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4 สูบ ขนาด 2.5 ลิตร ไม่มีระบบอัดอากาศ ทำงานประสานกับมอเตอร์ไฟฟ้ากำลัง 225 กิโลวัตต์ ขับเคลื่อน 4 ล้อ2020

ดูเพิ่มเติม

2020 Honda Civic Type R ขายอังกฤษเริ่มต้น 1.3 ล้านบาท ราคาแพงขึ้นแต่ถูกจองหมดเกลี้ยง

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สปายช็อต 2022 Honda Civic Type Rเผย 2022 Honda Civic Type R (ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทพ์ อาร์) รุ่นต่อไปจะยังคงใช้เครื่องยนต์สันดาปภายในเหมือนเดิม

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ของมันต้องมี!? 2022 Honda Civic Type R อาจมาพร้อมหน้าตาแบบนี้

ภาพเรนเดอร์ 2022 Honda Civic Type R2022 Honda Civic Type R (2022 ฮอนด้า ซีวิค ไทพ์ อาร์) คือหนึ่งในรถคอมแพ็กต์สมรรถนะสูงที่น่าติดตามมากที่สุดในยุคเปลี่ยนผ่านจากเครื่องยนต์สันดาปสู่ระบบขับเคลื่อนไฟฟ้าความเคลื่อนไหวของ

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Will the Indian armed forces ever get modernized?

ThE INDIAN Armed forces are on a major modernization drive though the process is not as fast as it should have been . The following are some of the recent developments in the direction of the indian armed forces. Army The modernisation process of the Indian armed forces has been explicitly spelt out in the Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP), covering the period up to 2027. India has a hostile neighbourhood, the pace of modernisation of Indian armed forces has been slow, and technologically, they are not where they should have been. The Army needs speed, fast tracked, on inducting technologies relevant to modern warfare. Focussing on indigenous development route, the Indian Army has identified certain areas for modernising the Infantry, Digitalising the battlefield, adding Punch to Armour, Artillery and Air Defence as also other High Technology areas. There is movement in the right direction and seminal changes would be visible in the short term and long term. The Make in India route however could take longer but the Government has meanwhile assured full support in helping make up for the earlier delays and stick to new timelines. The Infantry Soldier The process to acquire and equip him with a modern Rifle, Machine Gun and Carbine is on. One key programme is the F-INSAS (Future Infantry Soldier as a System), to provide a soldier with state-of-the-art weaponry and combat gear. Its first phase is nearing completion with the complete schedule set for 2020. The important systems which the soldier would be equipped with are:- Helmet -The soldier would have a Helmet capable of stopping a 9mm bullet at extremely short ranges. In addition, it would have a mounted flash light, thermal sensors, night vision capability, digital compass, video cameras, computer, and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) sensors as also an audio headset. Its visor will have integrated information with a Head up Display monitor equivalent to two 17-inch computers. Clothing - A soldier’s clothing must be lightweight with a bullet proof jacket. It will also protect him from NBC threats. Weapon – It would be a multi calibre individual weapon system with an Under Barrel Grenade Launcher, a thermal weapon sight and Laser Range Finder. Accessories – They will include palmtop devices with secure communications and integrated with Battle Management Systems. Digital Battlefields Broadly there are four important aspects in Digitising the Battlefield, also known in military parlance as Network Centric Warfare (NCW). These are Information Sharing, Improved Situation Awareness, Speed of Command and Enhanced Mission Effectiveness. This is characterised by the aspects of Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition. The Indian Army has been taking baby steps towards the process of digitisation. The entire transformation which was aptly described as systems technology in 1970 to system of systems in 1980 onwards to a family of systems in the 21st century has resulted in a New Generation Network which enables forces to obtain precise target information in real time, leading to quick responsive engagements to effectively destroy designated targets. Indian Army’s Directorate General of Information Systems deals with this important element of Non Contact Warfare. The heart of the system is Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS) which comprises Tactical Command Control Communications and Information System (Tac C3I). the Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS), Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS), Air Defence Control & Reporting System (ADC&RS), Electronic Warfare System (EWS) and Electronic Intelligence System (ELINT). The Tac C3 I is to provide state of the art connectivity from the Corps HQ and below. Upward connectivity from Corps HQ to Army HQ is to be provided by the Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System (ASTROIDS). However, there is a lacuna as no connectivity exists yet at unit and sub-unit level. Appropriate sensors, platforms, weapon systems integrated with individual soldiers to enable them to exploit their assets and translate plans into synergised operations at the lowest level are needed at the earliest. The BMS as applicable to the Indian Army is a command and control system providing real/near real time situational awareness as also information exchange for unit commanders and below down to individual soldiers/platforms to enable optimal management of resources within the Tactical Battle Area (TBA). The BMS will be mobile and integrated with sensors, weapon platforms and decision making tools. Networked with secure, robust and reliable communication system supporting voice, data and real time video services, it will provide Common Operating Picture (COP) and Situational Awareness to all entities in the TBA. Further the BMS will produce COP by Geographic Information System (GIS) reference framework and provide Blue Force Tracking (BFT) using satellite navigation systems. The aim is to have the shortest OODA (Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) loop for the soldiers as also a flexible system architecture facilitating quick attachments and detachments. Further the systems must be capable of quick deployment and have the capability to disseminate position reports in a GPS-disabled environment, relying on alternative Inertial Navigation Systems, possibly India’s own satellites. Notably, Phase 1 of ACCCS has been completed and practically 40 percent of Artillery units are equipped with state-of-the-art networks. There are few observations by the Scientific Analysis Group of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) which once settled will see acceleration in the induction process. Tac C3I and BSS are in the final test bed. EWS, ELINT and ADC&RS are in the process of development. The main Defence Public Sector Unit (DPSU) involved in the effort is Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and the main defence and Research laboratory is Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CAIR). It would take about three years to see induction of these systems. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) cleared the BMS as a Make (India) project in 2006 under the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) and commissioned an Integrated Project Management Team (IPMT) to do a study. This was followed by an Expression of Interest (EOI) sent to more than a dozen Indian defence companies, both private and state-run. Only domestic companies have been allowed to compete but they will be free to seek foreign technologies. As per the rules, the Government will select two finalists from among the bidders, and give 80 per cent of the development cost to each. The prototypes are to be ready by 2017 and be inducted by 2020. (It may be mentioned here that somehow, none of the few projects being considered under this ‘Make’ category has reached the sanction stage yet, and there is now a review at the MoD on either to amend or replace it). As regards sensors, the Army has acquired Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Battle Field Surveillance Radars, Weapon Locating Radars, Long Range Reconnaissance and Observation System (LORROS), Thermal Imaging Intensification Observation Equipment (TIIOE), N Cross night vision equipment, Hand Held Thermal Imaging (HHTI) equipment, night vision binoculars and Unattended Ground Sensors. Their numbers though need to be improved for better Battlefield Transparency. The Indian Army also needs satellites and aerostats for wider coverage of its Area of Interest or Influence. Adding Punch to Armour, Artillery and Air Defence Both the Armoured Corps and Mechanised Infantry need attention, as they have to be deployed in mountainous areas also. Good roads have to be built all along the borders but for economic development of various areas, and the Army will benefit. T 90 tanks and BMP-2s can then be deployed even in Ladakh and the country’s north-east. However, there is a need to procure a light tank for our mechanised forces. DRDO is developing a prototype based on the Sarath chassis but vehicles like BAE Systems Combat Vehicle 90 may be considered to fill in the existing gaps. Currently the most important tank in the Army’s inventory is the T-90 S. This is a third generation Russian tank. By 2020, India would have a total of 2,011 T-90 tanks working out to about 40 Armoured Regiments. There are also six additional regiments being raised for High Altitude conditions. The Indian Army is upgrading about 1600 T-72 tanks with night vision devices and the rest would comprise indigenous Arjun tank which is heavier than the T-90 but has a 120mm gun which fires APFSDS, HEAT, High Explosive (HE) and High Explosive Squash Head (HESH) rounds. Arjun also fires the LAHAT missile, a semi active laser homing weapon with a range of 8 km. The Arjun Mk II is undergoing trials with about 75 modifications. The BMP-2 is the Army’s main APC (Armoured Personnel Carrier), and has excellent mobility. It is equipped with a 30 mm cannon and fires the Konkurs missile – made by Bharat Dynamics Ltd under licence from Russia with a range of 4 Km. Further it has two thermobaric missiles which range up to 6 km. A decision has been taken to upgrade 1600 BMP-2s with a 350 Horse Power (HP) engine. The Indian Army also has 700 BMP-1s in active service. Artillery is the predominant arm as regards Firepower. Undoubtedly the Regiment of Artillery has a variety of weapons which comprises Guns, Rockets and Missiles. The 155 mm Gun needs to be inducted at top speed. OFB’s (Ordnance Factory Board’s) 155 mm (45 calibre) has successfully passed the trials and would see induction possibly by 2016. Trials are on for the Towed and tracked versions of 155 mm. BAE Systems’ 155 mm Ultra Light Howitzer is under discussion with regard to pricing while the Government has cleared the way for initiating the acquisition process for 810 pieces of the 155 mm Mounted Gun System. The Army Air Defence is an extremely important arm as it provides Low Level Air Defence in the Tactical Battle Area (TBA). But overall, the Air Defence equipment is about three decades old and needs to be replaced. It is creditable that two Regiments of indigenous Akash Missiles have been ordered from DRDO. Further trials are on for Very Short Range as also Short Range missiles. The induction of these will take place gradually by 2020. The state of Arms and Ammunition held by the Indian Army presents a grim picture particularly in view of the modernisation being undertaken by our adversaries. Current comparison does give us an edge over Pakistan but we are certainly behind China. The worst strategic threat is a two-front war and we need to modernise expeditiously to dissuade China and deter Pakistan. Both the countries, particularly Pakistan, have become very aggressive on our borders. Views have been expressed of a limited offensive by China in the short term in collusion with Pakistan. Quality of weaponry will decide in such conflicts as they would be limited in time and space. There is a need to expedite procurement of state-of-the-art weaponry to avoid strategic embarrassment and blunder. Other High Technology Areas High Technology aspects concern Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Nano Technology, Non Lethal Weapons, Directed Energy Weapons and NBC warfare. Research in all these fields is there at a steady pace. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics are in a nascent stage of development. Rapid strides are needed to be taken in the field of Nano technology as it would lead to reduction of size and weight which would be suitable for our High Altitude and Glaciated regions. Direct energy weapons are being developed by China and India needs to expedite their development. As a peaceful country with NFU (No-First-Use) doctrine for nuclear weapons, India also needs to build credible deterrence. MoD Updates The Capital Acquisition process has received a shot in the arm with the formation of the new Government in May 2014. It has cleared several programmes pending for long, and is encouraging indigenisation to build the domestic defence industry. High priority is also being given to defence procurement. This is a great step as it allows the Indian public and private industry to procure items required by the Services. Further the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can be raised beyond 49 percent after obtaining approval from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). Conclusion Threats from China and Pakistan leave us with no option but to undertake modernisation at a fast pace. The Indian Army is currently involved in meeting challenges at the Line of Control (LoC) and Line of Actual Control. The Indian Army must prioritise its requirements and apply the Fast Track procedure for critical Arms and ammunition. The Government of India must ensure that timelines are sacred for operational preparedness Air force The contract for upgrading MiG-29s was signed in 2008 with RAC MIG of Russia at a cost of US $964 million. This program is to be completed by 2014. The first three upgraded MiG-29s (known as MiG-29UPG) were handed over to India by the Russian company in December 2012. Three more fighters are to be upgraded in Russia and the remaining 63-odd planes are to be upgraded in India with support from the Russian partner. The service life of the upgraded aircraft has been extended to 40 years. Among other features the upgraded MiG include Phazatron Zhuk-M radar, beyond-visual-range combat ability and the mid-air refuelling. The contract for modernising Jaguars to DARIN-III Standard was signed with India’s state-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) in 2009 at the cost of Rs 31.1 billion. The work is scheduled for completion by 2017. The first upgraded Jaguar was successfully flight tested by the HAL on November 28, 2012. Among other features the upgraded aircraft incorporates new state-of-the-art avionics architecture including Mission Computer (MC), Engine and Flight Instrument System (EFIS), and autopilot. The retrofitted Jaguar will “result in a major operational improvement with regard to all weather air to ground, air to sea and air to air capabilities through incorporation of multi-mode radar”, says R. K. Tyagi, Chairman, HAL. In July 2011, the MoD signed a $2.4 billion contract with French companies Thales, and Dassault Aviation and HAL for upgrades to the IAF’s Mirage-2000 fleet procured in eighties. As per the contract, out of 50-odd fighters, two will be upgraded in France, two at HAL with French support, and the rest by the HAL. The entire process is expected to be completed by 2021. The improvements include new avionics, radars, mission computers, glass cockpits, helmet-mounted displays, electronic warfare suites, weapon delivery and precision-targeting systems, which will bring the fleet to Mirage 2000-5 standards and extend the service life by 20 years. A separate contract valued €959 million has also been signed with MBDA to provide 450 MICA missiles to arm the upgraded fighters. Fighter The IAF is all set to induct in its fleet over 400 new fighters that include three new types of combat planes - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), French Rafale and Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) – and an additional 42 SU-30MKIs. The additional SU-30 MKI is part of the $4.5 billion defence deal signed between India and Russia during President Putin’s December 2012 visit to New Delhi. The newly contracted SU-30 MKI will be license produced by the HAL, taking Indian aerospace company’s total order of the fighter to 222, and the total cost of procurement of 272 Su-30MKIs to $12 billion. Beginning with inductions of new type of fighters, the IAF has already placed orders for 40 LCAs (20 each in Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) and Final Operational (FOC) standards) of MK-I version with GE404 engine. These planes are planned for induction in the 12th Plan (2012-2017). There is also a further plan to induct more LCAs of MK-II version with superior GE F414 engines, 99 units of which have been contracted for $800 million. All together, as many as six LCA squadrons (108 fighters) are to be inducted by the end of the 13th Plan (2017-2022). The much touted approximately $20 billion medium multi role combat aircraft (MMRCA) deal, in which French Rafale emerged as the winner, looks set for contract finalisation in early part of the next financial year (2013-14). As per the plan, the first Rafale squadron comprising of 18 aircrafts will be inducted in 3-4 years after contract signing. The rest 108 aircraft, which will be manufactured by the HAL under the transfer of technology agreement with France, are to be inducted in the following seven years. The induction of LCA and MMRCA is soon going to be over-shadowed by what is poised as India’s biggest ever defence programme to acquire 200-250 Fifth Generation Fighter Aircrafts (FGFA) – though in a recent interview the Air Chief has however indicated a lower figure of 144 fighters. Consequent to 2007 inter-governmental agreement between India and Russia for joint development of FGFA, both the sides signed a Preliminary Design contract in 2010 at the cost of $295 million to be shared equally. Drawning upon the basic structural and systems design of the Russian PAF-FA, the FGFA for the IAF is now visualised as a single seat fighter with advanced features such as stealth, super-cruise, and ultra-manoeuvrability. HAL, the Indian joint partner in the developmental efforts of the FGFA, has committed $6 billion dollars for the initial developmental efforts. Total programme cost on the Indian side including for the induction is estimated to be $30 billion. The IAF is hopeful of inducting the aircraft from 2020 onwards. Transport Aircraft Like the fighter fleet, the transport fleet of the IAF is on a major course transformation, by way of upgrades and replacement of existing fleet, and induction of new planes. Beginning in this regard was made in 2007 when India and Russia signed another intergovernmental agreement for joint development and production of 15-29 ton class Multi-role Transport Aircraft (MTA). Post the 2007 agreement, both the sides have formed a joint venture in India as an equal partnership. Of the total projected requirement of 205 MTAs, the IAF’s share is 45 (100 for Russia and the rest 60 for exports). The big boost for IAF’s transport fleet however came in January 2008 when India signed the Letter of Offer and Acceptance (LOA) with the US government for procurement of six C-130J-30 Super Hercules at the cost of $962.5 million. Intended for use by the Indian Special Forces, the aircraft were all delivered by 2010-11 - ahead of the schedule. Happy with the performance of the new aircraft and the delivery schedule, the IAF is planning to induct six more C-130Js in the near future. Lockheed Martin’s success in bagging the first major IAF order was then replicated by the Boeing when Indian signed another LOA in June 2011 for procurement of 10 C-17 Globemaster III heavy lift aircraft at the cost of $4.116 billion. The delivery of the aircraft is scheduled for completion between June 2013 and June 2015. Like in the case of C-130J, IAF also plans to increase its C-17 fleet by 10 more of such planes. The IAF’s AN-32 fleet inducted between 1984 and 1991 is presently going through a major modernisation under a $400 million contract signed with Ukraine in 2009. Of the total 105 AN-32s, 40 are being upgraded in Ukraine and rest will be done India. The upgrades, which will increase the service life by 15 years to upto 40 years, also include noise suspension, collision avoidance and ground proximity warning systems, and satellite navigation - among others. In a major boost to the Indian private sector, the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) – the highest decision making body in the MoD – in a July 2012 meeting gave its nod to the IAF’s Rs. 119 billion proposal to procure 56 aircraft (of 6-8 tonne class) as replacement of HAL-built Hawker Siddeley 748M Avro aircraft. The decision was then followed by issuance of RFP in November 2012 to five global manufactures - Russian Ilyushin, Ukrainian Antonov, European EADS, Italian Alenia Aeronautica and Swedish SAAB. As per the RFP terms, the aircraft are to be procured through the 'Buy and Make' route of the MoD’s Defence Procurement Procedure- 2011 (DPP-2011), with the condition that the foreign vendor will select a private Indian company for manufacturing 40 aircraft in India (initial 16 aircrafts to be procured off-the-shelf). The deliveries of aircraft would commence within 24 months from the date of signing the contract and would be completed over a period of eight years. The RFP also stipulates that of the 40 aircraft to be manufacture in India, 16 must have 30 per cent indigenous content which would increase to 60 per cent for the rest 24 aircrafts. Trainer The IAF’s basic flying training (or Stage-I training) got a shot in arm when the government after some delay and controversy finally signed a contract on May 24, 2012 with Swiss company Pilatus Aircraft Ltd for supply of 75 PC-7 Mk-II turbo prop basic trainer aircrafts (BTA). As per the contract, valued Rs 29 billion, all the aircraft are scheduled for delivery between February 2013 and August 2015. The Pilatus contract may further be swelled with the MoD reportedly ‘rejecting’ on cost ground the state-owned aerospace major HAL’s proposal to supply 106 trainers from 2016 onwards. If the Swiss company succeeds in fishing in HAL’s misery, it may end up meeting IAF’s entire BTA fleet. Presently the IAF does not have a BTA since the entire fleet of HPT-32 (114 aircraft) was grounded after a fatal accident in July 2009. Apart from the BTA, IAF has also set its eye on modernising its fleet of Intermediate jet Trainers (IJT) – for stage-II training - as its current fleet of 81 IJT Kirans inducted in seventies is on the verge of retirement. Although HAL has an order to produce 85 IJTs (including 12 Limited Series Production), the project is running behind the schedule. As against planned delivery from June 2012 onwards, the HAL is still struggling with the flight testing. This has not only displeased the IAF but could lead to procurement from the foreign sources given the criticality of training and the obsolescence of Kirans. Unlike the basic and intermediate trainers, the IAF is however comfortable with its advanced jet trainers. So far IAF has contracted 106 AJT Hawks (as against the requirement of same number) from UK through two separate agreements signed in 2004 and 2010. Force Multipliers Among other major aerial platforms, the IAF has inducted or in the process of inducting aerial refuelling and airborne surveillance aircraft, in a move to enhance its force multiplier capability. The IAF, which is looking at midair refuelling a mandatory capability in its all on-going and future aerial platform purchases, is hoping that it is second time luck in concluding the $1.0 billion tender for 6 mid-air refuellers, to add to the six IL 78 procured in early 2000s . Pending the government announcement, Airbus has already issued a statement (on January 7th), stating that it has been ‘selected’ as the ‘preferred bidder to supply its A330 MRTT Multi Role Tanker Transport to the Indian Air Force (IAF).” Airbus’s win, which comes against Russian IL 78, also means Moscow’s third straight defeat in India’s competitive bidding process. Earlier, Russia lost to the US for two IAF tenders for attack and heavy lift helicopters. India has a total requirement of at least 20 AWACS (airborne warning and control system), and AEW&C (airborne early warning and control) aircraft to maintain border and coastline surveillance. So far, the IAF has already inducted three IL-76-based Phalcon AWACS with two more under the pipeline. The first three AWACS, the contract of which was signed in March 2004 under a tripartite $1.1 billion deal among India, Israel and Russia, were the delivered in 2009 and 2010 and 2011, respectively. As a follow-on order to the 2004, agreement, the MoD has in December 2012 given its nod to procure two more AWACS, thus eventually increasing the total AWACS fleet to five. The imported AWACS fleet is soon going to be joined by three indigenous AEW&C systems based on the Brazilian Embraer platform. The first Embaraer aircraft fitted with the DRDO-developed AEW&C reached India in September 2012 for further testing before its induction in IAF. Apart from the major platforms, the IAF modernization also includes induction of other systems, including simulators, air defence system and precision-guided weapons. Presently out of 46 simulators, 30 are operational, with others in the process of being replaced. Regarding radars, the IAF apart from the induction and imminent induction of AWACS and indigenous AW&CS, is in process of fielding a host of radars including Medium Powered Radars (MPR), Low Level Transportable Radars (LLTR), Low Light Weight Radars (LLWR), and Aerostat Systems. To give a further push to the Air Defence sector, a range of missile systems comprising of short range surface to air missile (SAM), medium range SAM and long range SAM are being introduced. Indian Navy By 2020 the Indian Navy surface combatant fleet will be 3 carriers 10 destroyers [ 3 Delhi + 3 Kolkata 15A + 4 Project 15B] 24 frigates [9 Krivak + 3 Brahmaputra + 3 Shivalik + 7 Project 17A + 2 Project 17B] 20 Corvettes [ includes 12 Project 28 and 28A ] There could be as many as 34 submarines in total by 2020, while the Kilo's and 209's will be retired before 2025 3 ATV SSBN 3 ATV SSGN/SSN 2 Akula II improved 6 U214 / S-80 / Marlin / Amur 1850 (Procurement under discussion) 6 Scorpene 10 Kilo Improved 4 U-209 All these steps taken are in the right direction and in congruence to India ‘s ambition of emerging as a super power by 2020. Things are taking place and The government needs to speed up the process and cut the red tape and should focus on the modernization of armed forces on priority basis. Everything else can be achieved if we are secure and safe and it also increases the bargaining power of India as a country.

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