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on board charger audi e tron

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง on board charger audi e tron

Review: 2019-2020 Audi e-tron เอสยูวีพรีเมียมพลังงานไฟฟ้า

Audi (อาวดี้) ค่ายรถยนต์หรูจากยุโรป ส่งรถเอสยูวีอเนกประสงค์หรูพลังงานไฟฟ้าอย่าง 2019-2020 Audi e-tron

นอร์เวย์ผงาดชาติแรกยอดขายรถพลังไฟฟ้าแซงรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาป – แล้วเมืองไทยล่ะ?

จะพบว่ารถพลังไฟฟ้ามีสัดส่วนยอดขายเพียง 1% เท่านั้นสมาคมยานยนต์แห่งนอร์เวย์ (OFV) ระบุว่ารถพลังไฟฟ้าที่มียอดขายสูงที่สุดในปี 2020 คือ Audi

2021 Audi e-tron GT เตรียมบุกไทยปีนี้ พร้อมตระกูล RS อีกหลายรุ่น

ซึ่งรวมไปถึงรถยนต์สปอร์ตไฟฟ้า Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน จีที) ที่จะเปิดตัวในตลาดโลกในสัปดาห์หน้า

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback จ่อลุยเมืองไทยสัปดาห์หน้า คาดราคาทะลุ 5.3 ล้านบาท

บริษัท ไมซ์สเตอร์ เทคนิค จำกัด ผู้จำหน่ายรถยนต์ Audi ในประเทศไทยเตรียมเปิดตัว 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback

Audi e-Tron รุ่นย่อย Premium ใหม่ ราคาถูกลง 10% ตัดออพชั่นอะไรบ้าง?

Audi e-Tron รถครอสโอเวอร์พลังไฟฟ้าล้วน ซึ่งทำยอดขายไม่ดีนักในสหรัฐอเมริกา จึงได้ออกกลยุทธ์ใหม่ เปิดตัวรุ่นล่างสุดที่มีราคาเอื้อมถึงง่ายขึ้น

Audi Thailand ปรับกลยุทธ์ฝ่า COVID-19 เน้นเพิ่มสินค้า-ทำราคาสู้-ปรับบริการรับลูกค้า

Audi Thailand (อาวดี้ ประเทศไทย) ปรับแผนงานฝ่าวิกฤต COVID-19 เน้น 3 นโบายหลัก เพิ่มความหลากหลายของสินค้า

ขายดีทุกที่เว้นไทย Nissan e-Power ขายเกินครึ่งล้านคันแล้วทั่วโลก

Nissan (นิสสัน) ได้ประกาศยอดขายรวมรถยนต์เทคโนโลยี e-Power ที่คว้ารางวัลเทคโนโลยีแห่งปีมาแล้ว ขายทั่วโลกได้

เปิดตัว 2021 Audi RS e-tron GT ราคา 6.39 ล้านบาท สเปคนำเข้าฝาแฝด Taycan

2021 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน จีที) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้ารุ่นล่าสุดจากเยอรมนี ที่เปิดตัวในเยอรมนีเมื่อเดือนก่อน

เปิดตัว 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback ค่าตัว 5.299 ล้านบาท จำกัดโควต้า 15 คันในไทย

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการในไทย

ชมคันจริง 2020 Audi e-Tron Sportback ขายไทยในราคา 5.299 ล้านบาท มีดีแค่หลังคาลาดลงรึเปล่า?

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) เปิดตัวขายในไทยแล้วด้วยราคา 5,299,000 บาท เป็นรถเอสยูวีพลังไฟฟ้าล้วน

ดูเพิ่มเติม

Audi เดินหน้าเข้าสู่ยุครถยนต์ไฟฟ้าเต็มตัวภายใน 2035 หลัง Audi e-tron ขายได้ 9,227 คัน ขึ้นอันดับ 1 ใน Norway

2035ซึ่งจะมีการแจ้งแผนออกมาในอีกไม่กี่เดือน พร้อมสถานะของโรงงานที่จะต้องเปลี่ยนไปผลิตแบบไฟ้าแบบเต็มตัวยอดขาย e-Tron

ยอดขายรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในนอร์เวย์ พ่งสูงเกือบ 90% เอาชนะเครื่องยนต์ดีเซลและเบนซินที่แรกในโลก

3จากการรายงานของ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV-กรมการขนส่งนอร์เวย์) ในปี 2020 รถที่ขายดีที่สุดคือ Audi

สำรวจความนิยมแบรนด์รถยนต์ในแต่ละประเทศ ใครยืนหนึ่ง? อันดับสองค่ายใดมาชมกัน

ขณะที่ Chevrolet (เชฟโรเลต) เป็นแบรนด์ยอดนิยมในอียิปต์ ส่วน Toyota ครองส่วนแบ่งตลาดเกือบ 100% ในเยเมนAudi

Review 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback รถไฟฟ้าเสียบปลั๊ก 5.299 ล้านบาท ครบทั้งแรงทั้งหรูแบบไร้คู่แข่ง

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback 55 quattro S line (อาวดี้ อี-ตรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ค) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าทรงเอสยูวีคูเป้จากค่ายสี่ห่วง

เป็นไปได้? ผู้บริหาร Audi ชี้รถพลังไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่เล็กลงในอนาคต

ซีอีโอ Audi (อาวดี้) ออกมาให้ความเห็นว่ารถยนต์ไฟฟ้าจะมีแบตเตอรี่ขนาดเล็กลงในอนาคต เมื่อเทคโนโลยีการชาร์จไฟและจุดชาร์จไฟมีพัฒนาการก้าวหน้ามากขึ้นจากการแข่งขันด้านพละกำลังทั้งแรงม้าและแรงบิดของรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาปในอดีต

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เผยโฉม 2022 BMW iX รถเอสยูวีไฟฟ้าที่ดีที่สุดเวลานี้? เบียด Audi e-tron

BMW Operating System เจนเนอเรชั่นใหม่ซึ่งข่าวระบุว่าผลิตด้วยวัสดุคริสตัล BMW iX Audi

พาชม 2020 Audi TT RS สีส้ม Pulse Orange 400 แรงม้า เจ้าของค่าตัว 5.299 ล้านบาท

All-New 2020 Audi TT RS (2020 อาวดี้ ทีที อาร์เอส) เปิดตัวในประเทศไทยด้วยฝึมือของอาวดี้ ไทยแลนด์ และทำราคาแบบหยุดโลกที่

แบงค์บอกต่อ สนใจรุ่นไหนมาดู รวมโปรโมชั่นจัดเต็ม Motor Expo 2020

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เพิ่มความเป็นไฟฟ้าที่ดูแลง่าย จึงทำยอดจองเยอะมาก ต้องต่อคิวรอนานเป็นปี ด้วยราคาขายเพียง 2.29 ล้านบาทAudi

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Audi ยกทัพตระกูลแรง RS บุกไทย 3 รุ่นรวด ทั้ง TT RS, RS Q8 และ RS4 Avant

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Coupe คือ 2022 Audi e-tron GT (อาวดี้ อีทรอน จีที) เริ่ม 3,621,000 บาท และ Audi RS e-tron GT (อาวดี้

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ควักเพิ่ม 2 แสน! ทำไมถึงควรเลือก 2020 Audi e-tron Sportback มากกว่า e-tron สแตนดาร์ด

2020 Audi e-tron Sportback (อาวดี้ อี-ทรอน สปอร์ตแบ็ก) รุ่นใหม่เปิดตัวลุยตลาดบ้านเราแล้วด้วยราคา 5.299

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2022 Audi Q4 e-tron2022 Audi Q4 e-tron และ Q4 e-tron Sportback (2022 อาวดี้ คิว4 อี-ทรอน) เผยโฉมอย่างเป็นทางการ

รีวิวโพสต์ on board charger audi e tron

Audi e-tronがいよいよ22kWの普通充電(?)対応へ、80kWh程度の大容量バッテリーも4時間程度で満充電可能に。国内では未だに最大20kWの急速充電器(?)が多く、早急な刷新が待たれます。Europe: Audi e-tron Finally Gets 22 kW On-Board Charger Option

รีวิว Q&A on board charger audi e tron

What are the best cheap electric cars?

What is the best electric car for the money? In my opinion, among all categories, it is the Tesla Model 3 Standard Plus. It has all what the “bigger sibling” Model 3 Long Range has, it just has less range and it doesn’t rapid charge that fast, but basically the technology is the same. Followed by the before mentioned Tesla Model 3 Long Range if you make longer trips more often. It is among the champions in range and has plenty of power. Right behind would be actually the Kia e-Niro, but that one is more or less on paper - if I am informed correctly, delivery times are close to one year. While the range is slightly bigger than with the Model 3 Standard Plus, performance isn’t bad either, the major penalty is slower fast charging (and of course no Tesla’s technology). The Model 3 peaks at above 100 kW, the Niro goes just slightly above 70 kW. Hyundai Kona is another (smaller) option. So it depends on what you need and whether the car should also make long trips. If you need city or mid-range commuter cars, that’s a different category, among those I would say it is the Hyundai Ioniq, either with the 28 kWh or the 39 kWh (net) battery. There is a funny twist - for long-ish trips (beyond 500 km / 300 miles) the smaller battery is actually better because it charges significantly faster - if the chargers can provide 100 kW or more. The newer ones do, the older ones (50 kW) don’t so it also depends on the infrastructure. Once we come to city and short-range commuter cars which mostly rely on their on board charge, I would consider the Renault ZOE, but there are other options too. Maybe the 2018 Nissan Leaf with the 40 kWh battery if you will never make more than one rapid charge per day - it overheats the battery. On the other hand - Tesla Model S Long Range is the best EV, but I don’t consider it the best for its money generally. It’s quite expensive. But once we come to SUVs and crossovers - it is definitely the Tesla Model X Long Range. No competitor (Jaguar i-Pace, Audi e-Tron, Mercedes Benz EQC) comes even close. Sports car? You can call the Porsche Taycan a class of its own, but it is very expensive. You get the same performance with the Tesla Model 3 Performance - and for the difference buy another Model 3 Standard Plus.

Where can I find an article that explains EV and PHEV energy use while driving versus the energy used to charge them? If my vehicle consumes 5 kWh while driving, but takes 9 kWh to charge it back to full, this is not a cost-effective use of energy.

There is a significant difference between what the EV used from the battery, and what you need to recharge it. This has been measured by the ADAC for a large number of EVs, and it’s around 10% to 25% more that you need from the charger. This is not (just) bad housekeeping by the board computer, but mostly consists of real energy losses due to the charging process. The Tesla 3 long range needed 25% more from the wall charger, the Tesla 3 standard plus some 20% more. Which is a bit on the high side… For comparison, the Audi e-tron needed 14% more. (see below) Bordcomputer: Wie genau ist die Verbrauchsanzeige? The test also included fuel cars, and there the board computers were generally accurate to within 2% for half of the tested cars, and within 5% for the rest. Only a few exceptions were off by more… and not necessarily to the negative direction. So in general, energy usage display is accurate… it’s just that EVs don’t include the charging losses associated with getting from the wall charger to the battery. They indicate the netto usage from battery to the wheels.

If it weren’t for Tesla, would major automakers have started developing their electric vehicles later?

If it weren’t for Tesla, would major automakers have started developing their electric vehicles later? Actually I think they would, but everything would go more like slow, evolutionary, baby steps path. City cars or short-range commuter cars. You know, Mistubishi iMiEV, Nissan Leaf, BMW i3, Renault ZOE. Or shortcuts like cars that were converted to electric, e.g. VW e-Golf and e-Up or /god forbid/ the Ford Focus with the big box for the battery in the trunk. It’s getting worse: compliance cars without rapid charging: Fiat 500e (a city car). And a car I cannot imagine it exists: a full sized family sedan, Honda Clarity with a length of 4,89 m - this almost matches Tesla Model S - with a laughable 25,5 kWh battery (Tesla offered until recently 75 or 100 kWh, now only the latter) - with no rapid charging. Charging time - at least 3,5 hours. And a 89 miles EPA range. A car that was obviously not meant to be sold, not even leased. It exists to sit in the shop or even more likely, be on the price list, nothing more. A car that is obviously to be sold only as a plugin hybrid. Tesla showed with its whole series that EVs are long range cars, ready to replace ICE cars. Not in 10 years, not in 5 years, today. Actually, since 2012. Every competitor (even in 2019) is still dragging its feet, either their range is not sufficient or their charge rate is too slow, and this includes Jaguar i-Pace, Audi e-Tron or Mercedes Benz EQC. They either didn’t get it or (most likely) didn’t want to get it. They should have some smart people, at the end of the day they are installing 350 kW rapid chargers which in theory beat Tesla’s 150 kW or even the newer V3 250 kW chargers. But one thing is what the chargers offer, the other is what those cars can take. Only Audi e-Tron charges at about 140 kW, Tesla Model 3 LR (funny, on the same chargers, technically from the competition) charge at up to 190 kW. There are maybe, but just maybe two exceptions: Hyundai Kona and Kia e-Niro. Actually the last one is a fairly decent competitor to the Tesla Model Y - within its limitations. Guess what, they are produced in almost laughable small numbers. So to answer your question - yes, they would, but at least a decade if not more later. The German automotive industry was thinking until recently that it could sell its overpriced hybrids in the next decade. Things are starting to move. Toyota and Honda seem to be stuck in R&D in hydrogen fuel cells. All those will change their course in the coming few years. Without Tesla all this would happen in 2030–2035. Roughly a decade later. If not more. Quite possibly some would first start with hydrogen and postpone EVs to 2040–45. Maybe we would even see a war-of-the-currents between hydrogen and BEVs in the forties. Now nothing of this will ever happen. Tesla Model 3 crushed all those crazy ideas, some companies just won’t admit that the war is already over. Including Nikola hydrogen trucks are rumoured to suddenly “optionally” offer electric trucks too. The basic specs for the Nikola One are very heavy hydrogen tanks (I guess a ton if not more) for 100 kg of hydrogen, 300 kW (150+ kg?) of fuel cells and a massive 320 kWh (about 2 ton) battery acting as a buffer - with an almost insane range, but 3 times the running cost. Just compare, about 5 kg of Hydrogen (the price in Germany roughly 50 Eur, subsidised) vs. 100 kWh of electricity per 100 km. Even at German high prices of electricity, a BEV truck is at least two times cheaper to run. And the whole system is not even nearly a lightweight. Basically - this is a battery electric truck with an on-board hydrogen charger / range extender. Quite likely they will drop the whole hydrogen part and install a bigger battery instead. Now it is simple and clear: either some company will produce a lot of pure EVs in 2030 - or it is gone, following Kodak and Nokia. Once great, but later not existing anymore. End of the story.

How will Audi's electric SUVs perform in the market?

Short answer: The number of pre-orders suggests that it must be quite successful. Main competitive advantages as I see it: Great battery capacity — 95kWh, only top-of-the Tesla vehicles have a bigger battery 150kW DC charging capability — as of today the best result on the market (even Tesla Model S and X peak at 120 kW) Powerful AC on-board charger (22kW) much better than that of the Jaguar I-Pace (7kW) Attractive design (subjective) Boost Mode — a great feature that enables short-term engine power increase Main drawbaсks: Relative slow acceleration in comparison with Tesla and Jaguar (around 6 seconds 0–100km/h) The range on one charge is not a big seller taking into account large battery. (400 km WLTP) Speaking of the price: In my opinion, it is priced fairly at $75000 in the US, which puts it between the I-Pace ($70000) and the Model X ($83000) Here you can see, how it compares with its rivals.[1] Footnotes [1] Tesla Model X 100D vs Jaguar I-PACE vs Audi e-tron Quattro concept vs Mercedes EQC concept vs BMW iX3 concept

Are there any applications for many (deca-, kilo-, etc.) farad capacitors?

There are great answers so far. Here is material copied from Wikipedia: Consumer electronics[edit ] In applications with fluctuating loads, such as laptop computers, PDA's , GPS , portable media players , hand-held devices , and photovoltaic systems , supercapacitors can stabilize the power supply. Supercapacitors deliver power for photographic flashes in digital cameras and for LED life flashlights that can be charged in, e.g., 90 seconds. As of 2013, portable speakers powered by supercapacitors were offered to the market. Tools[edit ] A cordless electric screwdriver with supercapacitors for energy storage has about half the run time of a comparable battery model, but can be fully charged in 90 seconds. It retains 85% of its charge after three months left idle. Grid power buffer[edit ] A group of EVs and HEVs during their charging process draw very high current for a short duration of time which creates power pulsation on the grid. Power pulsation not only reduces the efficiency of the grid and cause voltage drop in the common coupling bus, but it can cause considerable frequency fluctuation in the entire system. To overcome this problem, supercapacitors can be implemented as an interface between the charging station and the grid to buffer the grid from the high pulse power drawn from the charging station. Low-power equipment power buffer[edit ] Supercapacitors provide backup or emergency shutdown power to low-power equipment such as RAM , SRAM , micro-controllers and PC Cards . They are the sole power source for low energy applications such as automated meter reading (AMR) equipment or for event notification in industrial electronics. Supercapacitors buffer power to and from rechargeable batteries , mitigating the effects of short power interruptions and high current peaks. Batteries kick in only during extended interruptions, e.g., if the mains power or a fuel cell fails, which lengthens battery life. Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), where supercapacitors have replaced much larger banks of electrolytic capacitors. This combination reduces the cost per cycle, saves on replacement and maintenance costs, enables the battery to be downsized and extends battery life. A disadvantage is the need for a special circuit to reconcile the differing behaviors. Rotor with wind turbine pitch system Supercapacitors provide backup power for actuators in wind turbine pitch systems, so that blade pitch can be adjusted even if the main supply fails. [127] Voltage stabilizer[edit ] Supercapacitors can stabilize voltage for powerlines . Wind and photovoltaic systems exhibit fluctuating supply evoked by gusting or clouds that supercapacitors can buffer within milliseconds. This helps stabilize grid voltage and frequency, balance supply and demand of power and manage real or reactive power. Energy harvesting[edit ] Supercapacitors are suitable temporary energy storage devices for energy harvesting systems. In energy harvesting systems the energy is collected from the ambient or renewable sources, e.g. mechanical movement, light or electromagnetic fields , and converted to electrical energy in an energy storage device. For example, it was demonstrated that energy collected from RF (radio frequency ) fields (using an RF antenna as an appropriate rectifier circuit) can be stored to a printed supercapacitor. The harvested energy was then used to power an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) circuit for over 10 hours. [131] Incorporation into batteries[edit ] The UltraBattery is a hybrid rechargeable lead-acid battery and a supercapacitor invented by Australia's national science organisation CSIRO . Its cell construction contains a standard lead-acid battery positive electrode, standard sulphuric acid electrolyte and a specially prepared negative carbon-based electrode that store electrical energy with double-layer capacitance . The presence of the supercapacitor electrode alters the chemistry of the battery and affords it significant protection from sulfation in high rate partial state if charge use, which is the typical failure mode of valve regulated lead-acid cells used this way. The resulting cell performs with characteristics beyond either a lead-acid cell or a supercapacitor, with charge and discharge rates, cycle life, efficiency and performance all enhanced. UltraBattery has been installed in kW and MW scale applications in Australia, Japan and the U.S.A. in frequency regulation, solar smoothing and shifting, wind smoothing and other applications. ] Street lights[edit ] Street light combining a solar cell power source with LED lamps and supercapacitors for energy storage Sado City, in Japan's Niigata Prefecture, has street lights that combine a stand-alone power source with solar cells and LEDs. Supercapacitors store the solar energy and supply 2 LED lamps, providing 15 W power consumption overnight. The supercapacitors can last more than 10 years and offer stable performance under various weather conditions, including temperatures from +40 to below -20 °C. Medical Supercapacitors are used in defibrillators where they can deliver 500 joules to shock the heart back into sinus rhythm . [134] Transport[edit ] Aviation[edit ] In 2005, aerospace systems and controls company Diehl Luftfahrt Elektronik GmbH chose supercapacitors to power emergency actuators for doors and evacuation slides used in airliners , including the Airbus 380 . Military[edit ] Supercapacitors' low internal resistance supports applications that require short-term high currents. Among the earliest uses were motor startup (cold engine starts, particularly with diesels) for large engines in tanks and submarines. Supercapacitors buffer the battery, handling short current peaks, reducing cycling and extending battery life. Further military applications that require high specific power are phased array radar antennae, laser power supplies, military radio communications, avionics displays and instrumentation, backup power for airbag deployment and GPS-guided missiles and projectiles. Automotive[edit ] Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën has started using supercapacitors as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, which permits faster initial acceleration. Mazda's i-ELOOP system stores energy in a supercapacitor during deceleration and uses it to power on-board electrical systems while the engine is stopped by the stop-start system. Bus/tram[edit ] Maxwell Technologies , an American supercapacitor-maker, claimed that more than 20,000 hybrid buses use the devices to increase acceleration, particularly in China. Guangzhou, In 2014 China began using trams powered with supercapacitors that are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails, storing power to run the tram for up to 4 km — more than enough to reach the next stop, where the cycle can be repeated. Energy recovery[edit ] A primary challenge of all transport is reducing energy consumption and reducing CO 2 emissions. Recovery of braking energy (recuperation or regeneration ) helps with both. This requires components that can quickly store and release energy over long times with a high cycle rate. Supercapacitors fulfill these requirements and are therefore used in a lot of applications in all kinds of transportation. Railway[edit ] Main article: Railway electrification system Green Cargo operates TRAXX locomotives from Bombardier Transportation Supercapacitors can be used to supplement batteries in starter systems in diesel railroad locomotives with diesel-electric transmission . The capacitors capture the braking energy of a full stop and deliver the peak current for starting the diesel engine and acceleration of the train and ensures the stabilization of catenary voltage. Depending on the driving mode up to 30% energy saving is possible by recovery of braking energy. Low maintenance and environmentally friendly materials encouraged the choice of supercapacitors. [140] Cranes, forklifts and tractors[edit ] Main articles: Crane (machine) and Forklift truck Container yard with rubber tyre gantry crane Mobile hybrid diesel-electric rubber tyred gantry cranes move and stack containers within a terminal. Lifting the boxes requires large amounts of energy. Some of the energy could be recaptured while lowering the load resulting in improved efficiency. A triple hybrid forklift truck uses fuel cells and batteries as primary energy storage and supercapacitors to buffer power peaks by storing braking energy. They provide the fork lift with peak power over 30 kW. The triple-hybrid system offers over 50% energy savings compared with diesel or fuel-cell systems. Supercapacitor-powered terminal tractors transport containers to warehouses. They provide an economical, quiet and pollution-free alternative to diesel terminal tractors. Light-rails and trams[edit ] Main articles: Light rail and Tram Supercapacitors make it possible not only to reduce energy but to replace overhead lines in historical city areas, so preserving the city's architectural heritage. This approach may allow many new LRV city lines to replace overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route. Light rail vehicle in Mannheim In 2003 Mannheim adopted a prototype light-rail vehicle (LRV) using the MITRAC Energy Saver system from Bombardier Transportation to store mechanical braking energy with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. It contains several units each made of 192 capacitors with 2700 F /2.7 V interconnected in three parallel lines. This circuit results in a 518 V system with an energy content of 1.5 kWh. For acceleration when starting this "on-board-system" can provided the LRV with 600 kW and can drive the vehicle up to 1 km without catenary supply integrating the LRV into the urban environment by driving without catenary lines. Compared to conventional LRVs or Metro vehicles that return energy into the grid, onboard energy storage saves up to 30% and reduces peak grid demand by up to 50%. Supercapacitors are used to power the Paris T3 tram line on sections without catenary overhead wires and to recover energy during braking . In 2009 supercapacitors enabled LRV's to operate in the historical city area of Heidelberg without catenary overhead wires preserving the city's architectural heritage. The SC equipment cost an additional €270,000 per vehicle, which was expected to be recovered over the first 15 years of operation. The supercapacitors are charged at stop-over stations when the vehicle is at a scheduled stop. This approach may allow many LRV city lines to serve catenary overhead wires that are too expensive to fully route installation. In April 2011 German regional transport operator Rhein-Neckar, responsible for Heidelberg, ordered a further 11 units. In 2009, Alstom and RATP equipped a Citadis tram with an experimental energy recovery system called "STEEM". The system is fitted with 48 roof-mounted supercapacitors to store braking energy provides tramways with a high level of energy autonomy by enabling them to run without catenary power on parts of its route, recharging while traveling on powered stop-over stations. During the tests, which took place between the Porte d’Italie and Porte de Choisy stops on line T3 of the tramway network in Paris , the tramset used an average of approximately 16% less energy. A supercapacitor-equipped tram on the Rio de Janeiro Light Rail In 2012 tram operator Geneva Public Transport began tests of an LRV equipped with a prototype roof-mounted supercapacitor unit to recover braking energy. Siemens is delivering supercapacitor-enhanced light-rail transport systems that include mobile storage. Hong Kong's South Island metro line is to be equipped with two 2 MW energy storage units that are expected to reduce energy consumption by 10%. In August 2012 the CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive corporation of China presented a prototype two-car light metro train equipped with a roof-mounted supercapacitor unit. The train can travel up 2 km without wires, recharging in 30 seconds at stations via a ground mounted pickup. The supplier claimed the trains could be used in 100 small and medium-sized Chinese cities. Seven trams (street cars) powered by supercapacitors were scheduled to go into operation in 2014 in Guangzhou , China. The supercapacitors are recharged in 30 seconds by a device positioned between the rails. That powers the tram for up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi). As of 2017, Zhuzhou's supercapacitor vehicles are also used on the new Nanjing streetcar system, and are undergoing trials in Wuhan . In 2012, in Lyon (France), the SYTRAL (Lyon public transportation administration) started experiments of a "way side regeneration" system built by Adetel Group which has developed its own energy saver named ″NeoGreen″ for LRV, LRT and metros. In 2015, Alstom announced SRS, an energy storage system that charges supercapacitors on board a tram by means of ground-level conductor rails located at tram stops. This allows trams to operate without overhead lines for short distances. The system has been touted as an alternative to the company's ground-level power supply (APS) system, or can be used in conjunction with it, as in the case of the VLT network in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, which opened in 2016. Buses[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric bus Further information: Capa vehicle and Solar bus MAN Ultracapbus in Nuremberg, Germany The first hybrid bus with supercapacitors in Europe came in 2001 in Nuremberg , Germany. It was MAN's so-called "Ultracapbus", and was tested in real operation in 2001/2002. The test vehicle was equipped with a diesel-electric drive in combination with supercapacitors. The system was supplied with 8 Ultracap modules of 80 V, each containing 36 components. The system worked with 640 V and could be charged/discharged at 400 A. Its energy content was 0.4 kWh with a weight of 400 kg. The supercapacitors recaptured braking energy and delivered starting energy. Fuel consumption was reduced by 10 to 15% compared to conventional diesel vehicles. Other advantages included reduction of CO 2 emissions, quiet and emissions-free engine starts, lower vibration and reduced maintenance costs. Electric bus at EXPO 2010 in Shanghai (Capabus) recharging at the bus stop As of 2002 in Luzern , Switzerland an electric bus fleet called TOHYCO-Rider was tested. The supercapacitors could be recharged via an inductive contactless high-speed power charger after every transportation cycle, within 3 to 4 minutes. In early 2005 Shanghai tested a new form of electric bus called capabus that runs without powerlines (catenary free operation) using large onboard supercapacitors that partially recharge whenever the bus is at a stop (under so-called electric umbrellas), and fully charge in the terminus . In 2006, two commercial bus routes began to use the capabuses; one of them is route 11 in Shanghai. It was estimated that the supercapacitor bus was cheaper than a lithium-ion battery bus, and one of its buses had one-tenth the energy cost of a diesel bus with lifetime fuel savings of $200,000. A hybrid electric bus called tribrid was unveiled in 2008 by the University of Glamorgan , Wales , for use as student transport. It is powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells , batteries and ultracapacitors. ] Motor racing[edit ] World champion Sebastian Vettel in Malaysia 2010 Toyota TS030 Hybrid at 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race The FIA , a governing body for motor racing events, proposed in the Power-Train Regulation Framework for Formula 1 version 1.3 of 23 May 2007 that a new set of power train regulations be issued that includes a hybrid drive of up to 200 kW input and output power using "superbatteries" made with batteries and supercapacitors connected in parallel (KERS ). About 20% tank-to-wheel efficiency could be reached using the KERS system. The Toyota TS030 Hybrid LMP1 car, a racing car developed under Le Mans Prototype rules, uses a hybrid drivetrain with supercapacitors. In the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans race a TS030 qualified with a fastest lap only 1.055 seconds slower (3:24.842 versus 3:23.787) than the fastest car, an Audi R18 e-tron quattro with flywheel energy storage. The supercapacitor and flywheel components, whose rapid charge-discharge capabilities help in both braking and acceleration, made the Audi and Toyota hybrids the fastest cars in the race. In the 2012 Le Mans race the two competing TS030s, one of which was in the lead for part of the race, both retired for reasons unrelated to the supercapacitors. The TS030 won three of the 8 races in the 2012 FIA World Endurance Championship season . In 2014 the Toyota TS040 Hybrid used a supercapacitor to add 480 horsepower from two electric motors. Hybrid electric vehicles[edit ] Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle See also: Hybrid vehicle drivetrain Mazda2 (since 2010) Supercapacitor/battery combinations in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are well investigated. A 20 to 60% fuel reduction has been claimed by recovering brake energy in EVs or HEVs. The ability of supercapacitors to charge much faster than batteries, their stable electrical properties, broader temperature range and longer lifetime are suitable, but weight, volume and especially cost mitigate those advantages. Supercapacitors lower specific energy makes them unsuitable for use as a stand-alone energy source for long distance driving. The fuel economy improvement between a capacitor and a battery solution is about 20% and is available only for shorter trips. For long distance driving the advantage decreases to 6%. Vehicles combining capacitors and batteries run only in experimental vehicles. As of 2013 all automotive manufacturers of EV or HEVs have developed prototypes that uses supercapacitors instead of batteries to store braking energy in order to improve driveline efficiency. The Mazda 6 is the only production car that uses supercapacitors to recover braking energy. Branded as i-eloop, the regenerative braking is claimed to reduce fuel consumption by about 10%. Russian Yo-cars Ё-mobile series was a concept and crossover hybrid vehicle working with a gasoline driven rotary vane type and an electric generator for driving the traction motors. A supercapacitor with relatively low capacitance recovers brake energy to power the electric motor when accelerating from a stop. Toyota's Yaris Hybrid-R concept car uses a supercapacitor to provide quick bursts of power. PSA Peugeot Citroën fit supercapacitors to some of its cars as part of its stop-start fuel-saving system, as this permits faster start-ups when the traffic lights turn green. Gondolas[edit ] Aerial lift in Zell am See , Austria In Zell am See , Austria , an aerial lift connects the city with Schmittenhöhe mountain. The gondolas sometimes run 24 hours per day, using electricity for lights, door opening and communication. The only available time for recharging batteries at the stations is during the brief intervals of guest loading and unloading, which is too short to recharge batteries. Supercapacitors offer a fast charge, higher number of cycles and longer life time than batteries. Emirates Air Line (cable car) , also known as the Thames cable car, is a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) gondola line that crosses the Thames from the Greenwich Peninsula to the Royal Docks . The cabins are equipped with a modern infotainment system, which is powered by supercapacitors. Developments[edit ] As of 2013 commercially available lithium-ion supercapacitors offered the highest gravimetric specific energy to date, reaching 15 Wh/kg (54 kJ/kg). Research focuses on improving specific energy, reducing internal resistance, expanding temperature range, increasing lifetimes and reducing costs. Projects include tailored-pore-size electrodes, pseudocapacitive coating or doping materials and improved electrolytes.

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