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audi e tron universal charger

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง audi e tron universal charger

Audi เดินหน้าเข้าสู่ยุครถยนต์ไฟฟ้าเต็มตัวภายใน 2035 หลัง Audi e-tron ขายได้ 9,227 คัน ขึ้นอันดับ 1 ใน Norway

2035ซึ่งจะมีการแจ้งแผนออกมาในอีกไม่กี่เดือน พร้อมสถานะของโรงงานที่จะต้องเปลี่ยนไปผลิตแบบไฟ้าแบบเต็มตัวยอดขาย e-Tron

อาวดี้เตรียมเปิดตัว 2021 Audi e-tron GT พร้อมสู้ Porsche Taycan ได้หรือไม่?

Audi e-tron GT Concept ในงาน Los Angeles Auto Show หลังจากที่มีการเปิดตัว Audi e-tron Quattro และ รถอเนกประสงค์

ฟังเหตุผล ทำไมรถล้ำ ๆ อย่าง 2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS ยังใช้กระจกมองข้างแบบดั้งเดิม

ผลการศึกษาพบว่าการดูภาพหน้าจอที่แสดงผลด้านหลังหรือด้านข้างตัวรถจะทำให้ผู้ขับขี่ส่วนใหญ่เวียนศีรษะ”กระจกมองข้างดิจิทัลใน Audi

ขายดีทุกที่เว้นไทย Nissan e-Power ขายเกินครึ่งล้านคันแล้วทั่วโลก

Nissan (นิสสัน) ได้ประกาศยอดขายรวมรถยนต์เทคโนโลยี e-Power ที่คว้ารางวัลเทคโนโลยีแห่งปีมาแล้ว ขายทั่วโลกได้

2021 Audi RS Q3 Sportback ยืนยันมาไทย 19 ก.พ. นี้ คาดราคา 5 ล้านกว่าบาท สู้กับ Mercedes-AMG เต็ม ๆ

2021 Audi RS Q3 Sportback (อาวดี้ อาร์เอส คิว3 สปอร์ตแบค) เอสยูวีท้ายลาดพื้นฐานจาก Audi Q3 จะมาขายไทยวันที่

เผยโฉม 2022 BMW iX รถเอสยูวีไฟฟ้าที่ดีที่สุดเวลานี้? เบียด Audi e-tron

BMW Operating System เจนเนอเรชั่นใหม่ซึ่งข่าวระบุว่าผลิตด้วยวัสดุคริสตัล BMW iX Audi

เปิดตัว 2021 Audi RS e-tron GT ราคา 6.39 ล้านบาท สเปคนำเข้าฝาแฝด Taycan

2021 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน จีที) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้ารุ่นล่าสุดจากเยอรมนี ที่เปิดตัวในเยอรมนีเมื่อเดือนก่อน

เปิดตัว 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback ค่าตัว 5.299 ล้านบาท จำกัดโควต้า 15 คันในไทย

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการในไทย

สำรวจความนิยมแบรนด์รถยนต์ในแต่ละประเทศ ใครยืนหนึ่ง? อันดับสองค่ายใดมาชมกัน

ขณะที่ Chevrolet (เชฟโรเลต) เป็นแบรนด์ยอดนิยมในอียิปต์ ส่วน Toyota ครองส่วนแบ่งตลาดเกือบ 100% ในเยเมนAudi

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback จ่อลุยเมืองไทยสัปดาห์หน้า คาดราคาทะลุ 5.3 ล้านบาท

บริษัท ไมซ์สเตอร์ เทคนิค จำกัด ผู้จำหน่ายรถยนต์ Audi ในประเทศไทยเตรียมเปิดตัว 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback

ดูเพิ่มเติม

Audi e-Tron รุ่นย่อย Premium ใหม่ ราคาถูกลง 10% ตัดออพชั่นอะไรบ้าง?

Audi e-Tron รถครอสโอเวอร์พลังไฟฟ้าล้วน ซึ่งทำยอดขายไม่ดีนักในสหรัฐอเมริกา จึงได้ออกกลยุทธ์ใหม่ เปิดตัวรุ่นล่างสุดที่มีราคาเอื้อมถึงง่ายขึ้น

ยอดขายรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในนอร์เวย์ พ่งสูงเกือบ 90% เอาชนะเครื่องยนต์ดีเซลและเบนซินที่แรกในโลก

3จากการรายงานของ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV-กรมการขนส่งนอร์เวย์) ในปี 2020 รถที่ขายดีที่สุดคือ Audi

ชมคุณสมบัติเด่น 2022 Audi Q4 e-tron รถเอสยูวีไฟฟ้าขนาดเล็กแฝงความดุดัน

2022 Audi Q4 e-tron2022 Audi Q4 e-tron และ Q4 e-tron Sportback (2022 อาวดี้ คิว4 อี-ทรอน) เผยโฉมอย่างเป็นทางการ

เป็นไปได้? ผู้บริหาร Audi ชี้รถพลังไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่เล็กลงในอนาคต

ซีอีโอ Audi (อาวดี้) ออกมาให้ความเห็นว่ารถยนต์ไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่ขนาดเล็กลงในอนาคต เมื่อเทคโนโลยีการชาร์จไฟและจุดชาร์จไฟมีพัฒนาการก้าวหน้ามากขึ้นจากการแข่งขันด้านพละกำลังทั้งแรงม้าและแรงบิดของรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาปในอดีต

ชมงาน BIMS 2021 ดู GWM มาแรง MG Extender หน้าใหม่ หรือ Audi e-tron GT และอื่น ๆ เรารวมไว้ให้คุณแล้วที่นี่

ๆ ร้อน ๆ ก็คือ Audi Q5 (อาวดี้ คิว5) ที่มาพร้อมชุดแต่งเอสไลน์ ทั้งภายในและภายนอก รวมไปถึงช่วงล่างที่ได้รับการปรับแต่งใหม่

ชมคันจริง 2020 Audi e-Tron Sportback ขายไทยในราคา 5.299 ล้านบาท มีดีแค่หลังคาลาดลงรึเปล่า?

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) เปิดตัวขายในไทยแล้วด้วยราคา 5,299,000 บาท เป็นรถเอสยูวีพลังไฟฟ้าล้วน

นอร์เวย์ผงาดชาติแรกยอดขายรถพลังไฟฟ้าแซงรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาป – แล้วเมืองไทยล่ะ?

จะพบว่ารถพลังไฟฟ้ามีสัดส่วนยอดขายเพียง 1% เท่านั้นสมาคมยานยนต์แห่งนอร์เวย์ (OFV) ระบุว่ารถพลังไฟฟ้าที่มียอดขายสูงที่สุดในปี 2020 คือ Audi

จับตา 10 รถใหม่เตรียมเปิดตัวปี 2021 รุกตลาดโลก หลายรุ่นเข้ามาขายเมืองไทยด้วย

โดยเฉพาะสปอยเลอร์หลังในตัวแบบเชิดขึ้นที่บั้นท้าย เครื่องยนต์จะใช้เทคโนโลยีของ Subaru บล็อก 4 สูบนอน ขนาด 2.4 ลิตร ไม่มีระบบอัดอากาศAudi

ควักเพิ่ม 2 แสน! ทำไมถึงควรเลือก 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback มากกว่า e-tron สแตนดาร์ด

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) รุ่นใหม่เปิดตัวลุยตลาดบ้านเราแล้วด้วยราคา 5.299

Review: 2019-2020 Audi e-tron เอสยูวีพรีเมียมพลังงานไฟฟ้า

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์หรูจากยุโรป ส่งรถเอสยูวีอเนกประสงค์หรูพลังงานไฟฟ้าอย่าง 2019-2020 Audi e-tron

2021 Lexus UX300e เปิดตัวใหม่จะได้ส่วนแบ่งตลาดรถไฟฟ้าหรูจาก Audi e-tron ได้หรือไม่

Premiumสำหรับ 2021 Lexus UX300e ที่เพิ่งเปิดตัวนี้จะมีความสามารถเพียงพอที่จะได้ส่วนแบ่งตลาดรถไฟฟ้าสุดหรูจาก Audi

Audi เปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าสปอร์ตรุ่นใหม่ 2022 Audi e-tron GT และ Audi RS e-tron GT เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท

Coupe คือ 2022 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อีทรอน จีที) เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท และ Audi RS e-tron GT (อาวดี้

2021 Audi e-tron GT เตรียมบุกไทยปีนี้ พร้อมตระกูล RS อีกหลายรุ่น

ซึ่งรวมไปถึงรถยนต์สปอร์ตไฟฟ้า Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน จีที) ที่จะเปิดตัวในตลาดโลกในสัปดาห์หน้า

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ไม่มีส่วนประกอบที่เป็นอันตรายต่อธรรมชาติ เช่น ของเหลว กรด หรือตะกั่ว จึงปลอดภัยต่อมนุษย์และสิ่งแวดล้อมAudi

แบงค์บอกต่อ CX-5 ลดเหลือ 1,160,000 บาทกับ Audi อัดดอกเบี้ย 0% ก่อนงาน Motor Expo 2020

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พาชม 2020 Audi TT RS สีส้ม Pulse Orange 400 แรงม้า เจ้าของค่าตัว 5.299 ล้านบาท

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เพิ่มความเป็นไฟฟ้าที่ดูแลง่าย จึงทำยอดจองเยอะมาก ต้องต่อคิวรอนานเป็นปี ด้วยราคาขายเพียง 2.29 ล้านบาทAudi

Audi Thailand ปรับกลยุทธ์ฝ่า COVID-19 เน้นเพิ่มสินค้า-ทำราคาสู้-ปรับบริการรับลูกค้า

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Review 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback รถไฟฟ้าเสียบปลั๊ก 5.299 ล้านบาท ครบทั้งแรงทั้งหรูแบบไร้คู่แข่ง

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าทรงเอสยูวีคูเป้จากค่ายสี่ห่วง

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พร้อมค่าติดตั้งMG HS PHEV ดอกเบี้ย 1.99% MG Home Charger ฟรี ค่าบำรุงรักษาตามระยะ 5 ปี ประกันชั้นหนึ่ง

รีวิว Q&A audi e tron universal charger

What cars are made in Poland?

Those for example The body was handcrafted of aluminium with a tubular space frame chassis. The engine was an aluminium V8 5967 ccm developing 405 hp (302 kW) at 6000 rpm, and 542 Nm at 4400 rpm. It had a 6-speed manual gearbox. The brakes were Brembo 4-pistons. Performance specs indicate an acceleration of 0-100 km/h (62.14 mph) in less than 4 sec with a top speed of 250 km/h (155.34 mph) (regulated). Leopard 6 Litre Roadster is a classical sport-style luxury car designed by entrepreneur Zbysław Szwaj. The car is produced by a privately held Polish company Leopard Automobile Mielec Sp. z o.o. . Zbysław Szwaj is the company co-founder, designer, and also the designer of the Gepard car . Leopard 6 Litre Roadster - Wikipedia Leopard You may not have heard much about Polish car design – but it does exist! The 2000s have seen a veritable explosion of quality design in the quaint Central European country, and the automotive industry is no exception. Since Polish car designers are being recruited by foreign companies, this is a discreet trend, but remember the names below: you’ll be seeing a lot of their art on the road in the near future. Tadeusz Jelec Jaguar S-Type 2005, photo: promo materials Jaguar admirers are probably familiar with his style already ‒ Jelec is Design Manager at the well-known company. One of his most interesting designs is the body of the flashy F-type coupe which was unveiled in 2013. During his 27 years with Jaguar he created the shape of the 2004 S-type model and designed several interiors, among other projects. Jelec was born in Giżycko, northeastern Poland, and studied at the Royal College of Art in London. He also created designs for other brands including Mazda and Volvo. Tomasz Sycha Z4 concept car during a preview at the International Motor Show in Frankfurt, Germany, 2005. photo: AP Photo/Frank Augstein/FORUM This graduate of the Silesian University of Technology is most commonly associated with BMW’s uber-stylish Z4 coupe, which he designed. He also contributed to the company’s X3 and X5 models. After the Z4 took the market over by storm in 2006 he was asked to design more prototypes for BMW. Sycha, who has been working at Bavarian Motors for 20 years, also has ties to the Munich University of Applied Sciences, where he supervised studies in the field of transportation design. Adam Bazydło Members of the media crowd around a Ford GT, which goes into production in 2016, as it is displayed during the first press preview day of the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, 2015, photo: REUTERS/Mark Blinch A Pole who grew up in Canada and studied at the Detroit College for Creative Studies, Bazydło made a name for himself by working for Peugeot, where he designed the interiors of the 508, 208 and 2008 models. Rumour has it that Bazydło once discarded a rough draft in his dustbin, only to find out later that his boss had retrieved it. Bazydło’s superior was so happy with the find that he had the 508’s interior created on its basis. In 2013 the Pole began to work for Ford, where he has overseen the design of the new Ford GT’s interior. Zbigniew Maurer Alfa Romeo 156 GTA, photo: wikimedia Even though he studied architecture in Toronto, Maurer made a remarkable career designing cars rather than buildings. He is best-known for his work for the Italian company Alfa Romeo, which he joined in the mid-90s. He co-designed the firm’s classic 156 model, a mid-size car with rear door handles hidden in the window trim, and the stunningly beautiful sports car 8C Competizione. Maurer also teaches exterior car design at the Polytechnic University of Milan. Kamil Łabanowicz Audi E-tron quattro concept concept car, Frankfurt Auto Show, 2015. photo: AP Photo/Jens Meyer/FORUM In 2004 he revealed his take on the classic Polish car FSO Warszawa, drawing much attention. It wasn’t long before Łabanowicz got a position at Audi, where his first job was to co-design the eye-catching R8 TDI sports model. Recently Łabanowicz became head of the firm’s design studio. 2015 saw the unveiling of the Audi E-tron Quattro, a concept car designed by the young man. This electric SUV not only looks great but with a drag coefficient of 0.25, it is the most aerodynamic car ever made in its segment. Wojciech Sokołowski Spada Codatronca, photo: promo materials Originally from Gliwice, Sokołowski co-founded a Turin-based firm, Spadaconcept, with the noted designer Ercole Spada. The Pole co-designed the company’s first vehicle, the Spada Codatronca, a eccentric-looking supercar that premiered in 2008. Sokołowski currently manages a studio in Gliwice with his sister, Katarzyna. Called SOKKA, it has designed sports cars, a popular fire engine and a… Polish military tank named PL-01. Janusz Kaniewski Visualisation of the new Fiat Bravo designed by Janusz Kaniewski, photo: courtesy of Kaniewski Design Studio Janusz Kaniewski, who passed away in 2015, was a giant of Polish car design. The founder of the Kaniewski Design Studio co-designed the Citroen C4 Picasso, Lancia Delta, Alfa Romeo MiTo and the Giulietta as well as the Ferrari California and 458 Italia, among others. He is also the designer behind Fiat’s current logo. Cities inspired Kaniewski and he used these urban inspirations in all of his designs. Other than cars, he also designed petrol stations, cigarette boxes, ski boots and designer motorhomes. Aleksandra Gaca Renault Symbioz, photo: Chesnot/Getty Images Aleksandra Gaca is a very versatile designer, who mostly works with textiles. She works with brands, architects, manufacturers and institutions to create solutions, products and installations specially created for her clients’ needs. Her work appears in interiors, architecture, fashion and art. And now, in cars too. Renault approached Gaca to design the interior fabrics for their SYMBIOZ concept car – an extension of home on the road. The goal was to create an interior that felt and looked like a house. To achieve this, Gaca created a bespoke version of her 3D fabric ‘Bloko’. Tomasz Bachorski Volkswagen Touareg, photo: Volkswagen Newsroom Tomasz Bachorski has been in charge of the design team working on the dashboards of Volkswagen’s most popular cars for many years now. He has worked on the Polo, Golf, Passat and Touareg. In his own words: ...the cockpit must be an experience – new and desirable, but also familiar. Bachorski was also behind the reincarnation of the interiors of iconic VW Beetle. When it comes to design, he has said: You could say that good design is like a cool suit. It needs to fit well from the beginning, and even years later, you must still feel perfect in it. SpinCar ‘SpinCar’, designed by Bartosz Borowicz & Mateusz Przybysz, photo: domena spincar.pl press materials While the New Warsaw is what you call a retro design, the SpinCar is quite the opposite. Designed by Hubert Kuberacki of the Warsaw University of Technology in collaboration with Bartosz Borowicz and Mateusz Przybysz, it looks like a car from the future. And that is exactly what it is. The idea of this electric vehicle using a circular chassis garnered a lot of interest in the early 2010s but apparently not enough for SpinCar to go into production. It's a shame, because thanks to its unusual, round shape and wheel arrangement – they are set at a 90 degree angle – it can turn around in place, eliminating driving backwards (always a hassle) and taking up less space than a traditional car, even though it is spacious enough to fit the whole family. Add the fact that is electric and therefore quiet and fossil fuel-free, and it becomes apparent that SpinCaris the ultimate urban car design. Hopefully, we’ll see it in action one day! Zły / Bad Zły / Bad designed by Janusz Kaniewski. Photo: Courtesy of Janusz Kaniewski Design This project was the apple of Kaniewski’s eye. It summarises his attitude towards cars: not only a source of transportation, but the most arrogant object of desire and a means to show off. Moreover, he knows that cars are not eternal, that they’ll soon probably be superseded by more ecological and effective means of public transport. He said of himself: I was lucky to live in the only century in the 4,000 year-long history of city planning when people used cars to move around the city. To celebrate the end of this chapter he worked on a prototype supercar that would embody the all the beautiful ugliness of cars as a species. Zły / Bad will be the quintessence of all these daemons. The worse the car, the better it is: it has to be insanely fast, aggressive and arrogant, show the driver’s disrespect for his passengers, be noisy, with a stiff suspension, impractically wide tyres, interior cushioned with natural leather. No doors, no front window, heating, radio. It will evoke feelings of jealousy and envy. It will be inaccessible… Janusz Kaniewski died on 9th May, 2015, aged only 41. He designed for the most successful companies in the world: for Ferrari, Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Mazda, Citroen, Suzuki. He designed a logo for Fiat that is recognisable around the world. He founded an extremely successful design studio, gave stunning lectures, and wrote brilliant articles for DesignAlive magazine. Get to know a few of the best works by Janusz Kaniewski, a prematurely-deceased Polish design genius. Izera electric car, manufacturer: ElectroMobility Poland, photo: press materials, Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. Izera: The Polish Electric Car Inspired by Art & Nature On 28th July 2020, the Polish electric car brand Izera was introduced to the public. During the presentation of two elegant-looking prototypes, plans were announced for mass production in the near future. Culture.pl EN | Polish culture: literature, art, film, design, language, cuisine & more! | Culture.pl takes a look at Izera’s designs and features, as well as how the prototypes were inspired by Polish art and nature. Stars over mountains Izera electric car, manufacturer: ElectroMobility Poland, photo: press materials, Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. The Izera Mountains in the southwest fringes of Poland are a region of beauty and open nature (part of this range lies also in Czechia). The highest peak of this gentle range is Poland’s Wysoka Kopa reaching up to 1,126 metres above sea level, while the picturesque River Izera cuts through the region. It’s also home to the Izera Dark-Sky Park, a 7,500-hectare park created in 2009, the mission of which is to protect the night sky from artificial light and facilitate star observation. The park is located both in Poland and Czechia – in the upper part of the Izera valley and in the Jizerka valley. […] This area is sparsely populated and well shielded by mountain ridges from lights of towns and villages located in the Izera Mountains and in the vicinity. Moreover it is a very interesting and environmentally valuable region, thus it is worth to include nocturnal darkness preservation in existing nature conservation. Additionally both valleys are easily accessible for tourists. From http://izera-darksky.eu , the website of the Izera Dark-Sky Park Somewhat surprisingly, the Izera Mountains recently became the inspiration for the creators of a new brand of Polish electric cars . Named after the mountain range, the Izera brand was created by ElectroMobility Poland, a Polish company founded in 2016. A very distinctive character Izera electric car, manufacturer: ElectroMobility Poland, photo: press materials, Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. ElectroMobility Poland turned to the Izera Mountians for inspiration because of the beauty of that region’s natural wonders , but also simply because the range’s name (pronounced: eeh-ZHE-rah) has a pleasant ring to it. The company presented its electric car brand to the public on 28th July 2020 at a special event organised at an exhibition hall in Sokołów near Warsaw. The two Izera prototypes unveiled were a hatchback and an SUV. The vehicles are the result of four years of work and research. The prototypes were designed by an international team composed of Polish engineers as well as workers of Torino Design, an Italian automotive design studio founded by Roberto Piatti. The renowned Polish car designer Tadeusz Jelec , who was involved with Jaguar for 30 years, also worked on the vehicles. Both of the prototypes have elegant, pleasant shapes. Their bodies are largely devoid of sharp angles, which gives them a fluid look. The hatchback has a bit of a sporting vibe to it, whereas the SUV, although bigger, doesn’t seem at all heavy. Both vehicles have short overhangs and passenger compartments reaching close to the front axle – features that are characteristic of modern electric cars. Piatti, who was present at the unveiling, said that the cars’ lights, which are very similar in both models, reference the Izera Mountains. Indeed, when you give the lights a closer look you can see in them shapes that bring to mind gentle hill slopes. Also, the lights include intriguing-looking arrays of shining points which somewhat resemble stars in the night sky. This seems to be a nod to the aforementioned dark-sky park. Thanks to the characteristic and appealing lights, the Izera models have a unique look – there’s no risk of mistaking the prototypes for any other car. Furthermore, Izera’s vehicles are meant to be family-friendly , and this is another thing that links them to their namesake mountain range: With their mild hills and vast areas, the [Izera] mountains are perfect for family trips and have a very distinctive character. Just like our car does. Paweł Tomaszek from ElectroMobility Poland, from Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. Fit for family use Izera electric car, manufacturer: ElectroMobility Poland, photo: press materials, Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. Pleasingly for Polish culture fans, apart from drawing inspiration from Polish nature, Izera also references Polish art. We spent long hours designing the appearance of the prototype. Browsing through the works of contemporary Polish artists, we looked for inspirations and reference points to underline the Polish character of our brand . At the same time, it was extremely important to us that the shape of the car evokes positive emotions. After all, this is supposed to be a family car. Tadeusz Jelec, from Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. The Izera designers say they were inspired by the works of artists such as avant-garde pioneer Katarzyna Kobro , sculptor Magdalena Abakanowicz , and painter Magdalena Karpińska. Apparently, these artists’ works were referenced in the design of the interior (at the unveiling only the hatchback had a fully-furnished interior, the inside of the SUV wasn’t complete yet). Although there’s little information about how exactly the aforementioned artists influenced Izera’s design, it is known that Karpińska’s colour schemes impacted the choice of colours in the interior. The main colour in the interior is a warm ecru or light beige which gives the inside a cosy, family character. This tone is tastefully juxtaposed with blue and black elements. The interior is also rather spacious, which makes it fit for family needs. Another family-friendly aspect of the inside is that it’s equipped with special handles, making it easier for small kids to get into the car. An additional nice touch can be found in the front where there’s a special compartment for a woman’s purse. The modern character of the interior is highlighted by the digital dashboard, which handsomely merges with a digital touchscreen located in the centre of the front. Other state-of-the-art features inside include a wireless smartphone charger and programmable buttons on the steering wheel. The passengers in the rear will be able to use the fold-out tray tables and magnetic phone grips located in the backs of the front seats. Motorsport-like emotions Izera electric car, manufacturer: ElectroMobility Poland, photo: press materials, Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. When it comes to the cars’ technical details, these seem to be well in line with current developments in the field of electric cars. Once fully ready (after the prototype phase is through), the vehicles will be equipped with lithium-ion batteries that will let you drive up to 400 km on a single charge. The batteries will make use of fast-charge stations as well as home chargers. The top speed of the two Izera models will be distinctly family-friendly too; it won’t exceed 160 km per hour. But the acceleration, on the other hand, will let you experience some motorsport-like emotions ; the cars will reach 100 km per hour in less than 8 seconds! Also, some of the cars’ functions will be accessible via a dedicated smartphone app : Users will be able to download a dedicated app to their smartphone or another mobile device and remotely start air-conditioning when the car is charging. Additionally, it will have the option of selecting charging time and cycle to reduce the charging cost. From Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. It’s also worth mentioning that the Izera cars will be equipped with state-of-the-art driving assistance systems: FCW (forward collision warning system), BSW (blind spot detection system) and TSR (traffic-sign recognition system). All in all, it seems that Izera’s vehicles will guarantee high driving comfort . Affordable & eco-friendly Izera electric car, manufacturer: ElectroMobility Poland, photo: press materials, Izera - Polska marka aut elektrycznych | Milion powodów, by jechać dalej. At the unveiling of the prototypes, ElectroMobility Poland announced its plans to put the vehicles into mass production. This caused quite a bit of excitement amongst Polish car aficionados, as Poland hasn’t had a mass-produced domestic car since 2002 when the production of the venerable Polonez came to a halt. That old-school automobile was designed in the 1970s, and although it can sometimes still be seen in Polish streets, it belongs to a past era. Today ElectroMobility Poland is looking to build a car factory in the region of Silesia (the exact spot hasn’t been revealed), where the production of Izeras could start by 2023. The company wants to eventually manufacture 100,000 vehicles per year. Apart from the two models shown in Sokołów, there are plans for three other ones. Little is currently known about these additional models – apart from that they will all, of course, be electric and designed in a similar style to the first two. The prices of the new brand’s vehicles aren’t known yet, but they will supposedly be affordable enough for the average Polish family to purchase. Izera is also planning to export its cars to offer them to buyers outside of Poland. Those concerned with climate change may feel warmly toward the Izera brand. After all, if people switched from petrol cars to electric ones, there would be fewer car fumes contributing to the greenhouse effect: […] The amount of CO2 in the air is on a constant rise and this impacts the greenhouse effect – and consequently – climate change. CO2 is emitted by industrial plants, agriculture, the energy industry and also transportation. Scientists have found that the latter is accountable for about 14 percent of man-made CO2 emissions. Varsovia Car 1/11 Varsovia Concept Syrenka S201 AK Syrenka Syrena sport Wratislavia Polonez Izera Vosco Arrinera Hussarya Arrinera Hussarya GT

After this successful trip from Mumbai to Delhi and back in a Tata Nexon electric vehicle, will more people be motivated to switch to electric vehicles?

Lol, no. Most Indians rarely have to drive hundreds of kilometers anyway. So this will barely have any effect. What's the main issue in India? When the educated average Indian still thinks of electric vehicle what comes to their mind is a weak, slow (possibly two seater) mini-car that looks like a golf-cart. That's why out of 150 million, only 8,000 got electric cars in 2019 India ! No desi car company has any reason to try & change that view among their potential customers. Because in absence of incentives they felt no need to push EVs, let alone invest in R&D of motor/battery tech. ICE vehicle market is profitable enough & they won't care about pollution, by risking their pockets. Only now India government has set a goal to have 30% electric vehicles by 2030 & come up with the FAME-2 scheme. It sets electricity tariffs for charging same as domestic consumption & allow setting up charging station without license. But most importantly, it offers significant subsidy to the earliest buyers . Otherwise having lots of charging stations on roads will solve little. They take too long anyways. So what will it take? First & foremost, Indians will buy EVs in meaningful numbers only when they get smaller & cheaper instead of costing a kidney. Govt. itself need to boost inducements to public by waiving off road tax or registration fees & giving reduced interest loans for such cars being bought in the toxic-air hellholes that are india cities. Personally I think GOI should also push for electrification of the metropolitan taxis older than 15 years. Comparies can be provided tax deductions to offer car exchanges at cheaper rate, oratleast legal EV conversion for those models. Car companies need to provide service to install fast-chargers at the houses of their customers. People will find it convenient when government of India makes it mandatory to install paid charging ports at offices, restaurants etc. Lastly, something like an universal battery system (for individual companies atleast) that can be changed at stations with charged battery should be good… Kinda like our LPG cylinders. That way the disposal controvery can be avoided too, as they themselves will hold those & send for recycling on expiry. Thankfully, the results are starting to show. The next decade will see significantly increase in the availability & option of EVs in Indian market. In 2021 alone, amongst every leading automobile seller in India are launching several models: 5 New Mahindra Electric Vehicles To Launch In 2021 Maruti WagonR Electric India Launch Delayed: Pushed to 2021 Volvo XC40 Recharge EV India launch in 2021 Audi e-tron electric SUV may make India debut in 2021 Gravitas to Altroz EV: Tata Motors likely to launch 5 new cars in 2021 Hyundai Kona Electric Facelift Revealed. India Launch Likely In 2021 Toyota confirms launch of electric car for India in 2021

Are there any applications for many (deca-, kilo-, etc.) farad capacitors?

There are great answers so far. Here is material copied from Wikipedia: Consumer electronics[edit ] In applications with fluctuating loads, such as laptop computers, PDA's , GPS , portable media players , hand-held devices , and photovoltaic systems , supercapacitors can stabilize the power supply. Supercapacitors deliver power for photographic flashes in digital cameras and for LED life flashlights that can be charged in, e.g., 90 seconds. As of 2013, portable speakers powered by supercapacitors were offered to the market. Tools[edit ] A cordless electric screwdriver with supercapacitors for energy storage has about half the run time of a comparable battery model, but can be fully charged in 90 seconds. It retains 85% of its charge after three months left idle. Grid power buffer[edit ] A group of EVs and HEVs during their charging process draw very high current for a short duration of time which creates power pulsation on the grid. Power pulsation not only reduces the efficiency of the grid and cause voltage drop in the common coupling bus, but it can cause considerable frequency fluctuation in the entire system. To overcome this problem, supercapacitors can be implemented as an interface between the charging station and the grid to buffer the grid from the high pulse power drawn from the charging station. Low-power equipment power buffer[edit ] Supercapacitors provide backup or emergency shutdown power to low-power equipment such as RAM , SRAM , micro-controllers and PC Cards . They are the sole power source for low energy applications such as automated meter reading (AMR) equipment or for event notification in industrial electronics. Supercapacitors buffer power to and from rechargeable batteries , mitigating the effects of short power interruptions and high current peaks. Batteries kick in only during extended interruptions, e.g., if the mains power or a fuel cell fails, which lengthens battery life. Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), where supercapacitors have replaced much larger banks of electrolytic capacitors. This combination reduces the cost per cycle, saves on replacement and maintenance costs, enables the battery to be downsized and extends battery life. A disadvantage is the need for a special circuit to reconcile the differing behaviors. Rotor with wind turbine pitch system Supercapacitors provide backup power for actuators in wind turbine pitch systems, so that blade pitch can be adjusted even if the main supply fails. [127] Voltage stabilizer[edit ] Supercapacitors can stabilize voltage for powerlines . Wind and photovoltaic systems exhibit fluctuating supply evoked by gusting or clouds that supercapacitors can buffer within milliseconds. This helps stabilize grid voltage and frequency, balance supply and demand of power and manage real or reactive power. Energy harvesting[edit ] Supercapacitors are suitable temporary energy storage devices for energy harvesting systems. In energy harvesting systems the energy is collected from the ambient or renewable sources, e.g. mechanical movement, light or electromagnetic fields , and converted to electrical energy in an energy storage device. For example, it was demonstrated that energy collected from RF (radio frequency ) fields (using an RF antenna as an appropriate rectifier circuit) can be stored to a printed supercapacitor. The harvested energy was then used to power an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) circuit for over 10 hours. [131] Incorporation into batteries[edit ] The UltraBattery is a hybrid rechargeable lead-acid battery and a supercapacitor invented by Australia's national science organisation CSIRO . Its cell construction contains a standard lead-acid battery positive electrode, standard sulphuric acid electrolyte and a specially prepared negative carbon-based electrode that store electrical energy with double-layer capacitance . The presence of the supercapacitor electrode alters the chemistry of the battery and affords it significant protection from sulfation in high rate partial state if charge use, which is the typical failure mode of valve regulated lead-acid cells used this way. The resulting cell performs with characteristics beyond either a lead-acid cell or a supercapacitor, with charge and discharge rates, cycle life, efficiency and performance all enhanced. UltraBattery has been installed in kW and MW scale applications in Australia, Japan and the U.S.A. in frequency regulation, solar smoothing and shifting, wind smoothing and other applications. ] Street lights[edit ] Street light combining a solar cell power source with LED lamps and supercapacitors for energy storage Sado City, in Japan's Niigata Prefecture, has street lights that combine a stand-alone power source with solar cells and LEDs. Supercapacitors store the solar energy and supply 2 LED lamps, providing 15 W power consumption overnight. The supercapacitors can last more than 10 years and offer stable performance under various weather conditions, including temperatures from +40 to below -20 °C. Medical Supercapacitors are used in defibrillators where they can deliver 500 joules to shock the heart back into sinus rhythm . [134] Transport[edit ] Aviation[edit ] In 2005, aerospace systems and controls company Diehl Luftfahrt Elektronik GmbH chose supercapacitors to power emergency actuators for doors and evacuation slides used in airliners , including the Airbus 380 . Military[edit ] Supercapacitors' low internal resistance supports applications that require short-term high currents. Among the earliest uses were motor startup (cold engine starts, particularly with diesels) for large engines in tanks and submarines. Supercapacitors buffer the battery, handling short current peaks, reducing cycling and extending battery life. Further military applications that require high specific power are phased array radar antennae, laser power supplies, military radio communications, avionics displays and instrumentation, backup power for airbag deployment and GPS-guided missiles and projectiles. Automotive[edit ] Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën has started using supercapacitors as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, which permits faster initial acceleration. Mazda's i-ELOOP system stores energy in a supercapacitor during deceleration and uses it to power on-board electrical systems while the engine is stopped by the stop-start system. Bus/tram[edit ] Maxwell Technologies , an American supercapacitor-maker, claimed that more than 20,000 hybrid buses use the devices to increase acceleration, particularly in China. Guangzhou, In 2014 China began using trams powered with supercapacitors that are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails, storing power to run the tram for up to 4 km — more than enough to reach the next stop, where the cycle can be repeated. Energy recovery[edit ] A primary challenge of all transport is reducing energy consumption and reducing CO 2 emissions. Recovery of braking energy (recuperation or regeneration ) helps with both. This requires components that can quickly store and release energy over long times with a high cycle rate. Supercapacitors fulfill these requirements and are therefore used in a lot of applications in all kinds of transportation. Railway[edit ] Main article: Railway electrification system Green Cargo operates TRAXX locomotives from Bombardier Transportation Supercapacitors can be used to supplement batteries in starter systems in diesel railroad locomotives with diesel-electric transmission . The capacitors capture the braking energy of a full stop and deliver the peak current for starting the diesel engine and acceleration of the train and ensures the stabilization of catenary voltage. Depending on the driving mode up to 30% energy saving is possible by recovery of braking energy. Low maintenance and environmentally friendly materials encouraged the choice of supercapacitors. [140] Cranes, forklifts and tractors[edit ] Main articles: Crane (machine) and Forklift truck Container yard with rubber tyre gantry crane Mobile hybrid diesel-electric rubber tyred gantry cranes move and stack containers within a terminal. Lifting the boxes requires large amounts of energy. Some of the energy could be recaptured while lowering the load resulting in improved efficiency. A triple hybrid forklift truck uses fuel cells and batteries as primary energy storage and supercapacitors to buffer power peaks by storing braking energy. They provide the fork lift with peak power over 30 kW. The triple-hybrid system offers over 50% energy savings compared with diesel or fuel-cell systems. Supercapacitor-powered terminal tractors transport containers to warehouses. They provide an economical, quiet and pollution-free alternative to diesel terminal tractors. Light-rails and trams[edit ] Main articles: Light rail and Tram Supercapacitors make it possible not only to reduce energy but to replace overhead lines in historical city areas, so preserving the city's architectural heritage. This approach may allow many new LRV city lines to replace overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route. Light rail vehicle in Mannheim In 2003 Mannheim adopted a prototype light-rail vehicle (LRV) using the MITRAC Energy Saver system from Bombardier Transportation to store mechanical braking energy with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. It contains several units each made of 192 capacitors with 2700 F /2.7 V interconnected in three parallel lines. This circuit results in a 518 V system with an energy content of 1.5 kWh. For acceleration when starting this "on-board-system" can provided the LRV with 600 kW and can drive the vehicle up to 1 km without catenary supply integrating the LRV into the urban environment by driving without catenary lines. Compared to conventional LRVs or Metro vehicles that return energy into the grid, onboard energy storage saves up to 30% and reduces peak grid demand by up to 50%. Supercapacitors are used to power the Paris T3 tram line on sections without catenary overhead wires and to recover energy during braking . In 2009 supercapacitors enabled LRV's to operate in the historical city area of Heidelberg without catenary overhead wires preserving the city's architectural heritage. The SC equipment cost an additional €270,000 per vehicle, which was expected to be recovered over the first 15 years of operation. The supercapacitors are charged at stop-over stations when the vehicle is at a scheduled stop. This approach may allow many LRV city lines to serve catenary overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route installation. In April 2011 German regional transport operator Rhein-Neckar, responsible for Heidelberg, ordered a further 11 units. In 2009, Alstom and RATP equipped a Citadis tram with an experimental energy recovery system called "STEEM". The system is fitted with 48 roof-mounted supercapacitors to store braking energy provides tramways with a high level of energy autonomy by enabling them to run without catenary power on parts of its route, recharging while traveling on powered stop-over stations. During the tests, which took place between the Porte d’Italie and Porte de Choisy stops on line T3 of the tramway network in Paris , the tramset used an average of approximately 16% less energy. A supercapacitor-equipped tram on the Rio de Janeiro Light Rail In 2012 tram operator Geneva Public Transport began tests of an LRV equipped with a prototype roof-mounted supercapacitor unit to recover braking energy. Siemens is delivering supercapacitor-enhanced light-rail transport systems that include mobile storage. Hong Kong's South Island metro line is to be equipped with two 2 MW energy storage units that are expected to reduce energy consumption by 10%. In August 2012 the CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive corporation of China presented a prototype two-car light metro train equipped with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. The train can travel up 2 km without wires, recharging in 30 seconds at stations via a ground mounted pickup. The supplier claimed the trains could be used in 100 small and medium-sized Chinese cities. Seven trams (street cars) powered by supercapacitors were scheduled to go into operation in 2014 in Guangzhou , China. The supercapacitors are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails. That powers the tram for up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi). As of 2017, Zhuzhou's supercapacitor vehicles are also used on the new Nanjing streetcar system, and are undergoing trials in Wuhan . In 2012, in Lyon (France), the SYTRAL (Lyon public transportation administration) started experiments of a "way side regeneration" system built by Adetel Group which has developed its own energy saver named ″NeoGreen″ for LRV, LRT and metros. In 2015, Alstom announced SRS, an energy storage system that charges supercapacitors on board a tram by means of ground-level conductor rails located at tram stops. This allows trams to operate without overhead lines for short distances. The system has been touted as an alternative to the company's ground-level power supply (APS) system, or can be used in conjunction with it, as in the case of the VLT network in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, which opened in 2016. Buses[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric bus Further information: Capa vehicle and Solar bus MAN Ultracapbus in Nuremberg, Germany The first hybrid bus with supercapacitors in Europe came in 2001 in Nuremberg , Germany. It was MAN's so-called "Ultracapbus", and was tested in real operation in 2001/2002. The test vehicle was equipped with a diesel-electric drive in combination with supercapacitors. The system was supplied with 8 Ultracap modules of 80 V, each containing 36 components. The system worked with 640 V and could be charged/discharged at 400 A. Its energy content was 0.4 kWh with a weight of 400 kg. The supercapacitors recaptured braking energy and delivered starting energy. Fuel consumption was reduced by 10 to 15% compared to conventional diesel vehicles. Other advantages included reduction of CO 2 emissions, quiet and emissions-free engine starts, lower vibration and reduced maintenance costs. Electric bus at EXPO 2010 in Shanghai (Capabus) recharging at the bus stop As of 2002 in Luzern , Switzerland an electric bus fleet called TOHYCO-Rider was tested. The supercapacitors could be recharged via an inductive contactless high-speed power charger after every transportation cycle, within 3 to 4 minutes. In early 2005 Shanghai tested a new form of electric bus called capabus that runs without powerlines (catenary free operation) using large onboard supercapacitors that partially recharge whenever the bus is at a stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charge in the terminus . In 2006, two commercial bus routes began to use the capabuses; one of them is route 11 in Shanghai. It was estimated that the supercapacitor bus was cheaper than a lithium-ion battery bus, and one of its buses had one-tenth the energy cost of a diesel bus with lifetime fuel savings of $200,000. A hybrid electric bus called tribrid was unveiled in 2008 by the University of Glamorgan , Wales , for use as student transport. It is powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells , batteries and ultracapacitors. ] Motor racing[edit ] World champion Sebastian Vettel in Malaysia 2010 Toyota TS030 Hybrid at 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race The FIA , a governing body for motor racing events, proposed in the Power-Train Regulation Framework for Formula 1 version 1.3 of 23 May 2007 that a new set of power train regulations be issued that includes a hybrid drive of up to 200 kW input and output power using "superbatteries" made with batteries and supercapacitors connected in parallel (KERS ). About 20% tank-to-wheel efficiency could be reached using the KERS system. The Toyota TS030 Hybrid LMP1 car, a racing car developed under Le Mans Prototype rules, uses a hybrid drivetrain with supercapacitors. In the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans race a TS030 qualified with a fastest lap only 1.055 seconds slower (3:24.842 versus 3:23.787) than the fastest car, an Audi R18 e-tron quattro with flywheel energy storage. The supercapacitor and flywheel components, whose rapid charge-discharge capabilities help in both braking and acceleration, made the Audi and Toyota hybrids the fastest cars in the race. In the 2012 Le Mans race the two competing TS030s, one of which was in the lead for part of the race, both retired for reasons unrelated to the supercapacitors. The TS030 won three of the 8 races in the 2012 FIA World Endurance Championship season . In 2014 the Toyota TS040 Hybrid used a supercapacitor to add 480 horsepower from two electric motors. Hybrid electric vehicles[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle See also: Hybrid vehicle drivetrain Mazda2 (since 2010) Supercapacitor/battery combinations in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are well investigated. A 20 to 60% fuel reduction has been claimed by recovering brake energy in EVs or HEVs. The ability of supercapacitors to charge much faster than batteries, their stable electrical properties, broader temperature range and longer lifetime are suitable, but weight, volume and especially cost mitigate those advantages. Supercapacitors lower specific energy makes them unsuitable for use as a stand-alone energy source for long distance driving. The fuel economy improvement between a capacitor and a battery solution is about 20% and is available only for shorter trips. For long distance driving the advantage decreases to 6%. Vehicles combining capacitors and batteries run only in experimental vehicles. As of 2013 all automotive manufacturers of EV or HEVs have developed prototypes that uses supercapacitors instead of batteries to store braking energy in order to improve driveline efficiency. The Mazda 6 is the only production car that uses supercapacitors to recover braking energy. Branded as i-eloop, the regenerative braking is claimed to reduce fuel consumption by about 10%. Russian Yo-cars Ё-mobile series was a concept and crossover hybrid vehicle working with a gasoline driven rotary vane type and an electric generator for driving the traction motors. A supercapacitor with relatively low capacitance recovers brake energy to power the electric motor when accelerating from a stop. Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide quick bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën fit supercapacitors to some of its cars as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, as this permits faster start-ups when the traffic lights turn green. Gondolas[edit ] Aerial lift in Zell am See , Austria In Zell am See , Austria , an aerial lift connects the city with Schmittenhöhe mountain. The gondolas sometimes run 24 hours per day, using electricity for lights, door opening and communication. The only available time for recharging batteries at the stations is during the brief intervals of guest loading and unloading, which is too short to recharge batteries. Supercapacitors offer a fast charge, higher number of cycles and longer life time than batteries. Emirates Air Line (cable car) , also known as the Thames cable car, is a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) gondola line that crosses the Thames from the Greenwich Peninsula to the Royal Docks . The cabins are equipped with a modern infotainment system, which is powered by supercapacitors. Developments[edit ] As of 2013 commercially available lithium-ion supercapacitors offered the highest gravimetric specific energy to date, reaching 15 Wh/kg (54 kJ/kg). Research focuses on improving specific energy, reducing internal resistance, expanding temperature range, increasing lifetimes and reducing costs. Projects include tailored-pore-size electrodes, pseudocapacitive coating or doping materials and improved electrolytes.

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