner and black in the other three. Tesla is still in the news for falling behind in their production schedules. At least you should consider waiting till they sort out their problems. You should also bear in mind there are rivals from the Germans like Audi's e-tron, Mercedes has EQ, and BMW'S i brand. Mainstream manufacturers like these are more experienced and will produce more reliable cars than a relatively new brand like Tesla. I still think Tesla has the potential to be a game changer IF they sort out the niggles. Trading your Subaru for an EV depending on where you live makes you eligible for grants, tax breaks or/and perks like not having to pay a congestion charge. Electric Charging stations are increasing in numbers every day so no worry there. Btw your Subaru if well taken care off is more likely to outlive you :P In fact most Japs are.
He can install 5 million charging stations and I won’t buy any electric car that’s on today’s market. The biggest problem of EV is charging time, and for me, design and performance. I already chose Lexus ES350 over Tesla Model 3, if I am to get an upgrade right now, I would probably go for a Land Cruiser (last model year in US) or a LC Convirtible (first model year in US lol) instead of a Tesla Model S or Audi E-Tron. The layers just look not as elegant, and too unnecessarily quick. On the other hand if GM launches Hummer tomorrow I’ll probably order one even if there’s not as much charging station.
If an electric car battery says 20 kWh, does that mean it can only give that amount of energy for one hour before depleting itself? This question (and answer) addresses three topics: physics, chemistry and actual battery management. Yes, physics tells us that it can provide 10 kW for 2 hours or 20 kW for 1 hour, but it can also be 100 kW for 1/5 hour (12 minutes) or 2 kW for 10 hours. E = P . t Energy (kWh) equals to Power (kW) multiplied by time (h). Engineering / chemistry puts a restriction on this calculation - high loads result in high currents. Since any conductor or energy source has some internal resistance, high currents result in higher losses - and vice versa. In real life these 100 kW can be provided only for some 10–11 minutes instead of 12. This goes also to the other direction, 2 kW can be most likely provided for slightly more than 10 hours. If some manufacturer claims a capacity of 20 kWh, this is most likely at a moderate load which could be between 1/2 C and 1/5 C (a depletion in 2–5 hours). A side note - 20 kWh is a fairly limited/small capacity, taken from some plugin-hybrid, which can be depleted in about one hour. Tests have shown that the capacity which is published is most likely at the load at which the car is rated for its range (WLTP or EPA), where a good approximation might be driving at 80-90 km/h (50–56 mph), depending on the cycle, in optimal conditions - no elevation changes, no braking, no wind, temperatures about 20°C-25°C. At a higher load the usable capacity might be 1–2% less, driving really hard losses can rise to 5%; the reduced usable capacity goes at expense of losses - heating up the battery. A NOTE for those who want to know details behind the displayed capacity. The technical (gross) capacity of the battery vs. capacity which is accessible to the consumer. Battery management. Every company makes very low discharges inaccessible to the user - the battery reports “empty” or 0% where technically a couple are still left. This is done to prevent the battery to take permanent damage, a so called “bricking protection” which takes some 4%-5% of the total capacity. On the other hand, there might be also some protection to charge the battery to 100%, the battery may claim “full” when a few percent could technically still be charged. Different approaches are disputable. For example, Audi e-tron 55 has a buffer on the top, it doesn’t allow actual full charges (only 86,5 kWh from a 95 kWh battery are accessible, roughly half of this difference “at the bottom” and half “at the top”), but since about 5% “on the top” are reserved, the car charges the last accessible percent seemingly faster. Tesla Model Y LR has a 75 kWh battery, but about 72 kWh of those are accessible to the user; the Tesla Model 3 LR data says 71 kWh, but both values may vary only due to different software versions. Tesla allows to charge the battery until it is totally full, but recommends only about 80% for daily charging (unless more is needed). And yes, the last few percent may take up to half an hour, but this isn’t a problem since this is done while the car is parked at home during the night on the driveway (or similar) where this time doesn’t matter. On the other hand, starting a road trip with an absolutely full battery, it has a higher range. It is a trade-off.
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