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พาชมคันจริง 2021 MG EP เคาะราคา 988,000 บาท รถไฟฟ้าเข้าถึงง่าย แต่ขาดอะไรไปบางอย่าง

2021 MG EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) รถไฟฟ้าตัวถังสเตชั่นวากอนรุ่นใหม่ ได้เป็นตัวอย่างเป็นทางการพร้อมเผยราคาในงาน

รู้ข้อดีข้อด้อยก่อนซื้อ MG HS ตัวท็อป

MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) ถือเป็นรถอเนกประสงค์อีกรุ่นที่ได้รับความนิยมไม่แพ้ MG ZS ของค่ายเอ็มจีเลย ด้วยความโดดเด่นในด้านเทคโนโลยี

Review: MG Extender กระบะยักษ์พันธุ์แกร่ง

MG Extender 2.0 Giant Cab D 6MT ราคา 619,000 บาท- MG Extender 2.0 Giant Cab GRAND D 6MT ราคา 659,000

ไฟเขียว! MG เตรียมเปิดตัวรถสปอร์ตพลังไฟฟ้าปลายปีนี้ รอลุ้นราคาจำหน่าย

รถต้นแบบ MG E-Motionรถสปอร์ตพลังงานไฟฟ้ารุ่นแรกของ MG (เอ็มจี) ยุคใหม่เตรียมเปิดตัวครั้งแรกในโลกภายในช่วงปลายปีนี้

จุดเปลี่ยนปีหน้า! Toyota เล็งเป็นผู้นำรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าด้วยแบตเตอรี่นวัตกรรมใหม่วิ่งไกลกว่า 500 กม.

ของตลาดรถพลังงานไฟฟ้าและอุตสาหกรรมยานยนต์โลกในภาพรวมเลยทีเดียวแบตเตอรี่โซลิดสเตทมีศักยภาพสูงมากเพราะช่วยให้ตัวรถขับเคลื่อนได้ไกลกว่า 500

2021 MG ZS EV ไม่มางานมอเตอร์โชว์ 2021 หลบทาง ORA Good Cat หรือมีรุ่นใหม่มาแทนกันแน่?

ซึ่งถ้ารถรุ่นใดไม่ได้มาในงานนี้ ก็หมายถงว่า ชะตากรรมของรุ่นดังกล่าว จะไม่ได้ไปต่อในเร็ววันนี้แน่นอนMG

7 เรื่องควรรู้ก่อนซื้อ MG HS 2019

ตอนนี้ตลาดรถอเนกประสงค์อย่าง SUV กำลังมาแรงมากขึ้นเรื่อยๆ และค่าย MG (เอ็มจี) ก็ถือเป็นอีกค่ายหนึ่งที่คนให้ความสนใจ

MG เล็งไทยเป็นฮับอาเซียน ผลิต MG ZS พวงมาลัยซ้าย ส่งออกอินโดนีเซีย-เวียดนาม-มาเลเซีย

MG (เอ็มจี) ประเทศไทย ขยับสายการผลิตเพิ่มการผลิต MG ZS (เอ็มจี แซดเอส) พวงมาลัยซ้าย เพื่อเริ่มการส่งออกไปยังตลาดเวียดนามภายในสิ้นปีนี้

เสียงวิจารณ์โลกโซเชียลไม่ระคาย ทำไม MG ทำยอดขายผงาดผู้นำ

ความสำเร็จของรถอเนกประสงค์ค่าย MG ทั้ง MG ZS (เอ็มจี แซดเอส) และ MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) แสดงให้เห็นว่าค่ายรถยนต์น้องใหม่สามารถโค่นแบรนด์ยักษ์อันเก่าแก่ลงได้หากเดินถูกทางยอดขายสะสมของรถอเนกประสงค์ขนาดซับคอมแพ็กต์อย่าง

2020 MG eHS ปลั๊กอินไฮบริด 300 แรงม้า ประหยัด 77 กม.ต่อลิตร เตรียมเปิดตัวในไทยปีนี้

กวางโจว มอเตอร์โชว์เมื่อปลายปีที่แล้วและออกจำหน่ายในประเทศจีนไปแล้ว รถเอสยูวีพลังงานทางเลือกในชื่อ MG

ดูเพิ่มเติม

ไม่ง้อรัฐ! MG ตัดงบตัวเอง ลุยขยายสถานีประจุไฟ 500 แห่ง เอาใจลูกค้า EV และ PHEV

MG (เอ็มจี) ผู้นำด้านรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในประเทศไทย ประกาศเดินหน้าแผนงานขยายสถานีประจุไฟฟ้า 500 แห่งทั่วประเทศ

ราคาไม่ถึงล้าน MG5 EV เปิดตัวในไทย 23 พ.ย. นี้ กับสเปคจริงที่ดีกว่า MG ZS EV ซะงั้น

MG5 EV มีสเปคดีกว่า MG ZS EVMG รถยนต์ตราอังกฤษ ที่ถูกชาวเซี่ยงไฮ้ซื้อป้ายหน้าร้านไปใส่เทคโนโลยีที่พัฒนาโดย

อ่านก่อนซื้อ! MG EXTENDER มีข้อดีกับข้อเสียอย่างไร

และต้องบอกเลยว่า MG กล้าหาญชาญชัยมากที่นำรถกระบะ MG EXTENDER (เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) เข้ามาขายในประเทศไทย

ไขข้อสงสัยข้อดีข้อเสียก่อนซื้อ MG HS

หลังจาก MG HS รถสไตล์รถครอบครัวจากแบรนด์จีนเปิดตัวก็ได้รับความสนใจล้นหลาม และก็กลายเป็น Compact SUV ที่มียอดขายดีในกลุ่มได้อย่างรวดเร็วด้วยชื่อ

ORA Good Cat รถยนต์พลังงานไฟฟ้าแมวเหมียว พร้อมลุยสู้ MG ZS EV

ได้เปิดตัวให้ไทยได้ยลโฉมตัวจริงในงานมอเตอร์โชว์ครั้งที่ 42 โดยเป็นเวอร์ชั่นจีนที่ออกแบบเป็นเก๋ง 5 ประตูที่มีดีไซน์โดดเด่น สามารถวิ่งได้ระยะทางไกลสูงสุด 500

MG เตรียมเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าใหม่ปลายปี 2021 ในทรงแฮทช์แบ็ค ลือคล้าย MG3

MG (เอ็มจี) ในปี 2021 วางแผนที่จะทำการเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้ารุ่นใหม่ปลายปีนี้ ในตัวถังแฮทช์แบ็ค 5 ประตู อาจคล้ายกับ

ส่อง 5 จุดเด่น MG HS ก่อนซื้อ

ค่ายรถยนต์ MG สัญชาติจีนเริ่มต้นบุกเบิกตลาดรถเอสยูวีมาได้สักระยะ ล่าสุดก็เปิดตัว Compact SUV รุ่นล่าสุดอย่าง

ในวันที่โลกเปลี่ยน ญี่ปุ่นและประเทศอื่นกำหนดเป้าหมายเพื่อเข้าสู่ยุครถไฟฟ้าภายใน 10 ปี อะไรจะเกิดขึ้น?

2021 MP EPสิ่งหนึ่งที่มีความแน่นอนสำหรับผู้ที่สนใจและอยากได้รถยนต์ไฟฟ้า คือ นับจากนี้ไป ราคาจำหน่ายจะลดลงไปแปรผกผันกับความแพร่หลายในตัวเลือกที่จะมากขึ้น

รู้ข้อดีข้อเสีย MG V80 ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ

แต่ก่อนจะไปเป็นเจ้าของ MG V80 2019 นี้ AutoFun เลยอยากจะบอกเล่าข้อดีข้อเสียของ MG V80 2019 นี้ก่อนตัดสินใจข้อดีของ

แบงค์บอกต่อ กระบะราคาดีทั้ง Ford และ Mg ส่วนลดเริ่มต้นที่ 200,000 บาท

มีโปรดี ๆ มาบอกต่อกันกับ Ford Ranger กับ Everest และ MG Extender ที่นำรถมาลดราคากันกระหน่ำFord Everest

2020 MG HS PHEV เทียบ MG HS 1.5X เจาะออพชั่นต่างกันทุกด้าน เพิ่มเงินแค่ 240,000 บาท

เอ็มจี เอชเอส ปลั๊กอินไฮบริด เปิดตัวในราคา 1,359,000 บาท2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส ปลั๊กอินไฮบริด

MG เปิดบริการรถไฟฟ้าเหมาจ่ายเดือนละ 250 บาท ทำไมเมืองไทยไม่มีแบบนี้บ้าง!!!

MG Motor (เอ็มจี มอเตอร์) แห่งสหราชอาณาจักร เปิดตัวบริการรูปแบบใหม่เพื่อเอาใจลูกค้าผู้ใช้รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในสหราชอาณาจักร

MG เผยคอนเซปท์สปอร์ตไฟฟ้าคันใหม่ MG Cyberster วิ่งไกล 800 กม.

MG (เอ็มจี) ลอนดอน ได้ทำการเปิดคอนเซปท์รถสปอร์ตคันใหม่ในนาม MG Cyberster แบบเปิดประทุน ก่อนที่จะมีรายละเอียดออกมาในงาน

กรมทางหลวงจัดโปรโมชั่น เติม M-Pass 500 คืน 50 ลดเสี่ยง เลี่ยงเงินสด จำนวน 20,000 สิทธิ์

กรมทางหลวง ร่วมกับธนาคารกรุงไทย เชิญชวนผู้ใช้บัตรผ่านทางอัตโนมัติ M-Pass มอบสิทธิพิเศษ เติมเงินเข้า M-Pass 500

Review: New 2020 Toyota Fortuner Legender รุ่นท็อป 204 แรงม้า 500 นิวตันเมตร จัดเต็ม 1.839 ล้านบาท

กำลังสูงสุด 150 แรงม้า แรงบิด 400 นิวตันเมตร และรุ่นดีเซลเทอร์โบ ขนาด 2.8 ลิตร กำลังสูงสุด 204 แรงม้า แรงบิด 500

MG คว้ารางวัลแบรนด์รถยนต์คุ้มค่ายอดเยี่ยม – MG ZS EV รับรางวัลรถใหม่คุ้มค่าสูงสุด

MG (เอ็มจี) ได้รับรางวัลแบรนด์รถยนต์ที่ความคุ้มค่ายอดเยี่ยม (Best Value Brand 2020) จากการประกาศผลรางวัล

Fiat 500 ทำจาก Lego ขนาดเท่าจริง คนเข้าไปนั่งได้ และรวมสุดยอดรถเลโก้สเกลจริง มีให้ดูที่นี่

Lego ผู้ผลิตตัวต่อของเล่น ซึ่งมีผลงานรถจำลองหลายรุ่น แต่คราวนี้หันมาทำรถขนาดจริง โดยใช้รถรุ่น Fiat 500

MG ประกาศขึ้นแท่นผู้นำตลาดเอสยูวีในครึ่งปีแรกของปี 2563

MG (เอ็มจี) แบรนด์รถยนต์น้องใหม่ประเทศไทย ประกาศขึ้นแท่นผู้นำตลาดเอสยูวีในครึ่งแรกของปี 2563 ด้วยยอดจำหน่ายรวม

ใครจะซื้อควรรอก่อนไหม? 2021 MG ZS EV โฉมใหม่จะมีระยะทางขับขี่ด้วยไฟฟ้าไกลขึ้น

2020 MG ZS EV ในเมืองไทย2021 MG ZS EV (2021 เอ็มจี แซดเอส อีวี) รถพลังงานไฟฟ้าโฉมใหม่จ่อเปิดตัวในประเทศไทย

แบงค์บอกต่อ รวมแคมเปญรถดีน่าใช้ปี 2021 MG ZS, MG EP หรือจะ Honda ก็ยังมีนะ

แบงค์บอกต่อ เรามาดูโปรโมชั่นรถยนต์น่าสนใจหลายขนาดจากทางฝั่ง MG (เอ็มจี) ที่มีทั้ง 2021 MG ZS (เอ็มจี

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รีวิว Q&A mp locks 500 mg

If there is no solution to a hard border in Ireland, would the IRA attack targets in England or only Ireland?

History can answer your question and it is filled with blood: the following is a list of successful and foiled attacks on the British mostly by Irish Republicans. I can also put up a list of Loyalist attacks in Ireland for comparison. 19th century[edit ] 1867, 13 December: Clerkenwell explosion : members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), nicknamed the "Fenians", detonated a bomb against the outer wall of Clerkenwell Prison , in an attempt to free one of their comrades. The explosion damaged nearby houses, killed 12 people and caused 120 injuries. 1881–1885: Fenian dynamite campaign : the IRB carried out a bombing campaign against infrastructure, government, military and police targets in Britain 1939–1940[edit ] From January 1939 to March 1940, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a campaign of bombing and sabotage against the civil, economic, and military infrastructure of Britain. It was known as the S-Plan or Sabotage Campaign . During the campaign, the IRA carried out almost 300 attacks and acts of sabotage in Britain, killing seven people and injuring 96. [14] Most of the casualties occurred in the Coventry bombing on 25 August 1939. 1970s[edit ] 1972, 22 February: Aldershot bombing : The Official Irish Republican Army ('Official' IRA) detonated a car bomb at Aldershot British Army base , Hampshire. The blast killed seven civilian staff. 1973, 8 March: The Provisional Irish Republican Army ('Provisional' IRA) planted four car bombs in London . Two of the bombs exploded outside the Old Bailey and the Ministry of Agriculture , injuring dozens. The bombs outside New Scotland Yard and an army recruitment office near Whitehall were defused. 1973, 10 September: The Provisional IRA set off bombs at London's King's Cross and Euston stations, injuring 21 people.[20] 1973, 18 December: 1973 Westminster bombing : An IRA car bomb exploded outside the Home Office building in Millbank, London , injuring 60 people. 1974, 4 February: M62 coach bombing : An IRA bomb exploded aboard a bus carrying British soldiers and several of their family members in Yorkshire , killing nine soldiers and three civilians. 1974, 17 June: Houses of Parliament bombing : An IRA bomb exploded at the Houses of Parliament , causing extensive damage and injuring 11 people.[21] 1974 17 July: Tower of London bombing : A bomb exploded in the Tower of London , killing one and injuring 41. 1974, 5 October: Guildford pub bombings : IRA bombs exploded in two pubs frequented by off-duty British military personnel in Guildford , Surrey . Four soldiers and a civilian were killed and 44 injured. 1974, 22 October: An IRA bomb exploded in Brooks's gentleman's club in London, injuring three people.[22] 1974, 7 November: An IRA bomb exploded in a pub frequented by British military personnel in Woolwich , London, killing a soldier and a civilian. 1974, 14 November: James Patrick McDade, Lieutenant in the Birmingham Battalion, of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) was killed in a premature explosion whilst planting a bomb at the Coventry telephone exchange in 1974. 1974, 21 November: Birmingham pub bombings : IRA bombs exploded in two pubs in Birmingham , killing 21 people and injuring 182. 1974, 18 December: 1974 Bristol bombing : Two IRA bombs exploded in one of Bristol's shopping districts in the run up to Christmas, injuring 17.[23] 1975, 27 August: Caterham Arms pub bombing : An IRA bomb exploded in a pub frequented by British military personnel in Caterham , Surrey, injuring 33.[24] 1975, 5 September: An IRA bomb exploded in the lobby of the Hilton Hotel , London, killing two people and injuring 63. 1975, 9 October: Green Park tube station bombing : An IRA bomb exploded by Green Park tube station in London, killing one. 1975, 18 November: IRA members threw a bomb into Walton's restaurant in London, killing two people and injuring 23. 1975, 27 November: IRA gunmen assassinated political activist and television personality Ross McWhirter in Enfield Town , London.[25] 1975, 6–12 December: Balcombe Street siege : Four IRA members, who were fleeing from the police, barricaded themselves inside a flat in London and held the two occupants hostage. The siege lasted for six days and ended when the IRA members surrendered and released the hostages. 1975, 20 December: Biddy Mulligan's pub bombing : The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) bombed Biddy Mulligan's pub in the Kilburn area of London. Five people were injured. It said it bombed the pub because it was frequented by Irish republican sympathizers.[26] 1976, 4 March: Cannon Street train bombing : An IRA bomb exploded in an empty train at Cannon Street station in London, injuring eight. 1976, 15 March: West Ham station attack : An IRA bomb exploded on a train at West Ham station in London, injuring seven. The bomber then shot two people while fleeing, killing one. 1976, 27 March: Olympia bombing : An IRA bomb exploded at the Olympia, London , killing one and injuring over 80 people. 1977, 31 December: Explosive device detonated inside the passenger compartment of car owned by the Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic killing two members of Syrian embassy staff.[27] 1978, 17 December: Co-ordinated IRA bombs exploded in Manchester, Liverpool, Coventry, Bristol and Southampton, injuring at least seven in Bristol.[28] 1979, 17 January: A bomb exploded at a Texaco oil terminal on Canvey Island , Essex, tearing a hole in a tank that was initially thought to contain aviation fuel.[29] [30] 1979, 17 February: Glasgow pub bombings : The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) bombed two pubs frequented by Catholics in Glasgow , Scotland . Both pubs were wrecked and a number of people were wounded. It said it bombed the pubs because they were used for Irish republican fundraising.[31] 1979, 30 March: Airey Neave killed when a bomb exploded under his car as he drove out of the Palace of Westminster car park. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) claimed responsibility. 1980s[edit ] 1980, 30 April: Iranian Embassy siege : Six Iranian Arab gunmen stormed the Iranian Embassy in London and took hostages. The siege lasted for six days, until the hostages were rescued in a raid by the SAS which was broadcast live on TV. Two of the hostages were killed, while the hostage-takers were all either killed or captured. 1981 January: Bomb inside RAF band barracks in RAF Uxbridge. A security patrol discovered the bomb surrounded by drums of petrol. The barracks were evacuated but the device exploded before the bomb disposal arrived. The blast was heard up to 2 miles away. There were two minor injuries. 1981, 10 October: The IRA detonated a bomb outside Chelsea Barracks , London, killing two and injuring 39. 1981, 26 October: The IRA bombed a Wimpy Bar on Oxford Street , killing Kenneth Howorth , the Metropolitan Police explosives officer attempting to defuse it. 1982, 14 March: The bombing of the London offices of the African National Congress (ANC), which opposed the apartheid government of South Africa , wounding one person who was living upstairs. General Johann Coetzee, former head of the South African Security Police , and seven other policemen accepted responsibility for the attack after the end of the apartheid government.[32] 1982, June: Abu Nidal killed the Israeli ambassador in London.[33] 1982, 20 July: Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings : IRA bombs exploded during British military ceremonies in Hyde Park and Regent's Park , London, killing eleven soldiers of the Household Cavalry and the Royal Green Jackets . 1983, 17 December: Harrods bombing : An IRA car bomb exploded outside Harrods department store in London, following a telephoned warning. Five people were killed, including three police officers, and the sixth victim - another police officer - died in hospital from his injuries a week later. 90 other people were injured but survived. 1984, 12 October: Brighton hotel bombing : In an attempt to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher , the IRA detonated a bomb in the Grand Brighton Hotel during the Conservative Party conference. It killed five Conservative Party members, including MP Anthony Berry . 1986, Sangtar Singh Sadhu was shot in an assassination attempt in west London. Sikh extremists are suspected.[34] 1986, Tarsem Singh Toor was assassinated. Sikh extremists are suspected.[34] 1988, 21 December: Pan Am Flight 103 blown up by a bomb in a suitcase while in flight over Lockerbie, Scotland after taking off from Heathrow. All 259 of the plane's passengers and crew were killed, along with 11 Lockerbie residents, claiming a total of 270 lives. 1989, 3 August: A man using the alias Mustafa Mahmoud Mazeh accidentally blew himself up along with two floors of a central London hotel while preparing a bomb intended to kill author Salman Rushdie .[35] 1989, 22 September: Deal barracks bombing : Eleven Royal Marines bandsmen were killed and 22 injured when an IRA bomb exploded at the Royal Marines base in Deal , Kent. 1990s[edit ] 1990, 14 May: The IRA bombed an army education centre in Eltham, London, injuring seven. 1990, 16 May: The IRA bombed a minibus at an army recruitment centre in Wembley, London, killing one soldier and injuring four. 1990, 1 June: A British soldier was killed and two wounded in an IRA gun attack at Lichfield City railway station , Staffordshire. 1990, 9 June: Honourable Artillery Company bombing : The IRA detonated a bomb at the Honourable Artillery Company's barracks in London, injuring 19. 1990, 26 June: Carlton Club bombing : The IRA bombed a London club for Conservative politicians, fatally wounding one and injuring 20. 1990, 20 July: London Stock Exchange bombing : The IRA detonated a bomb at the London Stock Exchange causing damage to the building but no injuries.[36] 1990, 30 July: Ian Gow , Conservative MP , was assassinated by the IRA when a booby trap bomb exploded under his car outside his home in East Sussex .[37] 1991, 7 February: The IRA carried out a mortar attack of 10 Downing Street , in an attempt to assassinate Prime Minister John Major and his cabinet . One of the shells exploded in the back garden of 10 Downing Street but there were no deaths. 1991, 18 February: An IRA bomb exploded at Victoria Station . One man killed and 38 people injured. 1991, 15 November: An IRA bomb exploded in St Albans city centre. Two fatalities, both members of the provisional IRA (Patricia Black and Frankie Ryan), were the only casualties. 1992, 28 February: An IRA bomb exploded at London Bridge station , injuring 29 people. 1992, 10 April: Baltic Exchange bombing : A large IRA truck bomb exploded outside the Baltic Exchange building in the City of London , following a telephoned warning. It killed three people and caused £800 million worth of damage – more than the total damaged caused by the 10,000 explosions that had occurred during the Troubles in Northern Ireland up to that point.[38] A few hours later a bomb exploded in Staples Corner . 1992, 7 June: Wanted IRA member Paul Magee opened fire on unarmed police officers Constable Sandy Kelly and Special Constable Glenn Goodman during a routine traffic stop in North Yorkshire . Kelly escaped injury when a single bullet ricocheted off his radio, but Goodman was hit four times, and later died in hospital.[39] 1992, 25 August: The IRA planted three firebombs in Shrewsbury , Shropshire . Bombs were placed in Shoplatch, The Charles Darwin Centre and Shrewsbury Castle, the latter causing the most damage as the castle housed the Shropshire Regimental Museum and many priceless historical artifacts were lost and damaged by fire and smoke. No fatalities or injuries were recorded. 1992, 12 October: Sussex Arms bombing : A bomb exploded in the gents' toilet of a pub in Covent Garden , killing one person and injuring four others. 1992, 16 November: IRA planted a bomb at the Canary Wharf , but was spotted by security guards. The bomb failed to detonate. 1992, 3 December: The IRA detonated two car bombs in central Manchester, injuring 65 people.[40] 1993, 28 January: 1993 Harrods bombing : Far-left Red Action members together with the IRA bombed Harrods in London, injuring four. 1993, 26 February: Warrington bomb attacks (Part 1): IRA bombs attached to gas storage facilities exploded, causing widespread damage and a dramatic fireball. PC Mark Toker was shot three times by the bombers after pulling over their van hours before. 1993, 27 February: Camden Town bombing : An IRA bomb exploded on Camden High Street in London, injuring 18. 1993, 20 March: Warrington bomb attacks (Part 2): Two bombs exploded in litter bins in a shopping precinct in Warrington , Cheshire, killing a three-year-old boy and injuring 55 people. The second bomb occurred within a minute of the first, directly in the path of many of those fleeing from the initial blast. A 12-year-old boy became the second fatality when he died in hospital from his injuries several days later. A warning had been telephoned to a Samaritans in Liverpool 30 minutes before the detonation, but hadn't specified Warrington. 1993, 24 April: Bishopsgate bombing : The IRA detonated a huge (equivalent to 1.2 tonnes of TNT) truck bomb in the City of London at Bishopsgate . Police had received a telephoned warning but were still evacuating the area at the time of the explosion. A newspaper photographer was killed, over 40 people were injured, and £350 million worth of damage was caused.[38] 1994, March: Heathrow mortar attacks : The IRA launched a series of mortar attacks on Heathrow Airport near London. The attacks caused severe disruption but little damage. 1994, 26–27 July: A group of Palestinians detonated two car bombs in London, one outside the Israeli embassy [33] and one outside Balfour House , home to a Jewish charity. The attacks injured twenty people.[33] 1994, 13 August: 2.5 lbs of Semtex packed into a bicycle left outside Woolworths in Bognor Regis , exploded damaging 15 shops. A similar bomb found in nearby Brighton .[41] 1995, 24 January: The editor of the Des Pardes, Tarsem Singh Purewal , was shot and killed near to the newspaper's Southall office.[42] 1996, 9 February: London Docklands bombing : The IRA detonated a powerful truck bomb in the Canary Wharf financial district of London, following telephoned warnings. The blast caused severe damage and killed two people. 1996, 18 February: Aldwych bus bombing : An improvised high explosive device detonated prematurely on a bus travelling along Aldwych in central London, killing Edward O'Brien, the IRA member transporting the device and injuring eight others. 1996, 15 June: Manchester bombing : The IRA detonated a powerful truck bomb in central Manchester, following a telephoned warning. It was the biggest bomb detonated in Britain since the Second World War. It caused widespread damage and injured over 200 people, but there were no deaths. 1999, 17 April, 24 April, 30 April: 1999 London nail bombings : David Copeland set off three nail bombs in London targeting the black, Bangladeshi and gay communities respectively, killing three people (including a pregnant woman) and injuring 129. Copeland, a far-right extremist, was convicted of murder on 30 June 2000. Refer also to the list of IRA terrorist incidents presented to Parliament between 1980 and 1994, listed halfway down the page here 2000s[edit ] Memorial in London's Hyde Park to the victims of the 7 July bombings . 2000, 20 September: The Real IRA fired an RPG-22 rocket launcher at the MI6 headquarters in London. 2001, 4 March: The Real IRA detonated a car bomb outside the BBC Television Centre in London, damaging the front of the building and injuring one person.[43] 2001, 3 August: The Real IRA detonated a car bomb in Ealing , London, damaging buildings and injuring seven people. 2001, 4 November: Real IRA car bomb in Birmingham. 2005, 7 July: 7/7 central London bombings conducted by four separate Islamist extremist suicide bombers, which targeted civilians using the public transport system during the morning rush hour. Three bombs were detonated on three separate trains on the London Underground and one on a double-decker bus. As well as the suicide bombers, 52 other people were killed and around 700 more were injured. It was the UK's worst terrorist incident since the 1988 Lockerbie bombing and the first Islamist suicide attack in the country. 2007, January–February: Miles Cooper letter bomb campaign . Miles Cooper said he was motivated by anti-authoritarianism and opposition to surveillance .[44] 2007, 30th June: Glasgow Airport Attack. [A Jeep was driven into Glasgow Airport loaded with Propane Gas Canisters}. 2010s[edit ] 2013, 29 April to 12 July: Pavlo Lapshyn , a Ukrainian student and right-wing extremist, fatally stabbed Birmingham resident Mohammed Saleem on 29 April. Lapshyn later detonated a home-made bomb outside a mosque in Walsall on 21 June.[45] On 28 June, Lapshyn detonated a second home-made bomb near a mosque in Wolverhampton, and attacked a mosque in Tipton with an improvised explosive device containing nails on 12 July. He later admitted to police that he wished to start a "race war"[46] and was sentenced to serve at least 40 years.[47] [48] [49] 2013, 22 May: A British soldier, Lee Rigby , was murdered in an attack in Woolwich by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale, two Islamist extremists armed with a handgun, knives and a cleaver . Both men were sentenced to life imprisonment , with Adebolajo given a whole life order and Adebowale ordered to serve at least 45 years.[50] 2014, 10–14 February: The New Irish Republican Army (NIRA) claims responsibility for a series of parcel bombs sent to army recruitment offices in Oxford, Brighton, Canterbury, Slough, Aldershot, Reading and Chatham.[51] [52] 2016, 16 June: Murder of Jo Cox – Thomas Mair, a 52-year-old white nationalist , shot and stabbed the MP Jo Cox outside a surgery in Birstall, West Yorkshire , and severely wounded a passerby who came to her aid. The attack was treated as an act of terrorism,[53] and in sentencing Mair to life imprisonment the judge said "There is no doubt that this murder was done for the purpose of advancing a political, racial and ideological cause namely that of violent white supremacism and exclusive nationalism most associated with Nazism and its modern forms ".[54] 2017, 22 March: 2017 Westminster attack – Khalid Masood, a 52-year-old Islamist, drove a car into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge, killing four and injuring almost fifty. He ran into the grounds of the Palace of Westminster and fatally stabbed a police officer, before being shot dead by police. The attack was treated as an act of terrorism motivated by Islamic extremism.[55] [56] [57] [58] 2017, 22 May: Manchester Arena bombing – An Islamist suicide bomber, 22-year-old Salman Abedi, blew himself up at Manchester Arena as people were leaving a concert, killing 22 and injuring 139. It became the deadliest terrorist attack in Britain since the 7/7 London bombings in 2005. Many of the victims were children or teenagers, the youngest being an eight-year-old girl.[59] [60] 2017, 3 June: 2017 London Bridge attack – Three Islamists drove a van into pedestrians on London bridge before stabbing people in and around pubs in nearby Borough Market . Eight people were killed and at least 48 wounded.[61] [62] [63] The attackers were shot dead by police eight minutes after the incident was reported. All three were wearing fake suicide bomb vests. 2017, 19 June: Finsbury Park attack – Darren Osborne, a 47 year old British man, drove a van into Muslim worshippers near Finsbury Park Mosque , London. A man who had earlier collapsed and was receiving first aid died at the scene. The incident was investigated by counter-terrorism police as a terrorist attack.[64] [65] [66] On 23 June, Osborne was charged with terrorism-related murder and attempted murder.[67] [68] In February 2018 at Woolwich Crown Court , he was found guilty on both counts[69] and was sentenced to life imprisonment.[70] Prevented, failed or aborted attacks[edit ] These are known attacks which could have constituted a threat to life had they worked or been large enough. Does not include attacks that were merely at a talking stage and were not actually in operation. 1981, January: the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb in the Suvla barrack block at RAF Uxbridge. The device was discovered and the 35 RAF musicians and 15 airmen living there were evacuated before it exploded. 1985: Police found 10 grenades, seven petrol bombs and two detonators at the home of former Group Development Director for the British National Party Tony Lecomber after he was injured by a nail bomb that he was carrying to the offices of the Workers' Revolutionary Party . Convicted under the Explosive Substances Act 1883 . 1992, 1 March: An IRA bomb was diffused by police at White Hart Lane train station in London. 1993, 23 October: In Reading, Berkshire, an IRA bomb exploded at a signal post near the railway station , some hours after 5 lb (2 kg) of Semtex was found in the toilets of the station. The resulting closure of the railway line and evacuation of the station caused travel chaos for several hours, but no-one was injured. 1996, 24 April: 1996 Hammersmith Bridge bomb attempt. 2000, 1 June: Real IRA suspected of planting a high-explosive device attached to a girder under the south side of Hammersmith Bridge which detonated at 4:30 am.[71] 2000, 17 November: Police arrested Moinul Abedin. His Birmingham house contained bomb-making instructions, equipment, and traces of the explosive HTMD . A nearby lock-up rented by Abedin contained 100 kg of the chemical components of HTMD.[72] 2001, 3 November: The 2001 Birmingham bombing . 2005, 7 July: The London Bombings (known as the 7/7 bombings) 2005, 21 July: The 21 July 2005 London bombings , also conducted by four would-be suicide bombers on the public transport, whose bombs failed to detonate. 2006, 28 September: Talbot Street bomb-making haul . 2007, 1 February: Plot to behead a British Muslim soldier . 2007, 29 June: London car bombs . 2007, 30 June: Glasgow International Airport attack perpetrated by Islamist extremists. Five people were injured and the only death was of one of the perpetrators, who later died in hospital from his injuries. 2008, 27 February: British police thwarted a suspected plot to kill Abdullah of Saudi Arabia during a state visit to Britain in the year 2007 a senior officer said. 2008, 22 May: Exeter attempted bombing in a café toilet by an Islamist extremist, injuring only the perpetrator. 2009, 3 September : Manchester Piccadilly multiple suicide bomber plot.[73] In 2009 Pakistani national Abid Naseer, was one of 12 suspects arrested on suspicion of being part of a Manchester Terror cell, after arriving in the UK a year before. All were released on insufficient evidence, but ordered to be deported from the UK. Naseer's deportation to Pakistan was prevented on human rights grounds, as he was ruled 'likely to be mistreated'. In 2013, on further evidence from Al-Queda sources , including documents from the bin Laden Raid , he was extradited to the US, and on 4 March 2015 was found guilty of masterminding an Al-Qaeda directed plot to synchronize multiple suicide bombings around Manchesters Arndale Centre and Piccadilly Shopping centre in a coordinated attack involving other locations including the New York Subway with other cells. 2012, June: Five extremists plotted to bomb an English Defence League rally in Dewsbury but arrived late and were arrested when returning to Birmingham . A sixth was also convicted.[74] 2013, April: As part of Operation Pitsford 11 Muslim extremists are jailed for a plotting terror attack involving suicide Bombers.[75] 2015, 12 Feb : Liverpool Ricin Plot:[76] Mohammed Ammar Ali, an IT worker who rented a flat in Liverpool as a base of operations, attempted to buy 500 mg of ricin , which could kill as many as 1,400 people, using the darkweb . He was instead delivered a white powder by the FBI. Evidence was also found of attempts to purchase rabbits or chinchillas to test the poison out on. 2015, 7 July : Attempted anniversary London 7/7 bomb plot.[77] Mohammed Rehman and Sana Ahmed Khan were sentenced to life imprisonment for preparing an act of terrorism.[78] They had 10 kg of urea nitrate . Rehman called himself the 'silent bomber' and asked his Twitter followers to choose between the Westfield Shopping Centre or the London Underground for the planned suicide bomb. 2017, 15 September: Parsons Green bombing – The London tube train was targeted and witnesses reported a flash and bang.[79] Thirty people were injured, mostly with flash burns and crush injuries , but there were no fatalities. The threat level was raised to its highest point of critical soon after.[80] 2018, February : Ethan Stables, a white supremacist, was arrested plotting a machete attack in an LGBT parade.[81] Given the nature of counter-terrorism , successes in preventing terrorist attacks in the UK will not always come to light, or not be as heavily promoted as intelligence failures. However, during the police advocacy of 90-day detention in relation to the Terrorism Act 2006 they produced documents listing all the cases about which they could not go into details. [82] Authorities often state, without going into details, numbers of attacks prevented, e.g. 12 attacks were reported in March 2017 to have been thwarted in the previous year, some only hours before they were to have been attempted. [83] As you can see there is precedent for IRA or any of its derivatives attacking targets in Britain.

Did the MG-42 impress Allied forces? What was the pros and cons of this gun?

You don't want to meet a MG 42 on the battlefield. This was a fearsome and deadly weapon in the hands of a fearsome army of professionals. Copyright, 2014, Nigel Askey 1 1/07/2014 http://www.operationbarbarossa.net/blog/ http://www.operationbarbarossa.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Equal-Inf-Sqds.pdf All Infantry Squads are not Created Equal The Effect of Squad Automatics on an Infantry Squad’s Overall Firepower It is still sometimes stated that the German army had better equipment (especially tanks and artillery) than the enemy armies it faced, particularly in the early years of WWII. In regards to most weapons (especially tanks and artillery) this statement is simply not true. However, in regard to light and medium machine guns it is true, and this situation remained essentially unchanged for the duration of the war. Ironically many German weapons are often touted as being potential war winners, or at least far ahead of anything fielded by the Western Allies or the USSR in WWII. These weapons include the famous (or infamous) King Tiger tanks, the V2 rocket, the type XXI U-boat and the Me 262 jet fighter-bomber. In the rush to marvel at these weapons, most historians have overlooked a weapon which inflicted far more casualties on the Wehrmacht’s enemies than all the so called ‘wonder weapons’ combined, and which took the Allies until the 1950s to produce a comparable weapon. This was the MG 34 machine gun, followed by the even more lethal MG 42 machine gun. The standard German machine gun in 1941 was the 7.92mm MG 34. The MG 34 was the world’s firstGeneral Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG), a term that is standard in today’s armies but was unknown in 1939. The MG 34 was the first true GPMG because it was used as the standard infantry squad automatic (on a bipod) as well as the platoon or company’s MMG-HMGs (on a tripod). It even had a respectable anti-aircraft (AA) capability due to its very high rate of fire (900 rounds per minute), accuracy and ammunition feed. The origins of the MG 34 go back to 1930 when the Swiss company of Solothurn produced a MG called the MG 30 which they offered to the German Army.1 The MG 30 was a very advanced design and was probably the first ‘straight line’ MG design. It incorporated a butt in prolongation with the barrel axis and an ingenious quick change barrel design, both features of the MG 34. However the German Army was not impressed with the weapon and asked Mauserwerke (Mauser) to improve on its design. Mauserwerke jettisoned the side feeding box magazine and designed a new belt feed mechanism which could also take the saddle drum magazine used on the MG 15. The bolt locking system, the recoil system, and the barrel changing system were also all redesigned. The resultant MG34 was immediately accepted by the German Army for two main reasons: it was technically the finest weapon in its class in the world, and more importantly it fit in with the German Army’s infantry squad tactics which had been continually developed during and after WWI.The most far reaching impact of the MG 34 was tactical rather than mechanical. To understand this very important fact, we need to digress slightly and examine in simple terms how infantry squads worked in combat during this period. The infantry squad was essentially the smallest self-contained manoeuvre unit on the battlefield. It was capable of independent action and had both the structure and morale to be sent into action unsupported. The typical infantry squad of 8-12 men and could be separated into four functional parts. These were: command section (the squad leader), communication section (radio if available, which they weren’t in the Red Army), heavy weapons section (LMGs, automatic rifles, heavy AT weapons) and assault section (rifles, SMGs, grenades, flamethrowers, light AT weapons). The assault section (also often called the rifle section) was usually the largest section in the squad, with the ‘command’ and ‘communication’ sections also part of this group when the situation required. In general terms the infantry squad operated as follows. In offensive situations the heavy weapons section was expected to cover and suppress the enemy’s firepower, enabling the assault section to close and neutralise the enemy position. In defence the heavy weapons section was expected to provide the bulk of the firepower needed to eliminate the enemy attack, with the assault section protecting the flanks of the main fulfil these requirements, the ideal squad MG had to be: light enough to be carried forward by one man to directly support an attack, able to be brought into action within less than a minute, easily concealed, operated by one or two men at most, have adequate firepower (rate of fire, ammunition feed and accuracy) to suppress and inflict damage on the enemy defences, and be able to maintain a sustained fire for a long period (i.e. have adequate barrel cooling and be reliable). Like many technical specifications, the squad MG was a trade-off between conflicting requirements. Traditionally in MG design, ‘adequate firepower’, ‘cooling’ and ‘sustained fire’ meant belt fed ammunition and some form of assisted cooling such as water. These in turn meant the weapon was very heavy (far too heavy to be carried forward), difficult to conceal and slow into action. In addition, the voracious appetite for ammunition of automatic weapons meant the squad MG required an ammunition system which other members of the squad could support; specifically they could carry some of the required ammunition forward in support of the MG team. The result was that every other army (except the German Army) opted for air cooled and magazine fed designs, which collectively became known as light machine guns (LMGs). It was felt that the LMG could still provide adequate firepower to ‘do the job’ and there was essentially no choice anyway. It was simply impractical to have anything but air cooled barrels and it was felt that having squad members festooned with ammunition belts was unworkable. Separate ammunition magazines (with 20-30 rounds each) could be carried by all squad members, and the resultant limitations on fire rate, coupled with a LMG designed to fire 400-600 rounds per minute, meant the cooling problem could be managed. The US army didn’t even opt for the LMG as the standard squad automatic in the interwar years. Instead they opted for the Browning automatic rifle (BAR) M1918A2. This was essentially a heavy automatic rifle with a bottom loading 20 round magazine (which is inconvenient to change in action) and an extremely violent action. At 10kg in weight, the BAR was as heavy as contemporary LMGs without the flexibility and firepower advantages of most current LMGs. Amazingly, the BAR remained the US army’s squad light automatic until after WWII.Unfortunately for the rest of the world, the LMG compromise did not satisfy the German Army’s tactical combat requirements in the interwar years. Ever since the development of ‘shock troop tactics’ by the German Army in WWI, the Germans (along with some other armies) had struggled to find a MG which could meet all the demands required of a modern squad MG.2 They decided to pursue the concept of the General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG); a weapon capable of meeting the demands of the squad LMG and also powerful enough to equip the heavy MG platoons and companies. Firstly, they ignored the idea that having squad members festooned with ammunition belts was unworkable. As it turned out this was true, and I am often amused to see modern day infantry squads with belt ammunition draped over their shoulders on newsreels and photos! Secondly, the problem of cooling was solved by using a perforated air cooled barrel and more importantly, an ingenious and very rapid barrel changing system. Barrel changing was simplified by hinging the gun body to the rear end of the barrel casing; unlatching allowed the gun body to be swung sideways and the barrel pulled straight out of its bearings. In action, a good crew could change the barrel in 5-10 seconds! Finally, the Germans kept the MG 34 light enough to be carried and brought into action by one man. With a bipod attached to the barrel (standard in LMGs) the MG 34 weighed 12.2 kg. This is only marginally heavier than the outstanding British Bren LMG at 10.1 kg, the Red Army’s DP 1928 LMG at 9.3 kg, and the US Army’s BAR at 10 kg.3If the MG 34 was required to fulfil the role of MMG (Medium MG) or even HMG (Heavy MG), it was fitted to a small tripod (weighing 6.75 kg) or more commonly a large tripod (weighing 23.6 kg). The large tripod incorporated a sprung cradle to reduce the recoil and vibration, and the facility for telescopic gun sights and remote firing capability on a fixed arc. On the large tripod, the MG 34 was effective out to 2 500-3 000 metres. Coupled with the much higher rate of fire, this meant that the MG 34 also outperformed most contemporary WWII HMGs. The only real weakness of the MG 34 was that it was too good! The quality of design and workmanship meant long and precise manufacturing processes, and the weapon was very expensive for a squad weapon. As WWII progressed MG 34 production could not match demand. This led directly to the even more formidable, cheaper and easier to manufacture MG 42. The MG42 is considered by many experts to be one of the finest MGs ever made and matched by few rivals even today. The post-war US M60 LMG and British L7A1 GPMG unashamedly copied the best features of the MG 42. When the German Bundeswehr was reconstituted in the 1950s they considered the MG 42 better than anything then on offer! The result was the MG 42 was placed back into production by Rheinmetall (in 7.62 NATO calibre) as the MG 1, and later the MG 3. Considering all the above it is not unreasonable to ask; was the German Army’s advantage in GPMGs significant in the overall scheme of a modern war like the Eastern Front during WWII? Applying the methodology detailed in Part II (The Structure of the 1941 Soviet and Axis Resource Database) to the various MGs from WWII enables us to gain an insight into this question. Table Ger Res Database 1 reveals that the MG 34 in LMG mode had an OCPC (Overall Combat Power Coefficient) value of 8.56, while in the HMG mode the OCPC was 11.96. The corresponding tables from the Soviet FILARM model reveal the DP 1928 (squad LMG) had an OCPC value of 5.37, while the comparatively heavy and cumbersome Maxim 1910 MMG had an OCPC value of 8.63. This means that on average German infantry squads had around 1.6 times more direct irepower than the best equipped Soviet rifle squads. It also means that a German infantry squad had similar firepower to an enemy MMG, and was able to rapidly move this firepower forward to immediately support any attack or defence. This is before we even consider factors such as: •Around half the rifle squads fielded by the Red Army in 1941 had no LMG at all (due to shortages of LMGs relative to the massive mobilisation programme). •German infantry squads were also better equipped in other areas, particularly in terms of numbers and types of available hand and rifle grenades. •German motorised infantry squads (Schuetzen) operating with panzer and motorised divisions had 2 MG 34 GPMGs per squad; giving these troops exceptional firepower. When one considers that there were tens of thousands of infantry and rifle squads fighting each other every day during Operation Barbarossa, the German advantage in GPMGs in every squad becomes very significant in terms of affecting the overall course of the war. It also goes some way to explain the difference in casualty rates sustained by the respective sides at the tactical level. There is little doubt that the MG 34 was the finest weapon of its generation. It remained unmatched by any equivalent Allied or Soviet weapon in WWII and was only superseded by the MG 42. The impact of the MG 34 GPMG on infantry combat in WWII, and the advantage it bestowed upon German infantry at the tactical level, is difficult to overstate. Interestingly, the superior firepower of the MG34 (and the later MG 42) is very carefully simulated in most tactical or tactical-operational level military simulations today. However for some mysterious reason this same superiority is ignored (or at least totally underestimated) in most current operational level simulations of WWII battles and campaigns. In many of these simulations, both side’s infantry squads are treated as generic units with similar combat attributes. This is a mistake and will severely diminish the simulation’s value.If there are two things the reader should take away from this discussion on GPMGs, it is that all infantry and rifle squads are not equal, and that the impact of having tens of thousands of superiorly armed squads is very significant in any military campaign. Motorised Infantry Squads (Schuetzen) (aka Panzergrenadiere) In the period 1939-41, the German schuetzen or motorised infantry squads were the forerunners of the more famously titled panzergrenadiers. It wasn’t until 1942 that the schuetzen regiments in the panzer divisions were renamed panzergrenadier regiments in recognition of their ‘elite’ status. During Operation Barbarossa they were still most commonly referred to as motorised infantry. The schuetzen or motorised infantry regiments formed the infantry support element of German panzer and motorised divisions, which in turn formed the spearhead of any panzer or motorised corps. As such, German motorised infantry squads were better trained and more heavily armed than normal infantry squads. If mounted in trucks, the motorised infantry squad had an additional MG34 LMG available for increased firepower. The trucks enabled the much heavier ammunition load required for two MG34s to be readily carried. If mounted in the Sd Kfz 251 armoured halftrack, the motorised infantry squad became a true ‘armoured infantry squad’. In this mode the entire 10 man squad was carried in the Sd Kfz 251 and usually possessed two MG 34 MGs (including one with heavy tripod mount), eight Kar 98K rifles and two MP 38/30 SMGs.5 One of the MG 34s could also be mounted on a special long range mount on the front of the Sd Kfz 251. In this configuration one of the squad’s MGs effectively became a mobile supporting HMG with an armoured shield, which supported the squad when it dismounted from the Sd Kfz 251 and went into action. The Sd Kfz 251 represented the world’s first true APC (armoured personnel carrier) and in 1940-41 the Sd Kfz 251-infantry combination represented the only modern armoured infantry force in the world. It wasn’t until the US started mass producing the M3 armoured halftrack, and giving them to the UK and USSR in large numbers, that the rest of the world caught. In order to simulate the German motorised and armoured infantry squads in the Barbarossa simulation, the four main components required are separated in the Barbarossa simulation’s resource database. Thus (in the TOE of panzer and motorised divisions) the complete motorised infantry squad will include a ‘Heavy Rifle Squad’, an additional ‘LMG’ and a ‘truck’. Similarly, the complete armoured infantry squad will include a ‘Heavy Rifle Squad’, an additional ‘LMG’ and a ‘Sd Kfz 251 APC’. In the latter case the Sd Kfz 251 is treated as an armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) with a MG34 as its main weapon. Combat Engineer Squads (Pioniere) The second German squad type that needs special mention here is the pionier or combat engineer squad (listed as an ‘Eng Sqd’ in the tables above). To a large extent this unit was even more dangerous than the motorised infantry squad. The more commonly used term for this type of unit in other armies is ‘sappers’ or ‘army-engineers’. However, in western armies and the Red Army in 1941, the terms sappers or army-engineers doesn’t adequately encompass the full idea behind the German pionier squad. This is because German pionierunits were relatively elite troops who were especially trained and equipped for close assault and close combat. They were trained and equipped for combat to a much higher degree than their British, US or Red Army counterparts. As such, pionier troops were extremely dangerous troops to face, especially where the defender was forced to defend fixed positions. It is likely that the German pionier units in WWII owe their combat oriented pedigree to the development of stosstrupptakik (shock troop tactics) by the German Army in WWI. The German stosstrupptakik essentially involved the use of heavily armed troops attacking in small groups, and using infiltration tactics and close assault to destroy the enemy position. In the case of WWII pionier troops, ‘heavily armed’ includes MG34 GPMGs, MP38/40 SMGs, lots of grenades and grenade bundles, flame throwers, satchel charges, hollow charge explosives and various types of mines (refer below). In addition, the pionier battalions were designed to fulfil the more traditional battlefield engineer roles more commonly associated with sappers or army engineer units. The first noticeable thing about the pionier squad is that it contained an MG34 GPMG and MG section. If the unit’s prime role was battlefield construction etc this would have been a complete waste of resources. However in the German pionier squad it was needed to provide covering fire while the squad moved forward in combat. A similar analysis of weapons such as flame throwers and anti-tank (AT) rifles reveals that German pioniers normally had three flamethrower sections and three AT sections per pioniercompany (nine flamethrower and nine AT sections per battalion).6 This means pionier squads had dedicated flamethrower teams (or sections) and AT rifles immediately on call if required. By way of comparison, the Red Army and all the German allied armies involved in Operation Barbarossa (the Finnish, Slovakian, Hungarian, Rumanian and Italian armies) had engineer squads without an integrated MG section. Similarly, contemporary western army’s sapper squads needed heavy MG support from additional units if they were going to be used as close assault troops. In similar fashion, support from flame throwers was provided by separate flame thrower squads (eg in the Red Army’s 5th April 1941 TOE Rifle Division). In 1941 the AT rifle used by pioniertroops was usually the Panzerbuchse 39 (covered in the nextsection). The flame throwers most commonly used were the Flammenwerfer 35 or Flammenwerfer 40. The Flammenwerfer 35 weighed 37 kg when filled and could project a flame 25 to 30 metres. Up to 35 bursts of flame (each of approximately 4-5 seconds) could be achieved with one filling. The lighter and easier to handle Flammenwerfer 40 (introduced in 1941) weighed 22 kg when filled. It could project a flame 20 to 25 metres and approximately 12 bursts of flame could be achieved with one filling.7With their training in infiltration tactics and close assault, and a formidable array of available weapons, the German pionier squads had an Overall Combat Power Coefficient (OCPC) comparable to, or higher than, any infantry type squad in the world in 1941. In fact, when the Germans were struggling to deal with the T-34 and KV tanks in 1941, the use of pioniersquads in close assault became one of the preferred methods to destroy them. For many German infantry divisions equipped with only light 37mm AT guns in 1941, pioniersquads and precious medium to heavy artillery were the only really effective means of dealing with T34 and KV tanks. In order to simulate the additional flamethrowers, mines and assault charges available to pioniersquads in the German FILARM model, the WCPC (Weapon Combat Power Coefficient) value of Eng Sqds is increased by 40%. This is shown by the higher WCPC value for Eng Sqds in table Ger Res Database 1. The high WCPC value also results in a high Overall Combat Power Coefficient (OCPC) value; despite the fact that pioniersquads had a lower Tactical Responsiveness Factor (TRF) and a lower Concealment and Protection Factor (CPF) than comparable pure infantry squads.

FAQs ที่เกี่ยวข้อง mp locks 500 mg

  • Q

    ไฟเตือนสถานะเครื่องยนต์ของMG 5มีอะไรบ้าง

    Ja Kamonchanok

    มีไฟเตือนสถานะเครื่องยนต์และรุ่นย่อยของMG 5 ได้แก่

    อ่านเพิ่มเติม
  • Q

    ประเภทยางรถยนต์ของMG 5มีอะไรบ้าง

    ซุ้ม ส. เมธาสิทธิ์

    มีประเภทยางรถยนต์และรุ่นย่อยของMG 5 ได้แก่

    อ่านเพิ่มเติม
  • Q

    ที่วางแก้วน้ำด้านหน้าของMG 5มีอะไรบ้าง

    กฤตกร มานะดี

    มีที่วางแก้วน้ำด้านหน้าและรุ่นย่อยของMG 5 ได้แก่

    อ่านเพิ่มเติม

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