แท็ก

jaguar f pace type of gas

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง jaguar f pace type of gas

บอกลากระบะน้ำมัน Ford F-150 Lighting EV กระบะไฟฟ้าเปิดตัว 19 พ.ค.นี้

ใครกำลังติดตามหรือสนใจข่าวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้ากันอยู่ Ford (ฟอร์ด) ได้ทำการประการออกมาว่าสัปดาห์หน้าจะมีการเปิดตัว Ford F-

สื่อญี่ปุ่นยังอยากได้ ไทยละจะขายไหม Subaru Levorg ชนะรางวัล Car of the Year Japan 2020-2021

Subaru ประกาศชัยชนะรางวัล Japan Car of The Year 2020-2021 ด้วยรถ Subaru Levorg (ซูบารุ เลอวอร์ค) ใหม่

Audi TT RS 40 years of Quattro ฉลอง 40 ปีระบบขับเคลื่อนสี่ล้อของอาวดี้ จำกัด 40 คันเท่านั้น

Quattro ขับเคลื่อน 4 ล้อ ด้วยการแต่งโมเดลโรดสเตอร์รุ่นดังอย่าง TT (ทีที) ออกมาเป็น Audi TT RS 40 years of

เปิดเหตุผล ทำไม 2022 Honda Civic Type R เจนต่อไปต้องใช้ระบบไฮบริด ขับเคลื่อน 4 ล้อ

Honda Civic Type R (ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทพ์ อาร์) สร้างชื่อในการเป็นรถขับเคลื่อนล้อหน้าที่เร็วที่สุดรุ่นหนึ่งในโลกยานยนต์มาเนิ่นนาน

คิดดีแล้วหรือ? รวม 5 รถกระบะ EV ที่แปลกจนเราต้องแอบพูดว่า เอ๊ะ?

Ford F-150 EV Prototypeสำหรับรถคันแรกนั้นคือ Ford F-150 (ฟอร์ด เอฟ-150) EV Prototype กระบะ Full Size

Spy Shot: All-New 2020 BMW X3 ถูกจับภาพได้ก่อนขณะส่งทดสอบ

และเพิ่มการควบคุม iDriveเครื่องใหม่ไม่น้อยหน้าใครBMW X3 นี้จะออกมาเป็นคู่แข่งกับ Audi Q5, Mercedes-Benz GLC, Jaguar

ขายดีก็ขึ้นราคา 2021 Honda Civic Type R เพิ่มหมื่นกว่าบาท แต่ออพชั่นเหมือนเดิม

2021 Honda Civic Type R (ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทป์อาร์) รถเก๋งตัวแรงที่ใช้พื้นฐานจาก Honda Civic Hatchback ไปโมดิฟายจากโรงงานให้มีกำลัง

2022 Honda Civic เตรียมผลิต Type R มีเกียร์ธรรมดาเช่นเดิม แต่บอกลาตัวถังคูเป้เรียบร้อย

มีข่าวกำลังจะเปิดตัวเร็ว ๆ นี้ ทำกระแสไม่ทันจาง ก็มีข่าวล่าสุดว่า ตัวถังนี้จะถูกพัฒนาเป็นตัวแรงสูง Civic Type

พาชม 2020 Bangkok International Motor Show การจัดงานแบบ New Normal ที่ดูไม่เหมือนเดิมในปีนี้

พร้อมทำแคมเปญพิเศษให้กับ Kia Soul EV ในงานนี้ค่ายจากัวร์ แลนด์โรเวอร์ ส่งสินค้าทั้งหมดในมือเข้าสู่งานนี้ โดยเด่นด้วย Jaguar

งานรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าเข้าฟรี มีทุกรุ่นให้ลองขับ ระดับราคา 10,000,000 กว่าบาทก็มาด้วย

มาให้ขับจริงเกือบครบทุกรุ่น ประกอบด้วย Nissan Almera EV Takano Nissan Kicks MG ZS EV Hyundai Kona Volvo S60 T8 BMW i3 Jaguar

ดูเพิ่มเติม

สมาคมผู้ผลิตรถยนต์ยุโรปเตือน แผนรถพลังงานไฟฟ้าในยุโรปยังห่างไกลความเป็นจริง

” และ “สภาวะในปัจจุบันยังไม่พร้อมที่จะทำให้เกิดการเปลี่ยนแปลงอย่างก้าวกระโดด”2020 Jaguar

เปิดภาพเรนเดอร์ 2022 Honda Civic Type R เติมเต็มความสปอร์ตแบบวัยกลางคน?

ฮอนด้า ซีวิค) รุ่นโปรโตไทพ์ไปแล้วล่าสุดมีเรนเดอร์ภาพคอมพิวเตอร์ให้กลายเป็นเวอร์ชั่น 2022 Honda Civic Type

สวยเด่น Mazda MX-30 ชนะรางวัลด้าน Design ยอดเยี่ยมของ Japan Car of the Year 2020-2021

Mazda MX-30 ชนะรางวัล Design ดีเด่นในงานประกาศรางวัล Japan Car of the Year 2020-2021รางวัลในด้านดีไซน์ของ

Foton Big General กระบะจีนหน้าแอบคล้าย Ford F-150

หรือแปลง่ายๆว่า Big General (นายพลใหญ่) ที่ค่ายบอกว่าได้แรงบันดาลมาจากกระบะยักษ์ใหญ่จากแดนอเมริกาอย่าง Ford F-

ของมันต้องมี!? 2022 Honda Civic Type R อาจมาพร้อมหน้าตาแบบนี้

ภาพเรนเดอร์ 2022 Honda Civic Type R2022 Honda Civic Type R (2022 ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทพ์ อาร์) คือหนึ่งในรถคอมแพ็กต์สมรรถนะสูงที่น่าติดตามมากที่สุดในยุคเปลี่ยนผ่านจากเครื่องยนต์สันดาปสู่ระบบขับเคลื่อนไฟฟ้าความเคลื่อนไหวของ

Review: Lexus NX ครอสโอเวอร์พรีเมียมสุดหรู

SPORT ราคา 4.05 ล้านบาทในรุ่น NX 300 และราคา 4.45 ล้านบาท ในรุ่น NX 300h F SPORT โดยมีอัตราการประหยัดน้ำมันอยู่ที่

Review: 2020 Lexus RX รถอเนกประสงค์พรีเมียมทรงพลัง

กระจกรอบคันตัดแสง UV พร้อมระบบดูดซับเสียงภายนอก ไฟด้านหลังเป็น LED ที่ส่องสว่างชัดเจน ในรุ่น Lexus RX 300 F

มีเงิน 5 แสนแต่อยากดูรวย? รวม 6 รถมือสองน่าสนใจ ขับไปไหนก็ดูป๋า

Jaguar XJถ้าท่านคิดว่า รถรุ่นอื่น ๆ ในลิสต์นั้น ดูเป็นเศรษฐีเงินใหม่มากเกินไป งั้นก็ต้องลองตามหา Jaguar

ชมสปายช็อต 2022 Ford Ranger หน้าตาดุดันถอดแบบจาก F-150

มีกำหนดการเปิดตัวออกจำหน่ายในหลายประเทศทั่วโลก รวมถึงเมืองไทยภายในปีหน้า มีตำแหน่งการตลาดเป็นรถกระบะขนาดกลางระหว่างรุ่นใหญ่อย่าง Ford F-

Previewed 2022 New Mercedes-AMG SL |เปิดตัวกระบะไฟฟ้า 2022 Ford F-150 Lightning |ตัวอย่างใหม่สุด Fast & Furious 9|GMC Hummer EV Edition 1รุ่นใหม่ มีน้ำหนัก 4 ตัน

mdash;————————————2022 Ford F-

ส่องข้อดีข้อเสีย Jaguar XF ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ

Jaguar XF1.ดีไซน์ Jaguar XF หรูดูดี Jaguar XF มาในแบบสปอร์ตสุดเฉี่ยว ที่ให้ความเรียบหรูทันสมัยได้อย่างลงตัว

All-New Honda Civic Type R ภาพเรนเดอร์โชว์ลุคสปอร์ตแบบภูมิฐาน ขุมพลัง 400 แรงม้า?

Civic ดังกล่าวผสมผสานกับภาพสปายช็อตมาทำภาพเรนเดอร์กราฟฟิกในคอมพิวเตอร์ออกมาเป็นรุ่นสมรรถนะสูง Civic Type

หล่อเหลาเร้าใจสุด ๆ 2021 Honda City Hatchback เรนเดอร์กลายร่างเป็น Type R

ภาพร่าง Honda City Hatchback Type R2020 Honda City (ฮอนด้า ซิตี้) เป็นหนึ่งในรถยอดนิยมนับตั้งแต่เปิดตัวเมื่อปลายปีที่แล้ว

All-New Honda Civic Type R ใหม่ยังคงใช้เครื่องยนต์สันดาป แต่อาจเป็นรุ่นส่งท้าย?

สปายช็อต 2022 Honda Civic Type Rเผย 2022 Honda Civic Type R (ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทพ์ อาร์) รุ่นต่อไปจะยังคงใช้เครื่องยนต์สันดาปภายในเหมือนเดิม

รวมราคารถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในไทย ทุกรุ่นในปี 2021 ต้อนรับการมาของ ORA Good Cat

Jaguar i-Pace ราคา 5,500,000 บาท2021 จาร์กัวร์ ไอ-เพซ เอสยูวีที่เกิดมาเป็นรถพลังไฟฟ้าตั้งแต่เริ่ม แต่ด้วยราคาสูงถึง

2020 Honda Civic Type R ขายอังกฤษเริ่มต้น 1.3 ล้านบาท ราคาแพงขึ้นแต่ถูกจองหมดเกลี้ยง

Honda Civic Type R โฉมปี 2020 ไมเนอร์เชนจ์ใหม่ตามอายุตลาด ได้นำเข้าจากญี่ปุ่นไปขายในอังกฤษแล้ว ประกาศราคาเริ่มต้นที่ประมาณ

คนเอเชียได้ออกแบบ 2022 Ford Mustang หลังจากชาวมะกันเกษียณแล้ว งานนี้จะรอดหรือร่วง?

เกษียณหลังจากร่วมงานกันมา 26 ปีและจะได้ Anthony Lo จาก Renault มาแทนที่รถที่ออกแบบโดย Moray Callum1999 Ford F-

Review: Jaguar XE รถสปอร์ตสไตล์คนรุ่นใหม่

Jaguar (จากัวร์) ค่ายรถยนต์ระดับหรูส่ง 2019 Jaguar XE รถยนต์ซีดานสุดหรูที่มาพร้อมความพรีเมียมทุกมิติ

2021 Lexus IS500 F Sport Performance เครื่อง V8 ยังไม่ตาย

Sport Performanceด้วยเหตุนี้ เมื่อ Lexus ประกาศเปิดตัว Lexus IS500 F Sport Performance (เลกซัส ไอเอส500

2022 Honda Civic Type R เรนเดอร์ล่าสุด เผยสเปกถูกใจสาวกเหยียบคลัตช์-ยัดเกียร์

ภาพเรนเดอร์ 2022 Honda Civic Type R2022 Honda Civic Type R (2022 ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทพ์ อาร์) ถูกสร้างภาพเรนเดอร์คอมพิวเตอร์ล่าสุดหลังจากมีการเปิดตัวรุ่นสแตนดาร์ดอย่างเป็นทางการ

วิดีโอรถยนต์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง jaguar f pace type of gas

jaguar f pace type of gas-jaguar f pace type of gas-2021 Jaguar F-Type R Review, Pricing, and Specs more detail in description

jaguar f pace type of gas-The Differences between 2WD, 4WD & AWD and Which one is best?

jaguar f pace type of gas-2021 Jaguar F-Pace Review, Pricing, and Specs, Performance, design...

jaguar f pace type of gas-2021 The New Jaguar F-PACE P250 AWD Review, Pricing, Specs Car Driver more detail in description

jaguar f pace type of gas-2021 Jaguar F-type R Review, Pricing, and Specs - Car and Driver more detail in description

jaguar f pace type of gas-jaguar f pace type of gas-2021 Jaguar F-Type Review, Pricing, and Specs - Car and Driver more detail in description

jaguar f pace type of gas-How to use a tyre repair kit - Which? guide

jaguar f pace type of gas-New Jaguar i Pace electric suv |2019| technology features | Jaguar car videos | Cargurus

jaguar f pace type of gas-Jaguar F - Pace

jaguar f pace type of gas-jaguar f pace type of gas-Most economical SUVs, 4x4s and crossovers 2018

รีวิว Q&A jaguar f pace type of gas

Is it a bad idea to buy a 2007 Jaguar XK with 62000 miles costing $18K USD on it as a 25-year-old making 115K?

FIrst let me say Jaguars are my favorite cars. We currently own an F-Pace and love it. Prior to that’s we had an XKL 2005-it was gorgeous. So to me, if you’re going to buy a car-it should be a Jaguar. Personal preference I suppose. BUT…These are high maintenance vehicles-any time you need even the slightest maintenance (replacing a headlight which we did often in our sedan as they had issues with headlights-you drop an easy hundred bucks) plus you have to use the most expensive gas. A car that is 11years old is bound to need more maintenance than a newer car-and Jags need a lot of TLC. If you are a really responsible 25 year old who can give it proper care, and if you have a garage to keep it in (they don’t like cold weather much) then MAYBE. but be prepared for more than just the car payment for upkeep. It would have to be in pristine condition with no history for me. If I were you I’d buy something more practical and low maintenance and save up for an F-type 5 http://speed….my dream car since I was about 10.

What is the best SUV?

That’s difficult to answer because there are many types of SUVs. I can make a recommendation in a few different categories, though. 4x4: Jeep Wrangler It’s got the most to offer to off-roaders for the price. It’s also one of the last classic SUVs that hasn’t been ruined by the crossover trend. Compact/Efficient SUV: Toyota C-HR This new SUV has all the updated safety and convenience goodies but still isn’t very expensive. It’s a Toyota, which is known as one of the most reliable makes. Hopefully a hybrid will be introduced soon, so it can really be a modern gas sipper. Some C-HR details: What is the Best SUV for 2018? Mid-Size SUV: Toyota Highlander or Jaguar F-Pace This one comes down to your lifestyle, in my opinion. If you need to tow things or go off road often, go with the Highlander. It’s a Toyota SUV. Nuff said. But if you will mainly stay on the road and you’re more interested in style and luxury, the F-Pace is a good choice. It’s built on the XE’s platform, if I’m not mistaken, which is a good one. And it’s available with a diesel engine. Large SUV: Yeesh, I don’t know…Tahoe or Expedition?? These large SUVs tend to be really durable compared to the sedans and smaller SUVs of their respective brand lines. I think all of the full-size SUVs are kind of a toss-up. I’ve always liked Tahoes. Luxury SUV: Land Rover Range Rover There’s nothing quite like it. It’s a real SUV but it’s also super classy and comfy. Great vehicle.

Why don't bigger car companies such as Ford start producing electric cars, eliminating Tesla's presence in the emerging market, thus claiming said market share for themselves?

I went for a Jaguar i-Pace test drive. His eyes gleam when he speaks about the F-type, it’s 5 liter V8 with 575 HP. He very reluctantly speaks about the i-Pace. Not his cup of tea. Regular car makers cannot switch overnight to electric. They need ICE sales to stay in business, and having a clear message is difficult. Which is best? Electric or gas? Make a very good electric, and your bread and butter ICE business vanishes. Jag made a very capable electric which is fine as a second car. Volvo created a specific brand, Polestar. This may help them in their communication and branding. What makes a Ford a Ford? What’s the DNA of a brand?

What has been done to reduce global warming? Have these brought any noticeable changes in the global climate change?

I opine that little is done in India and most part of the world to reduce Global Warming. In India. I can list out what has to be done. That can mend and defend the end of this world. The only solution to turn away the catastrophe is to adopt Negative Emission Technologies that can cut emissions. We must be able to remove billions of tons of CO2 . It requires a big study and exploitation.Current knowledge on negative emissions technologies is incomplete. The global warming potential of 6 major greenhouse gases. The measure takes into account the heat trapping abilities and the time the gas stays in the atmosphere. GASes that cause GLOBAL WARMING 1) CO2 , 2) CH4 , 3) N2O 4) HFC 5) PFC & 6) SF6 4. Hydrofluro carbons (HFCs) are manmade chemicals 5. Perfluro Carbons (PFCs), primarily released through aluminium production, refrigeration equipment and semi-conductor manufacture. They are largely immune to the process that breaks down most pollutants in the atmosphere 6. Sulphur Hexa fluride (SF6) is manmade chemical. We can slow the Global Warming and reduce the consequences that will occur. I give below some of my thoughts that can control the Global Warming. 1. Population .As the population grows, people need to remove more trees. They use the land to make farms. They use the wood from the trees to make buildings and other things, or they burn the trees as firewood. Sometimes, forests are lost because people want to make cities bigger. Deforestation may be caused due to increase of population. According to David Attenborough “Instead of controlling the environment for the benefit of population, maybe we should control the population to ensure the survival of our environment. Population growth is not the direct cause of global warming, burning fossil fuels is. CO2 emissions are reasonably well correlated to population. The average human exhales about 2.3 pounds of carbon dioxide on an average day. (The exact quantity depends on your activity level—a person engaged in vigorous exercise produces up to eight times as much CO2 as his sedentary brethren.).Think of the CO2 released by 1.3 billion population. Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion. According to David Suzuki, If we want to address global warming, along with the other environmental problems associated with our continued rush to burn our precious fossil fuels as quickly as possible, we must learn to use our resources more wisely, kick our addiction, and quickly start turning to sources of energy that have fewer negative impacts. Pollution from human activities is changing the Earth's climate. We see the damage that a disrupted climate can do: on our coasts, our farms, forests, mountains, and cities. Those impacts will grow more severe unless we start reducing global warming pollution now. Impact on Economy. Population growth can safely be singled out as the most important cause of a number of ills of the Indian economy. If the population of the country increases, the rate of growth of per capita falls to keep pace with the rate of growth of national power. Increasing population increases the supply of manpower which ultimately results in high unemployment rate. There is already lack of housing, education and health care facilities in the country, which demand an additional expenditure in these sectors, .Steps to bring the population under control requires immediate attention as overpopulation results in inadequate fresh water for drinking, depletion of natural resources, increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution, deforestation and loss of ecosystems' changes in atmospheric composition and consequent global warming, Irreversible loss of arable land and increases in desertification, mass species extinctions, etc. It may also result in low hygiene conditions and conflict over scarce resources and crowding, leading to increased levels of warfare and may lead to less personal freedom or more restrictive . Population growth is the gravest issue the world faces. It is worse than nuclear war. If we do not commit ourselves, the poser will be solved by famine, riots, revolt and war India has 380 million acres of cultivable land for 1300 million populations. Each person will get less than 30 cents for his one year food. In that 30 cents poultry, cattle and dog food must come. To fill his belly for one year a person requires 2 acres of land. If calculated on that basis, India can have a population of 180 million. India has 200 million excess populations Does India have a plan? Yes, China did it and grew.. China created over 120 million jobs – 12 million a year, one million a month – between 2002 and 2012. In contrast, India created 60 million jobs between 2005 and 2010. Worse, nearly four of 10 jobs created were in the low-skilled construction sector Government Efforts Government must encourage people to have one child helping the child to get government facilities. As Artificial intelligence and robots can do jobs better in future, getting a job may pose a problem. Global warming will bring rough going. Hence it is better not to have children. If they get children, children will suffer. We do not have walking space in cities. Most of the streets are parked by vehicles on either side and enough garbage and sewage in the streets. This is caused by population. We do not have stringent laws to curtail birth rate. Useless laws weaken the necessary laws. China is the most populous nation of the world. It realized the concern to plummet the population growth rate. So being an autocratic government, the decision making was easy. It made straight laws of not having more than two children per family. It’s going to be a huge infrastructure challenge. People in India are already perched on the rooftops of trains and hanging out of bus doors. Our buses now pack more than the population of some small countries. We must curb Population Growth. It must be the top most priority of India. If population is set right, all conflicts and problems will be set right. Not by other ways. 2. Emissions from waste disposal and sewage. Treatment of organic waste keeps environment clean. We must get fuel from MSW, sewage, human, Animal & agricultural waste. In cities we can get fuel from MSW, Sewage, human & slaughter house waste. MSW is treated with enzymes cellulase, hemicellulase, Xylase amylase, lipase & protease. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is conversion of organic material directly to biogas, a mixture of CH4 and CO2. It is decomposed by microbial consortium. AD of biomass requires less investment per unit production cost compared to other renewable energy sources, such as hydro, solar & wind energy. Biogas production from crop residues is economically feasible on a farm-scale level. On scrubbing bio-gas can be utilised as fuel. If left on nature, methane and CO2 cause Global Warming. How can we control Global warming from waste? 1. Convert all human and animal waste as Methane 2. CO2 produced during bio-gas should not reach atmosphere. Pass the Co2 through salt water or Ammonia solution. We get Ammonia or Sod. Bi carbonate Methane should not reach atmosphere. It must be burnt as cooking fuel or vehicle fuel to arrest Global Warming 3. Control Of GHG By Plasma Gasification Plasma gasification is thermal process using plasma which converts organic matter into syngas made up of H2 & CO. Plasma torch powered by an electric arc ionize gas and catalyse organic matter into syngas with slag remaining as a by-product. It is used commercially as a form of waste treatment for gasification of MSW, biomass, industrial waste, hazardous waste, and solid hydrocarbons, Advantages : Hazardous, medical and toxic waste can be handled. Less amount of waste and slag generation compared to incineration plant. No harmful emissions. Great technology to get rid of plastics waste. It mitigates land-filling area required. Syngas produced can be used for electricity generation or for heating applications. How can plasma Gasification control Global Warming? 1. Plasma gasification is benchmarked against conventional incineration, a commonly used thermal treatment method in waste processing. 2. The process yields significant impacts on climate change, human toxicity, PM formation, metal depletion and fossil depletion impact categories. 3. Plasma gasification can achieve the goals of Enhanced Landfill Mining environmentally. 4. Plasma gasification has the potential to “eat up” all this trash, leaving only energy and valuable materials (and producing no greenhouse gas emissions. Taiwan, Japan, England,US & Canada have the technology. Can India wake up? 5. Each ton gives us 600 litres of ethanol, 825 KWH of electricity and slag 6. India can utilise Plasma Gasification to recycle the waste of automobile, air-conditioners & refrigerators. Auto-shredding plants save foreign exchange & preserve natural resources like iron ore 4. Converting industrial smoke as ethanol How can smoke cause Global Warming? Manufacturing industries release large amount of CO, HC, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air thereby depleting the quality of air. Smoke causes Air Pollution, Release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include CO, SO2, CFCs and NOx produced by industry. Ozone and smog are created as NOx and HC react to sunlight. PM or fine dust is size PM10 to PM2.5. Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. Remedy for Industrial Smoke. Industrial smoke can be converted as electricity and ethanol. Emission from chimneys can be compressed in cylinders and sent by blowers or vacuum suckers to gasifier. From gasifiers emission is treated by plasma pyrolysis, scrubbed and converted as ethanol in bioreactor by anaerobic microbes that can convert the gas into ethanol. Industrial combustion is formed by N2 80–90% , CO2 10–15% , CO 40–85 ppm, NOx7–25 ppm SO1–20 ppm. HC& furans are low. Emission gases from industries may be devoid of hydrogen. For preparation of ethanol, C, H2 & O2 are needed. We can add steam or MSW along with industrial smoke for H2 supply to produce ethanol. 5. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning vehicles All the world's nations combined pumped nearly 38.2 billion tons of CO2 into the air from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, according to new international calculations on global emissions published in the journal Nature Climate Change. Dec 2, 2012 A typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 metric tons of CO2 per year. This assumes the average gasoline vehicle on the road today has a fuel economy of about 22.0 miles per gallon and drives around 11,500 miles per year. Every gallon of gasoline burned creates about 8,887 grams of CO2. The four main pollutant emissions from diesel engines CO, HC, PM and NOx How can we control CO2 to control Global Warming? It can be controlled by absorbing atmospheric green House Gases by the vehicles when they run. An exhaust can be devised to adsorb all pollutants. Atmospheric air can be scrubbed. Road dust can also be reduced drastically. 6. Electrical Vehicles with no grid charging I am not an engineer and I am not quite competent to talk on this area. Yet with my common sense and basic science knowledge, I feel we can. Because we know more when we do and interact. I even dream an electric tractor and bike with shaft driven. Vehicles must have lifting gas. That makes facile running. If I dream a dream alone, it will be a dream. If I dream a dream with a knowledgeable team and a theme it can be supreme and clearer like a running stream Battery electric vehicles use electricity stored in a battery pack to power an electric motor and turn the wheels. When depleted, the batteries are recharged using grid electricity. It is cheaper to run.. It is better for the environment with health benefits. Fossil fuels pollute environment and its reserve is limited India's dependence on imported fossil fuels rose to 38% in 2012. When we charge vehicles from fossil fuel produced electricity, environment is polluted. We can get electricity for vehicles from 4 sources 1. Rotating wheels 2. Wind energy 3. Piezoelectricity from tires and 4. Solar Energy Every rotating object is a potential electric generator. Generator attached to the wheels slows the car down, converting the vehicle's inertia into electricity and diverts the inertia energy, causing a decrease in inertia, resulting in lower speed, while converting inertia into electricity. Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion. Tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion varies with mass. It can be designed to get electricity from wheels avoiding installing stator and rotor medial to wheels. We must steer clear of interaction of generator and braking system and inertia. Apart from Rotating wheels, wind energy, Piezoelectricity from tires and Solar Energy can be made use of. Wind Energy HELIX-WIND TURBINE and VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE can be planned for wind energy. Shell-shaped wind turbine offers silent and efficient energy production In a jaguar concept car a thin coating of piezoelectric materials were fastened on outside of the body. When the car moves down a road, air moving past deforms the piezoelectric materials generating electricity to recharge the car battery. The design has the potential to develop into electric cars with unlimited range. Solar Energy. V3Solar's spinning solar cells generate 20 times more electricity than flat photovoltaic. The Spin Cell could be a game-changer in its market. V3 explains that if one places a 20x solar concentration on a flat, static solar panel then “the temperature quickly reaches 260 degree F, the solder melts within ten seconds, and the PV fails. With the same concentration on the Spin Cell, temp. never exceeds 95degree F.” One meter-diameter cones feature a layer of hundreds of triangular photovoltaic cells positioned at an angle of 56 degrees, encased in a “static hermetically-sealed outer lens concentrator. To my knowledge, nobody has used V3Solar's spinning solar cells in a car. How can we control Global Warming with Electric cars? Electric cars with no grid charging will not pollute environment and can run any distance. I must borrow the brain of intelligentsia to set right my ideas.. 7 .Electricity Production for India Electricity production generates the second largest share of greenhouse gas emissions. Approximately 68 % of our electricity comes from burning fossil fuels, mostly coal and natural gas.. Fossil fuels pollute environment and its reserve is limited. Nuclear energy possesses high effectiveness. Can it be the answer to energy crisis? Radiation leaking of Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan ruined thousands of acres land, damaged the water and harmed the creatures.. Imagine millions of nuclear power plants were built on earth; we are living in a heap of nuclear bombs. Nothing is 100% fail-proofs. Nuclear disasters like Chernobyl, had proven nuclear power to be too dangerous to use. Terrorists could attack and use the radiation to make an attack 100 times worse than 9/11. Can we change big Nuclear Power plants? YES. India can get electricity from 12 sources. 1. Nuclear Power, 2. Plasma Arc Gasification, 3. Solar Energy 4. Wind Energy 5. Biomass Energy 6. Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil and Natural Gas) 7. Hydroelectric Energy. 8 Tidal Energy 9. Wave Energy 10. Geothermal Energy 11. Hydrogen Energy and 12. Piezoelectricity We can avoid Big Nuclear power plants and Fossil fuel I give below 9 ideas of producing electricity that do not pollute air or cause Global Warming. The projects can be taken up in India. 1. SMALLER MODULAR REACTORS This can be installed in every city in India. This will give trouble free service for 3 decades. It can be buried under the ground providing more security and protection from natural hazards. There will not be any long electrical wires and posts throughout the country in SMRs. Electricity Transmission loss when electricity conducted from nuclear plant to other sites is Distribution loss 22.77% and Transmission loss 22.77% and Total loss is 45.54%.. There will not be any power failure with SMRs. SMRs are a type of NUCLEAR FISSION REACTORS smaller and manufactured at a plant and brought to site to site of construction. It needs less space, It is efficient, and its nuclear materials safe; It can be installed easily. SMRs are useful in remote locations where there is a deficiency of trained workers and a higher cost of shipping. It is not necessary that we must have a coastal area like bigger units. Safety features include a natural cooling feature that can function in the absence of external power; which was precisely the problem in Japan when the 2011 tsunami hit. SMR has the advantage of having underground placement of the reactors and spent-fuel storage pools, which provides more security. Small nuclear reactors have been considered as solutions to many energy problems in these hard-to-reach places. One kilogram of uranium can produce as much energy as 1500 tons of coal. Currently, most of the SMR reactors use water as a coolant SMRs withstand earthquakes, tsunamis, fires, floods and acts of terrorism. India should not stretch its hand to other countries for Nuclear power. We must solve our problem. SMRs must be manufactured in India. It serves better than Conventional Nuclear Reactor. Modular Reactors are safe, small, and simple. SMR nuclear plants with capacity of 300 megawatts can supply electricity to run 50,000 homes. Smaller designs produce as little as 25 megawatts of power — same as five large wind turbines. Some factories in India can go for 25 megawatts power of their own. They do not need any help from the Government for electricity. 2. PLASMA GASIFICATION PLANTS. By plasma pyrolysis, from every ton we can get 825 Kilo watt hours of electricity. So total power of electricity is 55 million ton or (55,000 giga ton) X 825 = 45325000 giga watt hour of electricity every year. 5% of US electricity is met by this way. The waste from each city, town and villages can be utilized for Electricity production. India can meet 10% of electricity from Plasma Gasification Plants. By plasma gasification for every ton of MSW we get 825KWh of electricity apart from ethanol. 3.WIND ENERGY Wind turbines use wind energy to generate electricity. Negligible Greenhouse Gases: The sources of most of our power, coal and natural gas, produce large quantities of greenhouse gases. From Wind Power we could get 5735 Megawatt power. Total wind energy used in India is 8.6% 4.BIOMASS ENERGY. Biomass energy is produced from organic material and is commonly used throughout the world. Energy of biomass is extracted from MSD, kitchen waste, Sewage, Crops and Landfill gases. Biomass is a clean renewable energy resource derived from the waste of various human and natural activities. BIOGAS. Biogas is a combustible gas mixture produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter.Biogas consists of methane 65-70%, CO2, 25-30%, Methane is the valuable component in biogas fuel. The calorific value of biogas is 6 kWh/m3 which corresponds to about half a litre of diesel. Mechanical energy that activates a generator produces electrical power. Heat engines used in for biogas energy conversion are gas turbines and combustion engines. 5. SOLAR ENERGY. Solar Power can be tapped and we can produce electricity from sun. The problem is we need 5 acres of land to produce 1 Megawatt. We have land problem. We can plan that all street lights are solar powered. All agricultural pumps must run with sun power. With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, theoretically calculated solar energy incidence on India's land area is about 5000 trillion kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year ADVANTGE OF SOLAR ENERGY. Energy reaching the earth is incredible. By one calculation, 30 days of sun shine striking the earth have the energy equivalent of the total of all the planet’s fossil fuel, both used and unused 6. HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY. A dam can give us hydropower. The power of water can be used to turn generators to produce electricity. Aging of dams is the problem in getting hydropower from the dams. Our drinkable water supply that is dwindling may lead to winding up to consume the water that can provide power. It has high investment costs. Hydroelectricity generates electricity by harnessing the gravitational force of falling water. HYDRO POWER FROM WATER FALLS. Hydro power plant can be implemented in water falls to produce power to meet small demands. India has more than 400 Waterfalls. The principle behind this is similar to a hydro power plant. Plant produces power from falling water from the top. The produced power is stored in battery and used. The hydraulic energy produced by the natural waterfall is not yet utilized. Piezo-electric generator can be mounted at the base of waterfall where the water reaches at a high pressure that can produce electricity. Base part of waterfall acquires large amount of forced water fall and people gathering help in power generation from the vibrations created by piezo-electric generator. 7. TIDAL ENERGY SCOPE IN INDIA. Tidal power is a form of hydropower that converts energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. According to estimates of the Indian government, India has a potential of 8,000 MW of tidal energy. This includes about 7,000 MW in the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, 1,200 MW in the Gulf of Kutch and 100 MW in the Gangetic delta in the Sunderbans region of West Bengal. OFFSHORE TURBINE. Tidal turbines work much like submerged windmills, but driven by flowing water rather than air. They can be installed in the sea at places with high tidal current velocities, to take out copious quantities of energy from these huge volumes of flowing water. This is much cheaper to build. 8. WAVE POWER IN INDIA. There is tremendous energy in ocean waves. It is estimated that the total energy potential of waves off the coasts of the United States is 252 billion kilowatt-hours a year, the equivalent of about 6% of U.S. electricity generation in 2014. Though the government of Gujarat is constructing India’s biggest tidal barrage off the coast of the Arabian Sea, wave energy projects have been few and far between. There are no big wave energy plants in India except pilot plant at Vizinjham Fisheries Harbor near Trivandrum in Kerala. Sagar Shakthi is a 1 MW OTEC plant built off the Tuticorn coast which utilizes the temperature different wave energy device. 9. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN INDIA. . The biggest disadvantage with geothermal energy is that it can only be produced at selected sites throughout the world. India has reasonably good potential for geothermal; the potential geothermal provinces can produce 10,600 MW of power. The most promising of these is in Puga valley of Ladakh. The estimated potential for geothermal energy in India is about 10000 MW. There are seven geothermal provinces in India:1) the Himalayas,2) Sohana,3) West coast, 4)Cambay,5)Son-Narmada-Tapi (SONATA), 6)Godavari, and 7) Mahanadi Global Warming can be prevented by taking up the above 9 ways of Producing Electricity. We must give up producing Electricity from Big Nuclear Plants and Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil and Natural Gas. 8 Global Warming from animals and agriculture Level of CO2 in the atmosphere is maintained by several processes including photosynthesis, respiration and combustion. Green plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis IMPACT ON ANIMAL AGRICULTURE. Animal agriculture is the second largest contributor to human-made greenhouse gas emissions after fossil fuels. RESOURCES AND PRODUCTION. For 70 billion animals raised annually for human consumption, a third of the land, as well as nearly 16% of water, is devoted to livestock. A third of worldwide grain production is used to feed livestock. By 2050, consumption of meat 76% and dairy products 64% is expected to rise. That will increase the resource burden from the industry. Cattle on beef consumption create 1,984 pounds of CO2 annually. Replacing beef with plants reduce that figure 96%, bringing it down to just 73 pounds of CO2 CONSEQUENCES AND IMPACTS. Tackling Climate Change through Livestock, a widely-cited 2013 report by the UN FAO, estimates about 14.5 % of global GHG emissions, or 7.1 gigatons of CO2 equivalent, can be attributed to the livestock sector annually. This is equivalent to the emissions from all the fuel burned by all the world’s transport vehicles, including cars, trucks, trains, boats and airplanes. This is caused by Animal agriculture specifically: MITIGATION AND ACTION. Global GHG emissions from the livestock sector increased by 51% between 1961 and 2010, spurred by a 54 % increase in methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock manure. One gigaton of CO2 equivalent worth of animal-based foods is wasted globally every year. GLOBAL WARMING FROM LIVESTOCK & AGRICULTURE “80% of global warming comes from livestock and deforestation.” Greenhouse gas emissions are from fossil fuel, deforestation, and intensive livestock farming, use of synthetic fertilizers and industrial processes. It is also through natural processes like animal & plant respiration. Livestock farming is an important source of methane emissions. During the digestion of ruminants, they create large amounts of methane. Methane is formed as by product of fermentation in the rumen. Cows have the highest production rate of methane. On a global scale, ruminants are responsible for 1/5th of all the methane formed but in more rural environments they can be responsible for almost 50% of all methane formed. Globally, ruminants produce about 80 million metric tons of methane annually accounting for about 28% of global methane emissions from human related activities. The world's 1.5 billion cows and billions of other grazing animals emit dozens of polluting gases, including lots of methane. Cow expels up to 500 litres of methane a day. Methane is comparable to pollution produced by a car in a day. A cow emits on an average between 70 to 120 kg of CH4/ year. Therefore release of 100 kg methane per year for each cow is equivalent to about 2100 kg CO2 per year. The same amount of CO2 is generated by burning 1000 litres of petrol. Microbes create methane gas as a by-product. Cows on planet produce more methane than all other ruminants combined, REDUCE CH4, REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING With millions of ruminants in Britain, including 10 million cows, a strong push is underway to curb methane emissions there. In 2003, the government of New Zealand proposed a flatulence tax, which was not adopted because of public protest. So we know that ruminants produce enormous quantities of methane. “If we can reduce methane emissions, then we can rapidly reduce the effect on climate change." Scientists are looking for ways to decrease cow methane. They try different plants and chemical compounds, those products would be too costly and difficult to feed the cows economically. Now, what we can be done? ELIMINATE THE RUMINATES The only way is eliminate or reduce the ruminants. Then, what to do to meat, milk and eggs? Lab-grown meat can be the target to dislodge the animal from meat production. World of food is entering a new era to make meat without animals, Cultured meat. Lab-grown meat, in vitro meat and synthetic meat are the names for growing muscle cells in a nutrient serum. Using cellular agriculture we could grow artificial meat with characteristic combination of animals, Presentation of the first beef burger created from stem cells harvested from a living cow on august 5, 2013 in London. Scientists call “the biggest agricultural revolution since the domestication of livestock” ARTIFICIAL MEAT, A POSITIVE IMPACT Livestock farming takes up a huge amount of land and water per calorie of food compared to crops. According to the UN, in terms of greenhouse emissions, it is as bad as burning fossil fuels. Rising income in developing countries means that more people are eating meat than ever before, reducing the amount of land available for much-needed crops, and contributing to climate change. Growing meat artificially can only have a positive impact on animal welfare. Initially it can be expensive meat. In a few years of commercial production price will fall. MANUFACTURING MEAT IN VITRO Science behind growing meat without animals is fairly simple. Growing cells of cultured meat is not different from other ‘cell culture’ methods that biologists have used to study cells since the early 1900s. Process starts with a few ‘satellite’ cells obtained from a small sample of muscle taken from a live animal. These are stem cells that turn into different cells found in muscle. Just one cell could be used to grow an infinite amount of meat that is cooked and consumed as boneless processed meat. QUANTUM OF CO2 FROM RUMINANTS AND FARM LAND According to FAO of the UN, agriculture is responsible for 18% of the total release of greenhouse gases world- All ruminants on the world emit about two billion metric tons of CO2-equivalents per year NATURE DEVISED CARBON CAPTURE. The best method for carbon capture is what nature had devised natural balance Reforestation and Afforestation. Afforestation is planting trees where there were previously none. Reforestation is restoring areas where the trees have been cut down. Trees take up CO2 from the atmosphere as they grow. Planting more trees boosts CO2 absorption. As a method of removing CO2 from atmosphere, this is one of the most feasible options, ATMOSPHERIC CO2 SCRUBBED. During nights when plants respire CO2 is released. Funnel shaped air sucking device can be planned to suck CO2 in air in nights. It can be installed in forest and in areas where more trees are.CO2 can be dissolved in saline water and we can get http://Sod.bi carbonate. This can bring down atmospheric CO2 in that area. It can be planned in other areas too. LAB-GROWN MEAT IS INEVITABLE. . We must be able to produce meat, milk and eggs synthetically. This can help to avoid GHGs. that come only from ruminants. In 2013, two people tasted a burger made from cultured meat. It was their first introduction to lab-grown meat & researchers creating it. "Some intense taste" was noted Now, less than 5 years later, more than 7 companies are developing cultured meat to bring it to the market, Scientists do what happens naturally, but they do it outside of an animal. SYNTHETIC FISH MEAT Sustainable seafood’ grows in a lab instead of the ocean Sea is polluted by plastic and fine particles of plastic may enter fish meat. World's oceans are suffering from overfishing SYNTHETIC MILK It involves lab-grown milk, which does not come from cows and reduces carbon emission. Earlier in 2014, a synthetic dairy start-up called Muufri ( “Moo-free") was founded by 2 Indian bioengineers in California - Perumal Gandhi and Ryan Pandya. They work on perfecting artificial cow's milk made from a special variety of yeast that has been genetically engineered to produce milk protein. The process uses bioengineered yeast to produce real milk protein. This is done adding cow DNA to yeast cells, which are then combined in vats with fatty acids and water to produce milk. Its milk is just one of a string of synthetic or value-added dairy products being developed for the global market. bioengineered milk has a large market for milk alternatives. SYNTHETIC EGGS. A radical ‘artificial egg’ backed by Paypal billionaire Peter Thiel and Bill Gates went on sale in US supermarkets for the first time . Made from plants, it can replace eggs in everything without a chicken ever coming close to the production process. The eggs are called Beyond Eggs, in Whole Foods in California - and say it could soon be available in supermarkets worldwide. Artificial milk or hen-free egg whites can be created by yeast that has been genetically altered to produce the proteins found in milk or eggs, which are then extracted and blended in the right amounts. FUTURE MEAT,MILK AND EGGS FROM LABS. The environmental impact of reducing the world’s cattle herds, which are major emitters of methane, would be profound. Meat, eggs and milk could be produced in lab without killing or harming animals thanks to microbe cultures. The future of food as we know it may be forever changed, allowing even vegetarians and vegans to eat hamburgers and milkshakes again. Animals need not be forced to live in inhuman conditions “If US switched to Lab-Grown Meats beef, we would expect the greenhouse gas reduction to be like taking almost 23million cars off the road. One burger could save the amount of water used in 51 showers,” Cellular agriculture may represent the future of human food production. In five to 10 years, these products may hit our shelves at reasonable prices, and help humanity reduce its dependence on animal farming. US, Israel, china, Netherlands and European Countries have taken up artificial meat, milk and eggs. India is yet to enter. We must electrify into activity. 9 Deforestation Bhutan despite being a poor, tiny nation, it is the first and only country to officially be carbon negative. Kingdom of Bhutan is a remarkable country Deforestation is when forests are destroyed by cutting trees (logging) and not replanting them. Sometimes deforestation happens when people change lands into farms, ranches and cities. The most common cause for deforestation is obtaining wood and fuel.Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses. An estimated 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares) of forest are lost each year Deforestation can have a negative impact on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. 80% of Earth's land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes. Deforestation also drives climate change According to satellite data, tropical forests are being destroyed at a rate of about 8 million hectares (31,000 square miles) a year ​Every day, about 81,000 hectares (200,000 acres) of rainforest are burned around the world.​ ​​​​​ In 2015, nearly 6,000 square kilometres of forests were lost in 2015 in the Brazilian Amazon alone, cut or burned to build ranches, croplands and roads. ​ Indonesia has the highest deforestation rate in the world, losing 15 million acres of forest between 2000 and 2012. ​ ​ More than 1 billion rural people depend on forests and over 90 % of people living in extreme poverty depend on forests for all or part of their livelihoods. ​When forests are cleared, they emit carbon dioxide. 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans can be blamed on deforestation — equivalent to the emissions from all the cars and trucks on Earth. Deforestation and Global Warming. Deforestation can have a negative impact on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. 80% of Earth's land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes. Deforestation also drives climate change. Deforestation is the main reason for global warming.The effects of deforestation are long lasting and devastating. Entire species of insects and animals have disappeared because of the destruction of their habitats. Deforestation can cause catastrophic flooding as well. And scientists see that deforestation has a significant effect on climate change, or global warming. 10. Plastic pollution Plastic pollution adversely affects wildlife habitat and humans. Plastic pollution afflicts land, waterways and oceans. As of 2018, about 380 million tonnes of plastic is produced worldwide each year. From the 1950s up to 2018, an estimated 6.3 billion tonnes of plastic has been produced worldwide, of which an estimated 9% has been recycled. 12% has been incinerated. 90% of seabirds are affected by plastic debris. If we could recycle entire plastic waste, there will not be any plastic Pollution. It is very much possible to recycle entire plastic. ILL EFFECTS OF PLASTIC BURNING Burning plastic leads to environmental pollution due to release of poisonous chemicals. Plastic affects human health. Toxic chemicals leach out of plastic & are found in blood and tissue of nearly all of us. Exposure to them is linked to cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption and other ailments. Can waste plastic be utilised valuably? Yes it can be WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF USING PLASTIC? The benefits of plastics are unmatched by any other material, says the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI). It is light, easily shaped, strong, and inexpensive. Its ability to guard against contamination makes it useful in sterile medical environments such as hospitals. Plastic can be coloured, melted, shaped, squashed, rolled into sheets or made into fibres plastics. Plastic is hygienic and not poison to our bodies. Plastic is made as strong ropes fishing lines, glues & paints. ADVANTAGES OF PLASTICS Plastic is corrosion resistant & chemically inert. It has low thermal expansion of co-efficient & possesses good thermal & electrical insulating property. Plastic is very good water resistant & possess good adhesiveness. Plastic is strong, good and cheap to produce. Plastic packaging is durable, Plastic packaging is very thin. It uses fewer resources & takes up less space for transport. Plastics are transformed in many different ways. Plastic is used for food and non-food packaging. WASTE PLASTIC CAN BE UTILISED IN 5 WAYS 1. Waste plastic to manufacture ethanol & electricity. Waste plastic gives fuel and electricity to us 2. Waste Plastics to manufacture bricks &tiles. It saves mother earth, cement and sand 3. Developing composites from waste plastic and sawdust. It saves trees 4. Plastic Pollution in sea can be converted as fuel for ships. Gives fuel to ships& controls emission 5. Plastic can be utilised for roads. Saves bitumen & we get better roads REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS BY RECYCLING PLASTICS Waste management generates greenhouse gas emissions both directly and indirectly. Direct emissions are generated during waste collection and transportation, during waste pre-treatment, in waste utilization processes, in landfill during decomposing and in waste combustion Indirect emissions are connected to waste management from other functions such as energy consumption in the production, transportation and use of materials, Material recycling can decrease both the direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. Material recycling reduces the amount of waste disposed of at landfill sites and thereby the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released from landfills. It is possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by material recycling. Recycling produces high greenhouse gas saving potential.. Apart from above 10 ideas, 11. Crackers must be made with no chemicals and 12. Ship pollution must be controlled. Corporate like TATA, Mahindra, & TVS can help

FAQs ที่เกี่ยวข้อง jaguar f pace type of gas

  • Q

    ถุงลมฝั่งคนนั่งของJaguar F-Paceมีอะไรบ้าง

    มีให้เธอเสมอ

    มีถุงลมฝั่งคนนั่งและรุ่นย่อยของJaguar F-Pace ได้แก่

    อ่านเพิ่มเติม
  • Q

    ระบบแจ้งเตือนแรงดันลมยางของJaguar F-Paceมีอะไรบ้าง

    Thawatchai Audy

    มีระบบแจ้งเตือนแรงดันลมยางและรุ่นย่อยของJaguar F-Pace ได้แก่

    อ่านเพิ่มเติม
  • Q

    ระบบเตือนเมื่อมีรถเคลื่อนผ่านขณะถอยของJaguar F-Paceมีอะไรบ้าง

    จิ๊ป คับ

    มีระบบเตือนเมื่อมีรถเคลื่อนผ่านขณะถอยและรุ่นย่อยของJaguar F-Pace ได้แก่

    อ่านเพิ่มเติม

Tags

เพจ & แท็กยอดนิยม

หน้าหลัก