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บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง chloroquine ph 500 mg tablet

MG เผยคอนเซปท์สปอร์ตไฟฟ้าคันใหม่ MG Cyberster วิ่งไกล 800 กม.

MG (เอ็มจี) ลอนดอน ได้ทำการเปิดคอนเซปท์รถสปอร์ตคันใหม่ในนาม MG Cyberster แบบเปิดประทุน ก่อนที่จะมีรายละเอียดออกมาในงาน

Review: MG Extender กระบะยักษ์พันธุ์แกร่ง

MG Extender 2.0 Giant Cab D 6MT ราคา 619,000 บาท- MG Extender 2.0 Giant Cab GRAND D 6MT ราคา 659,000

ไฟเขียว! MG เตรียมเปิดตัวรถสปอร์ตพลังไฟฟ้าปลายปีนี้ รอลุ้นราคาจำหน่าย

รถต้นแบบ MG E-Motionรถสปอร์ตพลังงานไฟฟ้ารุ่นแรกของ MG (เอ็มจี) ยุคใหม่เตรียมเปิดตัวครั้งแรกในโลกภายในช่วงปลายปีนี้

ไขข้อสงสัยข้อดีข้อเสียก่อนซื้อ MG HS

หลังจาก MG HS รถสไตล์รถครอบครัวจากแบรนด์จีนเปิดตัวก็ได้รับความสนใจล้นหลาม และก็กลายเป็น Compact SUV ที่มียอดขายดีในกลุ่มได้อย่างรวดเร็วด้วยชื่อ

7 เรื่องควรรู้ก่อนซื้อ MG HS 2019

ตอนนี้ตลาดรถอเนกประสงค์อย่าง SUV กำลังมาแรงมากขึ้นเรื่อยๆ และค่าย MG (เอ็มจี) ก็ถือเป็นอีกค่ายหนึ่งที่คนให้ความสนใจ

2020 MG eHS ปลั๊กอินไฮบริด 300 แรงม้า ประหยัด 77 กม.ต่อลิตร เตรียมเปิดตัวในไทยปีนี้

กวางโจว มอเตอร์โชว์เมื่อปลายปีที่แล้วและออกจำหน่ายในประเทศจีนไปแล้ว รถเอสยูวีพลังงานทางเลือกในชื่อ MG

MG เล็งไทยเป็นฮับอาเซียน ผลิต MG ZS พวงมาลัยซ้าย ส่งออกอินโดนีเซีย-เวียดนาม-มาเลเซีย

MG (เอ็มจี) ประเทศไทย ขยับสายการผลิตเพิ่มการผลิต MG ZS (เอ็มจี แซดเอส) พวงมาลัยซ้าย เพื่อเริ่มการส่งออกไปยังตลาดเวียดนามภายในสิ้นปีนี้

แบงค์บอกต่อ กระบะราคาดีทั้ง Ford และ Mg ส่วนลดเริ่มต้นที่ 200,000 บาท

มีโปรดี ๆ มาบอกต่อกันกับ Ford Ranger กับ Everest และ MG Extender ที่นำรถมาลดราคากันกระหน่ำFord Everest

ส่อง 5 จุดเด่น MG HS ก่อนซื้อ

ค่ายรถยนต์ MG สัญชาติจีนเริ่มต้นบุกเบิกตลาดรถเอสยูวีมาได้สักระยะ ล่าสุดก็เปิดตัว Compact SUV รุ่นล่าสุดอย่าง

MG เปิดบริการรถไฟฟ้าเหมาจ่ายเดือนละ 250 บาท ทำไมเมืองไทยไม่มีแบบนี้บ้าง!!!

MG Motor (เอ็มจี มอเตอร์) แห่งสหราชอาณาจักร เปิดตัวบริการรูปแบบใหม่เพื่อเอาใจลูกค้าผู้ใช้รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในสหราชอาณาจักร

ดูเพิ่มเติม

ราคาไม่ถึงล้าน MG5 EV เปิดตัวในไทย 23 พ.ย. นี้ กับสเปคจริงที่ดีกว่า MG ZS EV ซะงั้น

MG5 EV มีสเปคดีกว่า MG ZS EVMG รถยนต์ตราอังกฤษ ที่ถูกชาวเซี่ยงไฮ้ซื้อป้ายหน้าร้านไปใส่เทคโนโลยีที่พัฒนาโดย

รู้ข้อดีข้อด้อยก่อนซื้อ MG HS ตัวท็อป

MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) ถือเป็นรถอเนกประสงค์อีกรุ่นที่ได้รับความนิยมไม่แพ้ MG ZS ของค่ายเอ็มจีเลย ด้วยความโดดเด่นในด้านเทคโนโลยี

จุดเปลี่ยนปีหน้า! Toyota เล็งเป็นผู้นำรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าด้วยแบตเตอรี่นวัตกรรมใหม่วิ่งไกลกว่า 500 กม.

ของตลาดรถพลังงานไฟฟ้าและอุตสาหกรรมยานยนต์โลกในภาพรวมเลยทีเดียวแบตเตอรี่โซลิดสเตทมีศักยภาพสูงมากเพราะช่วยให้ตัวรถขับเคลื่อนได้ไกลกว่า 500

Review: New 2020 Toyota Fortuner Legender รุ่นท็อป 204 แรงม้า 500 นิวตันเมตร จัดเต็ม 1.839 ล้านบาท

กำลังสูงสุด 150 แรงม้า แรงบิด 400 นิวตันเมตร และรุ่นดีเซลเทอร์โบ ขนาด 2.8 ลิตร กำลังสูงสุด 204 แรงม้า แรงบิด 500

MG EP คือรถใหม่ปี 2020 ที่น่าตื่นเต้นที่สุด แต่ไม่มีใครสังเกต!

MG EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) รถคันนี้อาจจะเป็นรถที่น่าสงสารที่สุดที่เปิดตัวในปี 2020 เราคิดว่าแม้แต่ทาง MG ประเทศไทยเองก็ไม่มั่นใจนักว่ารถคันนี้เกิดขึ้นมาเพราะอะไรกันแน่มันเป็นรถยนต์พลังงานไฟฟ้าแบตเตอรี่ที่ราคาถูกที่สุดในไทย

กรมทางหลวงจัดโปรโมชั่น เติม M-Pass 500 คืน 50 ลดเสี่ยง เลี่ยงเงินสด จำนวน 20,000 สิทธิ์

กรมทางหลวง ร่วมกับธนาคารกรุงไทย เชิญชวนผู้ใช้บัตรผ่านทางอัตโนมัติ M-Pass มอบสิทธิพิเศษ เติมเงินเข้า M-Pass 500

เสียงวิจารณ์โลกโซเชียลไม่ระคาย ทำไม MG ทำยอดขายผงาดผู้นำ

ความสำเร็จของรถอเนกประสงค์ค่าย MG ทั้ง MG ZS (เอ็มจี แซดเอส) และ MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) แสดงให้เห็นว่าค่ายรถยนต์น้องใหม่สามารถโค่นแบรนด์ยักษ์อันเก่าแก่ลงได้หากเดินถูกทางยอดขายสะสมของรถอเนกประสงค์ขนาดซับคอมแพ็กต์อย่าง

ไม่ง้อรัฐ! MG ตัดงบตัวเอง ลุยขยายสถานีประจุไฟ 500 แห่ง เอาใจลูกค้า EV และ PHEV

MG (เอ็มจี) ผู้นำด้านรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในประเทศไทย ประกาศเดินหน้าแผนงานขยายสถานีประจุไฟฟ้า 500 แห่งทั่วประเทศ

ORA Good Cat รถยนต์พลังงานไฟฟ้าแมวเหมียว พร้อมลุยสู้ MG ZS EV

ได้เปิดตัวให้ไทยได้ยลโฉมตัวจริงในงานมอเตอร์โชว์ครั้งที่ 42 โดยเป็นเวอร์ชั่นจีนที่ออกแบบเป็นเก๋ง 5 ประตูที่มีดีไซน์โดดเด่น สามารถวิ่งได้ระยะทางไกลสูงสุด 500

รู้ข้อดีข้อเสีย MG V80 ก่อนเป็นเจ้าของ

แต่ก่อนจะไปเป็นเจ้าของ MG V80 2019 นี้ AutoFun เลยอยากจะบอกเล่าข้อดีข้อเสียของ MG V80 2019 นี้ก่อนตัดสินใจข้อดีของ

ใครจะซื้อควรรอก่อนไหม? 2021 MG ZS EV โฉมใหม่จะมีระยะทางขับขี่ด้วยไฟฟ้าไกลขึ้น

2020 MG ZS EV ในเมืองไทย2021 MG ZS EV (2021 เอ็มจี แซดเอส อีวี) รถพลังงานไฟฟ้าโฉมใหม่จ่อเปิดตัวในประเทศไทย

MG เตรียมเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าใหม่ปลายปี 2021 ในทรงแฮทช์แบ็ค ลือคล้าย MG3

MG (เอ็มจี) ในปี 2021 วางแผนที่จะทำการเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้ารุ่นใหม่ปลายปีนี้ ในตัวถังแฮทช์แบ็ค 5 ประตู อาจคล้ายกับ

2020 MG HS PHEV เทียบ MG HS 1.5X เจาะออพชั่นต่างกันทุกด้าน เพิ่มเงินแค่ 240,000 บาท

เอ็มจี เอชเอส ปลั๊กอินไฮบริด เปิดตัวในราคา 1,359,000 บาท2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส ปลั๊กอินไฮบริด

อ่านก่อนซื้อ! MG EXTENDER มีข้อดีกับข้อเสียอย่างไร

และต้องบอกเลยว่า MG กล้าหาญชาญชัยมากที่นำรถกระบะ MG EXTENDER (เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) เข้ามาขายในประเทศไทย

แบงค์บอกต่อ รวมแคมเปญรถดีน่าใช้ปี 2021 MG ZS, MG EP หรือจะ Honda ก็ยังมีนะ

แบงค์บอกต่อ เรามาดูโปรโมชั่นรถยนต์น่าสนใจหลายขนาดจากทางฝั่ง MG (เอ็มจี) ที่มีทั้ง 2021 MG ZS (เอ็มจี

Fiat 500 ทำจาก Lego ขนาดเท่าจริง คนเข้าไปนั่งได้ และรวมสุดยอดรถเลโก้สเกลจริง มีให้ดูที่นี่

Lego ผู้ผลิตตัวต่อของเล่น ซึ่งมีผลงานรถจำลองหลายรุ่น แต่คราวนี้หันมาทำรถขนาดจริง โดยใช้รถรุ่น Fiat 500

MG คว้ารางวัลแบรนด์รถยนต์คุ้มค่ายอดเยี่ยม – MG ZS EV รับรางวัลรถใหม่คุ้มค่าสูงสุด

MG (เอ็มจี) ได้รับรางวัลแบรนด์รถยนต์ที่ความคุ้มค่ายอดเยี่ยม (Best Value Brand 2020) จากการประกาศผลรางวัล

MG ประกาศขึ้นแท่นผู้นำตลาดเอสยูวีในครึ่งปีแรกของปี 2563

MG (เอ็มจี) แบรนด์รถยนต์น้องใหม่ประเทศไทย ประกาศขึ้นแท่นผู้นำตลาดเอสยูวีในครึ่งแรกของปี 2563 ด้วยยอดจำหน่ายรวม

2021 MG ZS EV ไม่มางานมอเตอร์โชว์ 2021 หลบทาง ORA Good Cat หรือมีรุ่นใหม่มาแทนกันแน่?

ซึ่งถ้ารถรุ่นใดไม่ได้มาในงานนี้ ก็หมายถงว่า ชะตากรรมของรุ่นดังกล่าว จะไม่ได้ไปต่อในเร็ววันนี้แน่นอนMG

พาชมคันจริง 2021 MG EP เคาะราคา 988,000 บาท รถไฟฟ้าเข้าถึงง่าย แต่ขาดอะไรไปบางอย่าง

2021 MG EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) รถไฟฟ้าตัวถังสเตชั่นวากอนรุ่นใหม่ ได้เป็นตัวอย่างเป็นทางการพร้อมเผยราคาในงาน

วิดีโอรถยนต์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง chloroquine ph 500 mg tablet

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รีวิว Q&A chloroquine ph 500 mg tablet

How true is the rumor that chloroquine is a cure for Coronavirus?

It was mentioned by Chinese scientists, but no proper findings were published. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 It’s worth copying the discussion in full. Remember, many promising drugs fail to demonstrate efficacy and safety in regulated clinical trials. The research letter, written by a group of Chinese researchers, studied the effect of chloroquine in vitro, using Vero E6 cells infected by SARS-CoV-2 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.05. The study demonstrated that chloroquine was highly effective in reducing viral replication, with an Effective Concentration (EC)90 of 6.90 μM that can be easily achievable with standard dosing, due to its favourable penetration in tissues, including in the lung [6 ]. The authors described that chloroquine is known to block virus infection by increasing endosomial ph and by interfering with the glycosylation of cellular receptor of SARS-CoV. The authors also speculated on the possibility that the known immunomodulant effect of the drug may enhance the antiviral effect in vivo [6 ]. A narrative letter by Chinese authors reported that a news briefing from the State Council of China had indicated that “Chloroquine phosphate… had demonstrated marked efficacy and acceptable safety in treating COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicentre clinical trials conducted in China” [5 ]. The authors also stated that these findings came from “more than 100 patients” included in the trials [5 ]. We sought for evidence of such data in the trial registries we reviewed and found none. The Editorial written by French researchers, underlined the in-vitro efficacy of chloroquine in other viral infections, especially SARS (whose disappearance resulted in limited further research). They also discussed the potentially favourable risk-benefit balance, the high safety, and the low expenditure of such treatment in the context of the current COVID-19 outbreak [3 ]. Since cases were reported in 85 countries so far (5th March 2020), the low cost of chloroquine is a major benefit for both the highly stressed healthcare systems of involved high-income countries and the underfunded heathcare systems of middle- and low-income counties [10 ]. The expert consensus was published on 20th February by a multicentre collaboration group of the Department of Science and Technology of Guangdong Province and Health Commission of Guangdong Province paper and related specifically to the use of chloroquine phosphate [7 ]. No information was provided on the method used to achieve consensus [7 ]. Based on in vitro evidence and still unpublished clinical experience, the panel recommended chloroquine phosphate tablet, at a dose of 500 mg twice per day for 10 days, for patients diagnosed as mild, moderate and severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, provided that there were no contraindications to the drug. The panel recommended using several precautions, including blood testing to rule out the development of anemia, thrombocytopenia or leukopenia as well as serum electrolyte disturbances and/or hepatic and renal function dysfunction. Also recommended were routine electrocardiography to rule out the development of QT interval prolongation or bradycardia and patient interviews to seek the appearance of visual and/or mental disturbance/deterioration. The panel recommended avoiding concurrent administration of other drugs known to prolong the QT interval (i.e. chinolones, macrolides, ondansetron) as well as various antiarrhythmic, antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs [7 ]. The Dutch Center of Disease control (CDC), in a public document on its website, suggested to treat severe infections requiring admission to the hospital and oxygen therapy or admitted to the ICU with chloroquine, [8 ]. However, the document also stated that treating patients only with optimal supportive care is still a reasonable option, due to lack of supportive evidence. The suggested regimen in adults consists of 600 mg of chloroquine base (6 tablets A-CQ 100 mg) followed by 300 mg after 12 h on day 1, then 300 mg × 2/die per os on days 2–5 days. This document also underlined 1) the needs for stopping the treatment at day 5 to reduce the risk of side effects, considering the long half-life of the drug (30 h); 2) the need to differentiate between regimens based on chloroquine phosphate and chloroquine base since 500 mg of the first correspond to 300 mg of the second [8 ]. Another guideline document by the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical disease (Lombardy section) recommend the use of chlorochine 500 mg × 2/die or hydroxychloroquine 200 mg die for 10 days, although the treatment may vary from 5 to 20 days according to clinical severity. The suggested target population ranged from patients with mild respiratory symptoms and comorbidities to patients with severe respiratory failure [9 ]. Our search also identified ongoing 23 trials, all in China (Table 1 ). The trials varied in study design, severity of the disease in the target population and in dosing and duration of the treatment. Indeed, the trial registrations varied also in quality of the reported information. That so many such studies are being conducted in parallel suggests that that the scientific community is making a huge effort to clarify this question, but this effort is probably insufficiently coordinated. In support of this observation, the Chinese authorities have recently issued a directive to regulate and coordinate clinical trials studying potential pharmacological treatments for COVID-19 [11 ]. The results of these trials will be the first available on humans, since studies published to date on the characteristics and management of patients with COVID-19 did not report data about chloroquine use [1 ,[12] , [13] , [14] , [15] ]. Of note, the WHO published a generic protocol for randomized clinical trials to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of drugs in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (i.e. a “master template” for researching drugs in this setting) [16 ]. The vital ethical issue is whether administration of chloroquine in the setting of COVID-19 is experimental, and therefore requires ethical trial approval, or off-label (i.e. ethically justifiable as the best available treatment). Additional information on chloroquine will soon be released in the context of the evolving outbreak. Timely release of this information can be of importance due to the growing number of infected patients, and the absence of licensed specific drugs. Meanwhile, the recommendations for “Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection is suspected”, published by the WHO, confirm that there is currently no evidence from RCTs to inform on specific drug treatment of COVID-19 and that unlicensed treatments should be administered only in the context of ethically-approved clinical trials or the Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Interventions Framework (MEURI), under strict monitoring [17 ]. The WHO therefore seems to view chloroquine as experimental. The authors tend to agree with this viewpoint. But even off-label use of chloroquine may be accompanied by several concerns; the first is patient safety. Such use should be accompanied by close monitoring. An epidemic is hardly the ideal setting to do this. The ethical approach to off-label drug use also differs between countries, raising questions regarding equity. Finally, chloroquine remains a pivotal drug in the treatment of Malaria in many places in the world. Off label drug use can create major drug shortages [18 ].

Pepaero (Dengue Free tablets)?

Pepaero (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg and Giloy 250 mg tablets) is distributed to more than 1000 Patients last year with effective results in Dengue Cases and because of GST implementation this year it will be on chargeable basis. Pepaero (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg and Giloy 250 mg tablets) tablets for Free of cost , Pepaero (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg and Giloy 250 mg tablets) is genuine herbal product with duly approved by Drug authority, Pepaero (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg and Giloy 250 mg tablets) is chargeable from 1 July onwards and we will help you to deliver at your doorsteps. Some Instructions for taking Pepaero tablets Normal Platelets counts are from 1,50,000 to 4,50,000 (Platelets counts should be below the normal range) We are giving Pepaero (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg and Giloy 250 mg tablets) to Dengue patient only, and kindly check NS1 Test report and confirm your Doctor before taking Pepaero (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg and Giloy 250 mg tablets). Normal Platelets counts are from 1,50,000 to 4,50,000 Dosage is 3 Times a day for 5 days minimum. Clinical Study For Platelets counts in Dengue viruse cases (Carica Papaya leaf 750 mg) 1. Introduction Dengue viruses, mosquito-borne members of the Flaviviridae family, are the causative agents of dengue fever[1] . Dengue is the most important emerging viral disease of humans that in recent decades has become a major international public health concern. Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world, predominantly in urban and semi-urban area[2] . It is estimated that there are between 50 and 100 million cases of dengue fever (DF) and about 500 000 cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) each year which require hospitalization[3] . Dengue fever is spread through the bite of an infected Aedes aegyptimosquito. The mosquito gets the virus by biting an infected person[4] . The first symptom of the disease appears in about 5-7 days after the infected mosquito bites a healthy person. It is possible to become infected by dengue multiple times because the virus has four different serotypes. Although each infection confers lifelong immunity to that particular serotype, a subsequent infection with a different serotype increases the risk of contracting the much deadlier form known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)[5] . The symptoms of dengue fever include high fever, rash, and a severe headache (dengue triad). Additional symptoms include severe joint and muscular pain (breakbone fever), nausea, vomiting, and eye pain. Although dengue fever itself is rarely fatal, it can be an extraordinarily painful and disabling illness and may become epidemic in a population following the introduction of a new serotype. Dengue fever is usually a self-limited illness, and only supportive care is required. Acetaminophen may be used to treat patients with symptomatic fever. Aspirin, Brufen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics and corticosteroids should be avoided as these do not help but cause gastritis and/or bleeding. In children, Reye's syndrome (encephalopathy) may be a serious complication. Patients with known or suspected dengue fever should have their platelet count and Hematocrit measured daily from the third day of illness until 1-2 days after defervescence. No vaccine is available for the prevention of dengue infection. Immunogenic, safe tetravalent vaccines have been developed and are undergoing clinical trials. The only way to prevent dengue virus acquisition is to avoid being bitten by a vector mosquito[1] –[4] . Fresh plant materials of Carica papaya (C. papaya) were collected from University of Peshawar. Their botanical identities were determined and authenticated by Dr. Lajber Khan, Head, Medicinal Botanic Centre (MBC), PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Peshawar KPK, Pakistan. The plant material was washed with water, cut into pieces and grinded with blender. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever. The same doze was given to the patient twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. By 72 hours, effectiveness of the water extract was investigated biochemically from blood samples. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 3 000 rpm for 15 minutes. The separated serum profile was used for the estimation of biochemical parameters like Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood Cells (RBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT), etc. Go to: 2. Case report A male patient aged 45 years old working as truck driver in a cement factory, was brought to the emergency department with sever fever of 104 °F. The symptom included breathing problem, sever vomiting, red skin, shivering, sever body pain and high blood pressure. He reported that he had been driving truck and transporting cement to various regions of KPK, Pakistan. During his journey he used to stay at different locations for food, at that time he was bitten by mosquito carrying Dengue virus. After 24 hr of which he started feeling sever pain in whole body with fever and teary eyes. These symptoms increased time to time over the passing hours, which were followed by vomiting. In the same days three to four patients surrounding the mentioned area (Figure 1 ) died of Dengue fever. Subsequently the patient was admitted in emergency unit in Abottabad Medical Complex. On the basis of screening blood test examination he was declared to be a victim of Dengue fever. The serological studies revealed an abrupt decline in the patient platelets counts. The patient has been given different broad spectrum antibiotics and anti malarial drugs but there were no signs of improvement, and his condition became worse time by time. He had been given different food items but unfortunately vomiting did not stopped. At the same time our team was working on the biological activities of C. papaya. For the patient's treatment, the leaves of the plant (Figure 2 ) were collected and thoroughly washed with water. The leaves were grinded in fruit juicer with water. As the taste of C. papaya leaves extract was very bitter, some amount of sucrose was added for easy administration. About 25 mL of leaves extract was administrated orally, twice daily for five consecutive days. Before extract administration, the patient blood was evaluated for total platelets counts, after 24 hours each time. After extract administration the patient blood was rechecked for platelets counts again for five consecutive days. After which the patient starts improvement. Before administration of leaves extracts, the patient blood test have been taken. In patient target area there was no specific lab to identify Dengue virus in patient blood. Therefore.from the tests results it was observed that PLT, WBC and NEUT decreased from normal level. After the infection the patient immediately felt fatigue and fever, these symptoms aggravated over the night. In the same month of October 2010, most patients of Dengue fever died, so from the patient symptoms and blood reports physicians recommended hospitalization. From the first blood report it was observed that PLT count was176×103/µL,WBC 8.1×103/µL and NEUT 84.0%, respectively. In the second report PLT count was 122×103/µL, WBC 6.6×103/µL and NEUT 81.5%. The third day report showed the PLT counts, WBC and NEUT were 110×103/µL, 4.4×103/µL and 71.8%, respectively. PLT, WBC and NEUT decreased very fast. The physicians told the family members of patient that if the PLT count were below 20×103/µL then he would begin bleeding and may die. Physicians in different hospital recommend PLTs injection isolated from donor blood. But in this case on the fourth and fifth day the PLT count decreased to 71×103/µL and 55×103/µL, respectively, while the WBC and NEUT reached to 4.0×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 60.0%, 46.0% respectively (Table 1 ). Different antibiotics and anti-malarial drugs were administrated orally and intravenously, but no successful results. The C. papaya leaves extract in water was given to the patient twice daily. The patient started vomiting as eating, so physicians recommended fruits and fruit juices. 25 mL of extract was given to the patient in the morning and evening. After two consecutive days the blood samples were checked for different parameters. In the first blood report it was observed that the PLT count, WBC and NEUT increased to 73×103/µL, 3.8×103/µL and 56.0%, respectively. With similar dose of extracts, on the next day the blood report indicated that the PLT count reach to120×103/µL while WBC and NEUT reach to 4.4×103/µL and 64.2%, respectively. On the third day, it was observed that PLT count (137×103/µL), WBC (5.3×103/µL) and NEUT (71.1%) increased. In the fourth blood report (PLT: 159×103/µL, WBC: 5.9×103/µL and NEUT: 73.0%) and fifth report (PLT: 168×103/µL, WBC: 7.7×103/µL and NEUT: 78.3%) the PLT, WBC and NEUT reach to their normal levels (Table 2 ). Go to: 3. Discussion The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of C. papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever. The secondary metabolite of plants origin makes up a vast repository of compounds with a wide range of biological activities. There have been many reports of higher plant extracts possessing relatively good potential to inhibit viruses (Van Den Berghe, 1978). Many plants extracts including Spilanthes calva, Sterculia guttata, Balanites aegyptiaca, Vitex negundo, Solanum xanthocarpum, Artemisia annua, Fagonia indica, Nerium indicum, Trigonella foenum, in different solvents have been reported to exhibit activity against Aedes aegypti L., a vector of dengue fever[6] –[12] . C. papaya contains two important biologically active compounds vis: chymopapain and papain which are widely used for digestive disorders[13] . It showed that papaya-derived papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase can improve acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. Other active compounds of C. papaya are lipase, or CPL, a hydrolase, which is tightly bonded to the water-insoluble fraction of crude papain and is thus considered as a “naturally immobilized” biocatalyst[14] . According to the folk medicine, papaya latex can cure dyspepsia and also applicable for external burns and scalds. Seeds and fruits are excellent antihelminthic and anti-amoebic[15] . Dried and pulverized leaves are sold for making tea, also the leaf decoction is administered as a purgative for horses and used for the treatment of genito-urinary system. Unripe and semi- ripe papaya fruits are ingested or applied on the uterus to cause abortion. However, the consumption of unripe and semi-ripe papaya fruits could be unsafe during pregnancy, but consumption of ripe fruits during pregnancy causes no risk[16] . It is reported that the plant extracts of Quercus lusitanica have maximum activity against DENV-2 Replication of Dengue virus[17] . It is also reported that the methyle gallate of plant origin interacts with herpes simplex virus proteins and alters the adsorption and penetration of the virion[18] . It is observed that Gastrodia elata B1 has effect on the multiplication cycle of Dengue virus serotype 2[19] . It is reported that two compounds 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3- ethynyl-[1,2,4]triazole (ETAR) and 1-beta-Dribofuranosyl-4- ethynyl[1,3]imidazole (IM18), significantly reduced replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) in cultured Vero cells and a noval trypsin Kazal-type inhibitor from Aedes aegypti has thrombin coagulant inhibitory activity[20] . The latex, ripe fruits, unripe fruits, seeds, seeds juice, root, leaves, flower and stem bark of C. papaya are used as antimicrobial, anthelmentic, antimalarial, antifungal, anti-amoebic, hepatoprotective, male and female antifertility, immunomodulatory and against histminergic[21] . This case report shows the activity of C. papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever. The Dengue attacks start in late summer and end in early winter in Pakistan. Most patients infected are in the age of 30-45 years old. The Dengue fever repeats every year and causes several deaths. The rise of PLT count in the present case from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL indicates the activity of C. papaya leaves extract. However, this is a preliminary work and more works on isolating the active compounds from this valuable specie are needed which may help in control of such infectious diseases. Reference - National Center for Biotechnology Information /pmc/articles/PMC3614241/ Clinical Study For Anti inflammatory properties for Giloy 250 mg tablets Introduction Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) is a large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the family Menispermaceae.[1 -3 ] It is distributed throughout the tropical Indian subcontinent and China, ascending to an altitude of 300 m. In Hindi, the plant is commonly known as Giloe,[4 ] which is a Hindu mythological term that refers to the heavenly elixir that has saved celestial beings from old age and kept them eternally young. Other common names and synonyms are Guduchi, Amrita, Amritavalli, Madhuparni, Guduchika, Chinnobhava, Vatsadani, Tantrika, Kundalini, Chakralakshanika (Sanskrit), G ulancha (Bengali), Gurcha ( Hindi), Garo, Galac (Gujarati), Thippateega( Telugu), Amrutavalli (Kannada) , Amrita, Gilo (Kashmiri), Chittamrutu ( Malayalam), Gulvel (Marathi), Guluchi (Oriya), Gilo ( Punjabi), Seendal, Seendil Kodi (Tamil), Siddhilata, Amarlata (Assamese) Heartleaf Moonseed, Tinospora (English).[5 ] Guduchi, the Sanskrit name, means one which protects the entire body. The term amrita is attributed to its ability to impart youthfulness, vitality and longevity. The stems of T. cordifolia are rather succulent with long filiform fleshy aerial roots from the branches. The bark is creamy white to gray, deeply left spiraily the space in between being spotted with large rosette-like lenticels. The leaves are membranous and cordate. The flowers are small and yellow or greenish yellow. In axillary and terminal racemes or racemose panicles, the male flowers are clustered and female flowers are usually solitary. The drupes are ovoid, glossy, succulent, red and pea sized. The seeds are curved. Fruits are fleshy and single seeded. Flowers grow during summer; and fruits, during winter.[6 ,7 ] Stem of the T. cordifoliaappears in varying thicknesses, ranging from 0.6 to 5 cm in diameter; young stems are green with smooth surfaces and swelling at nodes, while the older ones show a light brown surface marked with warty protuberances due to circular lenticels; transversely smoothened surface shows a radial structure with conspicuous medullary rays traversing porous tissues; tastes bitter [Figure 1 ].[5 ] Go to: Ayurvedic Pharmacology (Dravya Guna-Karma) of T. cordifolia( Guduchi) Ayurvedic pharmacology is based on biophysical, experiential, inferential and intuitional mechanisms. The action of a substance is based on five mechanisms of action or attributes of a substance, namely, rasa (taste appreciation of the substance by the chemical receptors on the tongue — Six tastes are described namely sweet (madhura), sour (amla), salty (lavana), bitter (tikta), pungent (katu)and astringent (kasāya), guna (10 pairs of opposite or mirror image attributes; attribute or property of any substance), vipaka (intestinal digestion and tissue metabolism; madhura- neutral, amla- acidic, katu- alkaline), virya (potency; ushna- hot, sheeta- cold) and prabhav (specific action through specialized receptors). All these mechanisms related to drug action are biophysical in nature. Karma is the action that involves the activity or performance. It is the final effectof the drug. The properties, action (pharmacodynamics) and uses (indication) of T. cordifolia are given in Table 1 [5 -8 ] and Table 2 .[9 -21 ] In the classical texts of Ayurveda, namely, Charak, Sushruta and Ashtang Sangraha and other treatises like Bhava Prakash and Dhanvantari Nighantu, etc., T. cordifolia is claimed to be useful in treating leprosy, fever, asthma, anorexia, jaundice, gout, skin infections, diabetes, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, etc.[9 -21 ] Go to: Ethnobotanical, Folk and Tribal Uses of T. cordifolia (Guduchi) There are over 400 different tribal and other ethnic groups in India. Each tribal group has its own tradition, folk language, beliefs and knowledge about use of natural resources as medicines.[22 ] T. cordifolia finds a special mention for its use in tribal or folk medicine in different parts of the country. Some of the important uses reported in the literature[22 ] are listed in the Table 3 . Almost all the parts of the plant are documented to be useful in ethnobotanical surveys conducted by ethnobotanists.[23 -26 ] Go to: Phytochemical Characterization A large number of chemicals have been isolated from T. cordifolia, belonging to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Leaves of this plant are rich in protein (11.2%), calcium and phosphorus.[27 ] Four new clerodane furano diterpene glucosides (amritosides A, B, C and D) have been isolated as their acetates from stems. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies.[28 ] The glycosyl component of a polysaccharide from T. cordifolia has been isolated, purified, methylated, hydrolyzed, reduced and acetylated. The partially methylated alditol acetate (PMAA) derivative thus obtained have been subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) studies. The following types of linkages were reported: terminal-glucose, 4-xylose, 4-glucose, 4, 6-glucose and 2, 3, 4, 6-glucose.[29 ,30 ] Callus and cell suspension cultures have been established from the stem explants of the plant. Accumulation of berberine and jatrorrhizine (protoberberine alkaloids) was observed in both callus and cell suspension cultures.[31 ] The signaling mechanism of the novel (1, 4)-alpha-D-glucan (RR1) isolated from T. cordifolia was investigated in macrophages to evaluate its immunostimulating properties.[32 ] An arabinogalactan has been isolated from the dried stems and examined by methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified polysaccharide showed polyclonal mitogenic activity against B-cells; their proliferation did not require macrophages.[33 ] Detailed chemical constitution of T. cordifoliais given in Table 4 .[34 ] Phytochemical characterization includes a test for one of the phytochemical components, namely, tinosporaside (limits, 0.03% to 0.04%).[35 ,36 ] Go to: Reverse Pharmacological and Clinical Correlates Indian contributions to the therapeutic revolution through reverse pharmacology will have to eventually integrate state-of-the-art high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry and effects of the old or novel compounds/ plants on human gene expression and proteomics.[37 ] Much work has been done on T. cordifolia to validate its effects and this section describes some of these studies. T. cordifolia has been used in Ayurvedic preparations for the treatment of various ailments throughout the centuries. It is used as a rasayana to improve the immune system and body resistance against infections. The whole plant is used medicinally; however, the stem is approved for use in medicine as listed by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.[5 ] This is due to higher alkaloid content in the stems than in the leaves. It is a traditional belief that Guduchi satva obtained from the Guduchi plant growing on neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is more bitter and more efficacious and is said to incorporate the medicinal values of neem.[38 ] Go to: Effects on Stress, Learning and Memory T. cordifolia is known as a medhya rasayana (learning and memory enhancer) in Ayurveda. It is also described to be useful for treatment of bhrama (Vertigo) in various Ayurvedic texts. Significant response has been found in children with moderate degree of behavior disorders and mental deficit, along with improvement in IQ levels.[34 ] The root of T. cordifolia is known to be used traditionally for its anti-stress activity.[22 ] In a 21-day randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study, the pure aqueous extract of the root was found to enhance verbal learning and logical memory.[39 ] T. cordifolia has also been shown to enhance cognition (learning and memory) in normal rats and reverse cyclosporine-induced memory deficit. Both the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and retention memory, indicating enhancement of learning and memory. The histopathological examination of hippocampus in cyclosporine-treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes, which were protected by T. cordifolia.[40 ] Various extracts of the T. cordifolia exhibited comparable anti-stress activity in mice.[41 ,42 ] Go to: Anti-inflammatory, Anti-arthritic and Anti-osteoporoticActivities T. cordifolia is mentioned to treat vatarakta (gouty arthritis) and daha (burning sensation) in various Ayurvedic texts [Table 2 ]. It is traditionally used in compound formulations for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.[43 ] The alcoholic extract of T. cordifolia has been found to exert anti-inflammatory actions in models of acute and subacute inflammation.[44 ] The water extract of the stem of neem-giloe [The T. cordifolia that grow on Azadirachta indica (neem)] significantly inhibited acute inflammatory response evoked by carrageenin in a dose of 50 mg/100 g given orally and intraperitoneally. A significant inhibition of primary and secondary phases of inflammation was observed in a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited antibody formation by typhoid "H" antigen. A mild analgesic effect of its own as well as potentiation of morphine analgesia has been reported.[45 ] In another study aqueous extract of T. cordifolia showed a significat antiinflammatory effect in the cotton pellet granuloma and formalin induced arthritis model, it's effect was comparable with indomethacin and its mode of action appeared to resemble that of nonsteroidal antiinflamatory ageant. The dried stem of T. cordifolia produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and subacute models of inflammation. T. cordifolia was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in acute inflammation, although in subacute inflammation, the drug was inferior to phenylbutazone.[46 ] The aqueous extract of stem was reported to exert a significant anti-inflammatory effect in both cotton pellet–induced granuloma (1, 250 and 500 mg/kg given orally) and formalin-induced arthritis (1 mg/kg given orally) rat models.[47 ,48 ] Go to: Anti-allergic Activity T. cordifolia is used for the treatment of kasa (cough) and swasa (asthma), which is described in various texts of Ayurveda [Table 2 ]. T. cordifolia is traditionally used for the treatment of asthma, and the juice is also employed for the treatment of chronic coughs.[49 ] In a clinical study, 100% relief was reported from sneezing in 83% of the patients on treatment with T. cordifolia,. Similary, there was relief from nasal discharge was reported in 69%; from nasal obstructions 61% and from nasal pruritus, in 71%. In placebo group, there was relief from sneezing only in 21% patients; from nasal discharge, in 16.2%; from nasal obstruction, in 17%; and from nasal pruritus, in 12%. Thus, T. cordifolia significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis and was well tolerated.[50 ] The anti-allergic and bronchodilator properties of an aqueous extract of the stem evaluated on histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, capillary permeability in mice and mast cell disruption in rats showed that it significantly decreased bronchospasm induced by 5% histamine aerosol, decreased capillary permeability and reduced the number of disrupted mast cells.[51 ,52 ] Go to: Antioxidant Activity T. cordifolia is mentioned as vishaghni, vishahara and tridoshashamaka in various texts of Ayurveda [Table 2 ]. A significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in brain, along with its decrease in heart, was observed in diabetic rats. Tinospora cordifolia treatmentdecreased the concentrations of glutathione reductase (GSH) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the tissues of diabetics rats. Alcoholic extract of the root of T. cordifolia (TCREt) administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally to diabetic rats for 6 weeks normalized the antioxidant status of heart and brain. The effect of T. cordifolia root extract was better than glibenclamide (600 µ/kg) although Insulin (6 units/kg) restored all the parameters to normal status.[53 ,54 ] T. cordifolia has also been reported to elevate GSH levels, expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and Cu-Zn SOD genes. The herb also exhibited strong free radical-scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.[55 ] Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia inhibited Fenton (FeSO4) reaction and radiation - mediated 2-deoxyribose degradation in a dose-dependent fashion, with an IC50 value of 700 µ/mL for both Fenton and radiation-mediated 2-DR degradation. Similarly, it showed a moderate but dose-dependent inhibition of chemically generated superoxide anion at 500 µ/mL concentration and above, with an IC50 value of 2000 µ/mL.[56 ] In various studies, T. cordifolia was found effective in iron-mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray-induced protein damage,[57 ] amelioration of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity,[58 ] alteration of lethal effects of gamma rays,[59 ] induction of enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice,[60 ] free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation,[61 ] and nitric oxide scavenging effetcs.[62 ] The extract of T. cordifolia has demonstrated antioxidant action in the alloxan induced diabetes model as well.[63 ] Go to: Antineoplastic and Radio-Protective Activity Intraperitoneal injection of the alcoholic extract of T. cordifolia has been shown to Dalton's lymphoma (DL) bearing mice e stimulated macrophage functions likephagocytosis, antigen-presenting ability and secretion of Interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) as well as slowed tumor growth and increased lifespan of the tumor-bearing host.[64 ] T. cordifolia was has beem shown effective in several other tumour models including Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice.[65 ] It induces proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in a tumor-bearing host,[66 ] activates tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells,[67 ] is effective against various cancers,[68 ] killing the cancer cells very effectively in vitro[69 ,70 ] inhibits skin carcinogenesis in mice,[71 ] and inhibits experimental metastasis.[72 ] T. cordifolia may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation.[73 ,74 ] Go to: Antipyretic and Anti-Infective Activity Traditionally T. cordifolia is known for its jwarahara activity (antipyretic activity), as mentioned in Table 2 . The water-soluble fraction of 95% ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia plant has shown significant antipyretic activity.[75 ] In another experimental study, antipyretic effects have been reported in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of T. cordifolia stems.[76 ] Various studies show remarkable anti-infective and antipyretic properties of T. cordifolia.[77 ,78 ] Pre-treatment with T. cordifolia was shown to impart protection against mortality induced by intra-abdominal sepsis following coecal ligation in rats and significantly reduced mortality from induced by E. coli–induced peritonitis in mice.[79 ] Go to: Hepato-protective Activity Various Ayurvedic preparations of T. corfifolia are indicated in pandu (anemia) and kamla (jaundice). A clinical study has shown that Guduchi plays an important role in normalization of altered liver functions (ALT, AST).[80 ] The antihepatotoxic activity of T. cordifolia has been demonstrated in CCl4 induced liver damage, normallising liver function as assessed by morphological, biochemical (SGPT, SGOT, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin) and functional (pentobarbitone sleep time) tests. T. cordifoliarevealed hepatoprotective action in goats.[81 ] A significant increment in the functional capacities of rat peritoneal macrophages was observed following T. cordifolia treatment.[82 ] Addition of extract for the first 6 weeks to chloroquine showed regression of spleen by 37% to 50% after 6 weeks and 45% to 69% after 6 months from the start of treatment. Likewise, decrease in IgM and increase in Hb, as well as wellbeing (Karnofsky performance scale), were observed.[83 ] T. cordifolia prevents antitubercular drugs[84 ,85 ] and bile salts[86 ] induced hepatic damage, x and obstructive jaundice.[87 ] The extract has also exhibited in vitro inactivating property against hepatitis B and E surface antigens in 48 to 72 hours.[88 ] Go to: Anti-hyperglycemic Activity T. cordifolia is widely used in Ayurveda for treating diabetes mellitus.[53 ,58 ,63 ] Various studies demonstrate amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats,[89 ] reduction of blood sugar in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats and rabbits,[90 ] significant reduction in blood glucose and brain lipids,[91 ] increase in glucose tolerance in rodents,[92 ,93 ] increase in glucose metabolism,[93 ] inhibitory effect on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia by pyrrolidine derivative,[94 ,95 ] and significant hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits[96 ] following administration of T. cordifolia. Go to: Immunomodulatory Activity In Ayurveda T. cordifolia is believed to have rasayana (rejuvenating), balya (tonic), vayah-sthapana (anti-aging), aayushyaprada (increases the lifespan), vrishya ( aphrodisiac) and chakshusya (useful in eye disorders) properties [Table 2 ]. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia are reported to have beneficial effects on the immune system[81 ,87 ] and have been tested successfully for their immunomodulatory activity.[97 -103 ] The degradation of proteins due to photosensitization as assessed by Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was effectively reduced by simultaneous treatment with G1-4A/PPI (partially purified immunomodulator) from T. cordifolia during photosensitization.[104 ] The novel (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan derived from the plant activates the immune system through the activation of macrophages via TLR6 signaling, NFkappaB translocation and cytokine production.[32 ,105 ] Tinospora cordifolia differentially regulate elevation of cytokines as evidenced by the increased production of antiangiogenic agents IL-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1) in the B16F10-injected, extract-treated animals. The observed antiangiogenic activity of the plant T. cordifoliais related to the regulation of the levels of cytokines and growth factors in the blood.[106 ] The aqueous extract of T. cordifolia was found to enhance phagocytosis in vitro. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts also induced an increase in antibody production in vivo.[107 ] T. cordifolia extract (TCE) treatment caused significant reduction in eosinophil count and improved hemoglobin in HIV patients. Sixty percent patients receiving TCE and 20% on placebo reported decrease in the incidence of various symptoms associated with disease.[108 ] Diabetic patients with foot ulcers on T. cordifolia as an adjuvant therapy showed significantly better final outcome with improvement in wound healing.[109 ] Administration of T. cordifolia(200 mg/kg body weight) 1 hour before irradiation showed recovery of spleen weight from 49% of control in irradiated group to 93%; apoptosis, from 19% to 2.8%; DNA fragmentation, from 43% to 20.4%; macrophage adherence, from 75% of control to 120%; and macrophage spread size, from 8 µ to 15µ. It also stimulated proliferation in splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) before irradiation also increased levels of IL-1beta and GM-CSF from 56 pg/mL and 53 pg/mL in irradiated group to 59 pg/mL and 63 pg/mL, respectively. Similarly, radiation-induced decrease of antioxidant potential of plasma [32 Fe(2+) equiv.] as compared to control [132 Fe(2+) equiv.] was countered by administration of Tc before irradiation [74.2 Fe(2+) equiv.]. RTc treatment thus suggesting its radio-protective mechanism.[110 ] Ten days of treatment with T. cordifolia (100 mg/kg/d) induced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in the number of (Colony Forming Units of ranulocyte-macrophage series (CFU-GM; 255 ± 49.32 vs. 38.51 ± 9.98). This suggests that activation of macrophages by T. cordifolialeads to increase in GM-CSF, which leads to leukocytosis and improved neutrophil function.[111 ] Go to: Diuretic Activity T. cordifolia has been described as useful in mutrakriccha (urinary trouble) separately and in the form of various formulations in Ayurveda, as mentioned in Table 2 . In a scientific study on rats and human volunteers, T. cordifolia was found to have diuretic effects.[112 ] It was also found effective in modulation of morphology and some gluconeogenic enzymes activity in diabetic rat kidney.[113 ] Go to: Cardioprotective Activity Bhavprahash Nighantu and Shaligram Nighantu describe T. cordifolia to have hrudya (cardioprotective) properties and is useful in hridroga (cardiac disorders) (Table 2 ). A dose-dependent reduction in infarct size and in serum and heart lipid peroxide levels were observed with prior treatment with T. cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion–induced myocardial infarction in rats.[114 ] The stem extract has been normalize alterations in the lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats indiectly benefiting the heart.[115 ] Administration of the extract of T. cordifolia roots (2.5 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in alloxan diabetic rats.[116 ] Go to: Anti-leprotic Activity T. cordifolia is used for its kushtahara (anti-leprotic) properties, along with wide use in kandu and visarpa(types of skin disorders) and has been shown to exert anti-leprotic activity in a combination formulation.[117 ] Go to: Gastrointestinal and Anti-ulcer Activity Ayurvedic properties of T. cordifolia include sangrahi, arshahara, aruchinashaka, dipana, agnidipana, chardihara, trishnahara, trishnanashaka and hikkahara. Treatment with a formulation containing T. cordifolia has been shown to reduce ulcer index total acidity, with an increase in the pH of gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats and in the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.[118 ] Go to: Antifertility Activity Oral administration of 70% methanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem to male rats at a dose level of 100 mg/d for 60 days did not cause body weight loss but decreased the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate in a significant manner.[119 ] Go to: Osteoprotective Activity Rats treated with T. cordifolia (10 mg/kg body weight) showed an osteoprotective effect, as the bone loss in tibiae was slower than that in controls. Serum osteocalcin and cross-laps levels were significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that extract of T. cordifolia has the potential for being used as antiosteoporotic agent.[120 ] Go to: Safety Pharmacology It is a common misconception that Ayurvedic medicines are always safe. In fact, they also pose serious health risks either in the form of adverse reactions or in the form of drug interactions. In a clinical study, T. cordifolia has been shown to be at a dose of 500 mg/d for a period of 21 days in healthy individuals.[80 ] It has also been shown not to exert any remarkable adverse effects on the cardiovascular system,[121 ,122 ] renal system,[112 ,122 ] central nervous system[39 -40 ,45 ,121 ,123 ] and gastrointestinal system.[49 ,101 ,124 ] Go to: Conclusion The pharmacological actions attributed to Tinospora cordifolia in Ayurvedic texts have been validated by a remarkable body of modern evidence suggesting that this drug has immense potential in modern pharmacotheraoeutics. Refrence - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2924974/

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