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บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง mg ep minor change

2021 New MG EP กับค่าตัว 988,000 บาท มีรถพลังงานทางเลือกรุ่นอื่นใดอีกบ้าง?

รถพลังงานไฟฟ้า New 2021 MG EP (2021 เอ็มจี อีพี) มาพร้อมกับราคาค่าตัวที่ 988,000 บาท คำถามคือเงินก้อนประมาณ

2021 MG ZS EV จัดโปรล้างสต็อคลด 202,000 บาทเตรียมรับรุ่นประกอบไทยปลายปีนี้ พร้อมแคมเปญ EV เจ้าอื่น

HOME CHARGER ฟรี ค่าติดตั้ง MG HOME CHARGER ฟรี ประกันภัยชั้น 1 พร้อม พ.ร.บ.

เทียบสเปก 2021 Haval H6 Hybrid อ็อปชั่นสุดแรงแต่ราคาแพงกว่า MG HS PHEV แน่นอน

พลัส) ที่สามารถทำยอดขายแซง H6 ในจีนมาฝากกันด้วย ขุมพลังขับเคลื่อน Haval H6 Hybrid MG

2021 NEW MG EP จะเอาชนะคู่แข่งอย่าง Nissan Kicks ในตลาดรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าล้วนได้หรือไม่?

ล่าสุด MG (เอ็มจี) ประกาศราคาจำหน่าย 2021 NEW MG EP (นิว เอ็มจี อีพี) อย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว ด้วยราคา 988,000

สมาคมผู้ผลิตรถยนต์ยุโรปเตือน แผนรถพลังงานไฟฟ้าในยุโรปยังห่างไกลความเป็นจริง

แต่เราต้องไม่ลืมว่าราคานี้เป็นราคาที่เกิดจากการสนับสนุนของภาครัฐในการจ่ายเงินให้กับผู้ซื้อ เพื่อดึงดูดความสนใจ2020 MG

Rendered : 2022 MG5 EV เมื่อสปอร์ตซีดาน MG5 ติดพลังไฟฟ้า คาดเปิดตัวปีหน้า

เป็นไปได้จริงการนำรถ 2021 MG5 มารีทัช เพราะรถรุ่นนี้ยังไม่มีรุ่นไฟฟ้าล้วน และมันควรจะมีได้แล้ว ตามอย่างพี่น้อง MG

MG EP คือรถใหม่ปี 2020 ที่น่าตื่นเต้นที่สุด แต่ไม่มีใครสังเกต!

MG EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) รถคันนี้อาจจะเป็นรถที่น่าสงสารที่สุดที่เปิดตัวในปี 2020 เราคิดว่าแม้แต่ทาง MG ประเทศไทยเองก็ไม่มั่นใจนักว่ารถคันนี้เกิดขึ้นมาเพราะอะไรกันแน่มันเป็นรถยนต์พลังงานไฟฟ้าแบตเตอรี่ที่ราคาถูกที่สุดในไทย

5 สิ่งดี ๆ ในรถยนต์ไฟฟ้า 2021 MG ZS EV ที่อยากให้คุณได้ลองก่อนได้รุ่นผลิตไทย

2021 MG ZS EV (เอ็มจี แซดเอส อีวี) รถอเนกประสงค์พลังงานไฟฟ้าล้วนจาก MG (เอ็มจี) ที่ออกแบบเพื่อตอบโจทย์การใช้ชีวิตสไตล์คนเมือง

เทียบรถยนต์ไฟฟ้า MG EP หรือว่า ZS EV ได้ส่วนลด 100,000 บาท นำเข้าจีนทั้งคู่ แล้วต่างกันยังไง

2021 MG EP (2021 เอ็มจี อีพี) รถแวกอนเปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการด้วยราคา 988,000 บาท ส่วนทางด้าน MG ZS EV

รู้ก่อนซื้อ Suzuki Ciaz Minor Change อัดออฟชั่นเพิ่ม ราคาเดิม

ดูเพิ่มเติม

2021 MG HS ราคาเริ่มต้น 9.19 แสนบาทพร้อมเครื่องยนต์เบนซินเทอร์โบขนาด 1.5 ลิตรที่ออกแบบเพื่อครอบครัว

MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) เป็นรถอเนกประสงค์ SUV ผลิตโดยค่ายรถน้องใหม่จากประเทศจีนอย่าง MG ทำตลาดในกลุ่มรถยนต์คอมแพคครอสโอเวอร์

ทำไมรถยุคใหม่ไร้กระจังหน้า แล้วคุณพร้อมเปิดใจรับดีไซน์แปลกตาเช่นนี้หรือยัง?

โดยเฉพาะรถอีวีส่วนใหญ่ที่มาพร้อมกระจังหน้าแบบปิดทึบที่ให้ภาพลักษณ์แปลกตาประหนึ่งยานพาหนะที่หลุดมาจากภาพยนตร์ไซไฟแล้วทำไมรถอีวีที่ขับเคลื่อนด้วยไฟฟ้าจึงไม่จำเป็นต้องมีกระจังหน้า และทำไมรถเครื่องยนต์สันดาปบางรุ่นก็เริ่มหันหลังให้กระจังหน้าด้วยเช่นกัน เรามาหาคำตอบกันMG

MG เตรียมเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าใหม่ปลายปี 2021 ในทรงแฮทช์แบ็ค ลือคล้าย MG3

MG (เอ็มจี) ในปี 2021 วางแผนที่จะทำการเปิดตัวรถยนต์ไฟฟ้ารุ่นใหม่ปลายปีนี้ ในตัวถังแฮทช์แบ็ค 5 ประตู อาจคล้ายกับ

เปิดตัว 2020 MG HS PHEV โวลั่นแรงเหนือคู่แข่ง-ประหยัด 65 กม.ต่อลิตร เคาะค่าตัวถล่ม Toyota Corolla Cross

เอสเอไอซี มอเตอร์ – ซีพี จำกัด และ บริษัท เอ็มจี เซลส์ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด ผู้ผลิตและผู้จำหน่ายรถยนต์ MG

ใครว่ารถไฟฟ้าซ่อมแพง 2021 MG EP ค่าบำรุง 100,000 โลจ่ายไม่เกิน 8,000 บาท

แล้วหลายคนอาจจะกำลังสนใจที่จะซื้อรถยนต์ไฟฟ้า แต่ก็กังวลว่าค่าบำรุงประจำปีว่าจะแพงหูฉีกจนจ่ายไม่ไหว เราจะพามาดู 2021 MG

เปิดตัว 2021 New MG EP รถพลังงานไฟฟ้ารุ่นใหม่สุดประหยัด วิ่งกิโลเมตรละ 50 สตางค์

2021 MG EPNew 2021 MG EP (2021 เอ็มจี อีพี) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว มาพร้อมระบบขับเคลื่อนพลังงานไฟฟ้าชาร์จเต็มหนึ่งครั้งวิ่งได้ไกลประมาณ

ไทยเอาบ้างไหม MG อังกฤษช่วยลูกค้าจ่ายค่ารถไฟฟ้า 3.3 หมื่นบาทกระตุ้นยอดขาย

ความพยายามในการเดินหน้าตลาดรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในหลายประเทศยังดำเนินการไปอย่างเข้มข้น หนึ่งในนั้นคือเจ้าพ่อรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าอย่าง MG

ชมคันจริง 2021 MG EP รถแวนไฟฟ้า พบสเปคแรง ออพชั่นบ้านๆ คาดราคาสูสี Honda City e:HEV

2021 MG EP รุ่นใหม่ล่าสุดในไทยMG (เอ็มจี) ยังชูจุดขายความเป็นแบรนด์รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าที่ราคาไม่แพง ด้วยการใช้ประโยชน์ภาษี

MG ZS EV รู้สึกว่าแพงเกินไปมั้ย ขายไทย 1.19 ล้าน เทียบราคากับจีนแล้วจะได้มั่นใจ

MG ZS EV ราคาในไทย 1,190,000 บาท2021 MG ZS EV (2021 เอ็มจี แซดเอส อีวี) ครอสโอเวอร์ไฟฟ้าล้วน ขายในไทยราคา

รีวิว 2019 MG HS พิสูจน์ตำแหน่งผู้นำตลาดรถคอมแพ็กต์เอสยูวี มีดีที่ความคุ้มค่า?

เอ็มจี บริษัทรถยนต์ลูกครึ่งอังกฤษ-จีน นำเสนอ 2019 เอ็มจี เอชเอส (2019 MG HS) รถอเนกประสงค์เอสยูวีออกทำตลาดประเทศไทยทั้งหมด

งบ 1 ล้านบาท ถ้าไม่เลือก Toyota Corolla Altis ควรหันไปคบ Honda Civic หรือ MG EP หรือไม่?

EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) ราคา 988,000 บาทเราไปชมกันว่ารถคอมแพ็กต์ที่มีบุคลิกแตกต่างกันทั้ง 3 โมเดลข้างต้นนั้น

Tesla เตรียมเปิดตัวรถพลังไฟฟ้ารุ่นเล็ก ราคาอาจเหลือ 1 ล้านบาทเศษ

รถพลังไฟฟ้ารุ่นใหม่นี้ได้เข้ามาจำหน่ายในเมืองไทย คาดว่าค่าตัวจะอยู่ที่ราว 1 ล้านบาทเศษเท่านั้น เรียกว่าออกแข่งขันในระดับเดียวกับ MG

MG เปิดบริการรถไฟฟ้าเหมาจ่ายเดือนละ 250 บาท ทำไมเมืองไทยไม่มีแบบนี้บ้าง!!!

MG Motor (เอ็มจี มอเตอร์) แห่งสหราชอาณาจักร เปิดตัวบริการรูปแบบใหม่เพื่อเอาใจลูกค้าผู้ใช้รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าในสหราชอาณาจักร

2021 MG EP ไมเนอร์เชนจ์ใหม่ ใช้มอเตอร์เร็วฟ้าแล่บ 184 แรงม้า ชมภาพและราคาจริงจากจีน

2021 MG EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) เปิดตัวโฉมไมเนอร์เชนจ์ในประเทศจีน ขายแล้วในชื่อ Roewe ei5 เปลี่ยนหน้าตาครั้งใหญ่

2021 MG EP ควรซื้อหรือรอ ORA Good Cat พบข้อดี-ข้อเสีย ก่อนเสียเงินให้เซลล์

รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าราคาไม่เกินล้านปัจจุบันนี้มีรุ่นน่าใช้ คือ 2021 MG EP เพราะเป็นรถเปิดตัวใหม่ล่าสุด แต่ก็ใช่ว่าบทความเราจะเชียร์ค่ายนี้อย่างเดียว

2021 MG EP แวกอนรุ่นใหม่ ปรับระบบไฟฟ้าดีขึ้น แต่อุปกรณ์ขาด ๆ แถมยังไม่มีเบาะไฟฟ้า

2021 MG EP (2021 เอ็มจี อีพี) รถยนต์ไฟฟ้าทรงวากอนจากค่าย MG ที่เปิดตัวมาเป็นรถไฟฟ้ารุ่นที่ 2 ต่อจาก MG

MG ZS EV รถพลังงานไฟฟ้าล้วน ที่ตอบโจทย์ทุกไลฟ์สไตล์คนเมือง ราคา 1.19 ล้านบาท

MG ZS EV รถอเนกประสงค์พลังงานไฟฟ้าล้วน ที่ออกแบบเพื่อตอบโจทย์การใช้ชีวิตสไตล์คนเมือง ด้วยความจุแบตเตอรี่

พาชมคันจริง 2021 MG EP เคาะราคา 988,000 บาท รถไฟฟ้าเข้าถึงง่าย แต่ขาดอะไรไปบางอย่าง

2021 MG EP (เอ็มจี อีพี) รถไฟฟ้าตัวถังสเตชั่นวากอนรุ่นใหม่ ได้เป็นตัวอย่างเป็นทางการพร้อมเผยราคาในงาน

รถยนต์ 7 รุ่นน่าจับตามองที่งาน 2020 มอเตอร์ เอ็กซ์โป เปิดฉากสัปดาห์นี้

Ghost Extended จะเริ่มขึ้นช่วงไตรมาสแรกของปี 2564 ด้วยราคาจำหน่ายเริ่มต้นที่ 35.9 ล้านบาทขึ้นไป2021 MG

แบงค์บอกต่อ รวมแคมเปญรถดีน่าใช้ปี 2021 MG ZS, MG EP หรือจะ Honda ก็ยังมีนะ

แบงค์บอกต่อ เรามาดูโปรโมชั่นรถยนต์น่าสนใจหลายขนาดจากทางฝั่ง MG (เอ็มจี) ที่มีทั้ง 2021 MG ZS (เอ็มจี

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รีวิว Q&A mg ep minor change

Is there any poverty in Norway, considering how it’s the most developed country in the world?

Is there poverty in Norway? Yes, there is. TL;DR warning: NORWEGIAN POVERTY EXPLAINED PART 1: FACTS the numbers Statistics say that 10% of Norwegians are poor. 15% of the children of the capital Oslo grow up in poverty. The figures are contested, as there are many international standards for poverty. The NGOs of the poor claim the numbers are set far too low The numbers have been rising steadily for the last 20 years. More Norwegians are becoming poor. Appr. 500 000 Norwegians receive some form of financial support or benefit from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV) and the Norwegian State Housing Bank ( Husbanken ). 130 000 NAV clients with 63 000 children were living on welfare, i.e. 4% of a population of 5M. Unemployment is low, at a steady 2.5%. However, if you add the many unemployed on various government programs (tiltak), the unemployment figure is twice as high. Norway also has appr. 3 600 homeless, though the figure may be higher, as there are somewhere between 10 000 and 15 000 drug addicts (heroin) in Norway. Many of the homeless are mentally ill or substance abusers who have either left the system or been given up by it. The homeless single mother with three children and a shopping cart, as seen in the US, does not exist in Norway. The welfare system sees to that. So, on the bright side, Norway has indeed a welfare system. The overwhelming number of Norway's poorest will get help from the government. Their benefits may be meagre, but there will be food on the table for you and your family, and you will have a roof over your head. Children are subject to extra benefits. However, the treatment of the poor varies from county (kommune) to county. Some NAV offices will even deduct the government child benefit (which all Norwegian families are entitled to) from the parents' welfare benefit. the cost of living But here’s the thing: The median income in Norway is extremely high, 43 000 NOK (5500 USD), so prices are set accordingly. One 1/4 gallon/1 litre milk will cost you 2 USD, 1 kg (2.2 pound) minced beef sells at 4.50 USD, and a Big Mac will cost you 5 USD, 5 times the price in the US. The welfare system covers food and typical groceries, and NAV will also pay your electricity and housing bills. However, no coverage for “minor”, but chronic ailments like e.g. eczema, chronic pain or headache, lesser nervous disorders or mild digestive problems. No refund for Paracetamols, at 2.50 USD/20 tablets (19 NOK), or at 15 USD for a tube of 10 mg Hydrocortison salvae. Chronic diseases exempt, you will usually have to pay a deductible (egenandel) for prescription medicine, and maybe 30 USD for most visits to the doctor or the clinic. If you go to see your doctor, wanting a prescription for a strong cough medicine, it will cost you. Medicines in general, including generic non-prescribed brands, are quite expensive. Neither is there any dental health coverage for adults, only for children. Dental care is not part of the Norwegian universal health care system and terribly expensive. If you need to have a tooth removed, you will have to cut down on your food budget for quite some time. Or something. If your computer breaks down, you may have a problem. It is neither poverty in itself nor the benefits level which creates the growing social and cultural gap between the affluent and the poor in Norway. It is the high-cost Norwegian economy and the price level set by the median 43 000 NOK income. the adults If you live in a favela in Rio , your neighbours are poor. Your family has most likely always been poor. But you have friends, family, you have a social network which may even be tighter and warmer than in affluent parts of the city. In Norway, where there are far fewer poor, they live all over the place. Some neighbourhoods or streets may be poorer than others, but abject slum is extremely rare and usually temporary. Isolation, not starvation, is the main problem for Norway’s poorest, especially those who live alone. Alcoholism, suicide, drug abuse, depression and other psychological or psychiatric issues … All these "social diseases" affect the poor of Norway to a much greater extent than it does the majority population. So does loneliness, a health issue in itself. Those who become poor after being previously affluent, will not only lose their social standing, but often also their entire social network. They will simply be unable to take part in the everyday social life of the well-to-do. A movie ticket in the capital costs 15 USD, a concert from 12.50 and up to 60 USD for big international acts, and apart from Big Burger and McDonald’s, a meal at the restaurant where your former workmates will ask you to join them, will easily cost you 50 USD, maybe 100, adding wine and dessert. Even a pint at your local pub is 8 USD. A pack of 20 fags will cost you 13 USD, so in the East End pubs, you can spot the poor by their (cheaper) rolling tobacco pouches. Some newsmedia have called loneliness “the new epidemic” in Norway, and of course poverty is a factor, maybe the most important one. If you are 80 years old, single and living on the minimum government pension (minstepensjon aka 167 000 NOK/33 000 USD a year), you may lead a very lonely life. health issues If you are a smoker (“the poor wo/man’s comfort”), you will have to pay for it by cutting down on your food budget. That budget may already be based on mainly generic or canned food with lower nutrition value. Most generic groceries in Norway are of good quality, though, it’s just the packaging which differs from non-generic brands. But lack of vitamin D or proteins may create health issues, shortage of the latter may even hamper children's growth. Meat and fish is expensive in Norway, so the average poor eat plenty pasta and pizza. Obesity is also more common among the poor, including ailments and diseases which excessive overweight can induce. The difference in life expectancy between sunny Oslo west and the old working-class east is no less than 10 years. The gap is of course related to health issues and in particular the health of the non-affluent, as the majority of both Oslo's lower middle class and the capital's poorest live on the east side (Østkanten). If you are temporarly poor, just in-between jobs, your health will not be affected. But if you are stricken by long-term poverty, poverty may well take its toll on your health. Ref: The Norwegian poor cannot afford to go see a doctor, due to sky-rocketing deductables. the children The poverty gap can be unbridgeable for poor children in a basically rich country. If you are the only poor kid in your class, you may stand out. Sports and recreational activities are fairly inexpensive for the affluent, but for the poor it is a totally different matter. Norwegian produced sports gear is first class, but also very high-end. Some schools and municipalities have ski and skate pools, but participation in sports and other organized activities is below the average participation rate for children from affluent homes. Poor children may stay away from their classmates' birthday parties because all their family can afford, is imported Asian trinkets which fall apart after a few days or the smallest set of LEGOs, while the other kids bring lavish gifts. Teenagers can not follow fashion or party. You can usually spot the poor children in a Norwegian schoolyard by their generic or discount clothes. Poverty in Norway is not so much a question of absolute poverty, but of class. PART 2: THE GREAT SHAME “Rob the average man of his life-illusion, and you rob him of his happiness at the same stroke.” Henrik Ibsen , Norwegian playwright, The Wild Duck (1888) a country in denial I noticed a Norwegian Quora Answer some time ago which claimed being poor in Norway only means that “you have to drive an old car and can only go for a vacation once a year”. I was tempted to comment, citing the famous words of the 18th century French queen Marie Antoinette, when informed that the people had no bread, supposedly said: “Why, can’t they eat cakes instead?” Unfortunately, this type of ignorance is quite wide-spread in Norway. After the Lillehammer Winter Olympics, Norwegians in general have been on a hubris ride. The contant surveys, citing Norway as “best country to live in”, “most democratic country in the world”, “best on the environment”, “best on living standards” and whatnot has reinforced this hubris, resulting in the cliché “Norway is best on poverty!” aka “Oh, it’s not so bad being poor in Norway”. That may be true - if you compare Norway to most European countries or to, hey, why not Mali or Mozambique? At a garden party a few years ago, I even met a Political Science (statsvitenskap) student headed for a future government office, who subscribed to this urban legend. Some years ago, a couple of days before Christmas, I saw a young, single mother crying in humiliation at the Jernbanetorget Metro Station in Oslo. She had been caught without a valid ticket by the inspectors of Ruter, the transport company. I heard her telling them that she had seen herself forced to choose between a subway ticket (2x4 USD) or decent money for Christmas gifts for her children. The Quora writer mentioned above was probably not present at the time, neither the Political Science student. If you live in a slum alongside other poor, you have no experience with anything else. You are everybody's equal. If you are the only poor among the wealthy, the drain on your psyche may be harder than in Slum City. shame Poverty is a great shame in Norway. I have always suspected that there is more than just one Norwegian dancing in the hip urban clubs of Oslo who maintains a façade, living on generics and junk food, rather than admitting to poverty. The poor are an issue most Norwegians feel uncomfortable talking about. It can easily make people feel awkward; they may change the subject or head for the bathroom. In the very successful Norwegian TV series Skam, a smash hit in many countries, this great shame was never an issue. The word poverty was probably never even mentioned, although there are of course poor people living in the wealthy borough of Frogner, where most of the series has been shot. Some foreigners, though, seem to think that the series was representative for entire Norway when it actually was "Upper Manhattan". poverty porn for the well fed Oh, the myths of television! Another great TV success in Norway is the series “Petter Uteligger”, obviously the most successful piece of social pornography aka poverty porn ever produced in Norway There, a friendly Millennial, spouting the very fashionable beard and normcore six-pence cap, mimicking the working class of a Norway long gone, went on an 7+2 EP long expedition to the homeless of the streets of Oslo. Uteligger means literally “out-lier” aka a person sleeping outdoors. - Oh, the toothless veterans of the concrete jungles of Oslo were smiling, trudging about from furniture containers to the garbage bins of 7–11, finding steaks! Chicken! Seafood! Broccoli! Organic apples from the beautiful Hardanger Fiord! The series was awarded the title of “Best reality show 2017” at the Norwegian Golden Screen Awards. The viewers were empathic in their empathy. Being homeless and impoverished wasn’t all that bad, was it? Sure, there were hardships, dangers and tragedies, but, basically it all seemed rather top of the morning, didn’t it? As we can no longer can display our misfits and outcasts at the circus or in freak shows , “Petter Uteligger” will have to do. An audience of 700 000 concerned Norwegians unanimously declared that the series had increased “muligheten til å få en bredere forståelse av hvordan det faktisk er å være rusmisbruker og eller uteligger i Oslo.” (“…the possibility of achieving a broader understanding of how it actually is to be a substance abuser and/or homeless in Oslo.”) The homeless reported with satisfaction that, for the time being, coins were mounting in their 7–11 paper cups, even bank notes, several weeks after the series had aired. Norway had realised that the homeless were people too. Norwegians like to see happy Norwegian homeless persons. Norway is "the world's best country", right, so it makes no sense that the poor should be unhappy, does it? It's like the unnerving survey from some ten years ago, which claimed that no less that 200 000 Norwegians dreaded going to work every single day. Another 4 %. Norway doesn't want to think of the victims of the cheap crocodile heroin, who rarely live longer than 2–3 years. Six years ago, crocodile heroin hit the Norwegian press, headlines were written. Then there was silence. politicians bickering Searchword "fattigdom" (poverty) yields 2500 hits (2005-17) at Stortinget.no , the home page of the Norwegian parlament. There is much talk, many propositions - from all political parties, left, right and center. Still, the number of poor persons in Norway has been constantly on the rise for the last 20 years. Until Norway is willing to admit that the country actually has a poverty problem, I'm sorry to say, I don't expect much change. The gloryfication of poverty in the public square and in many Norwegians' mind, is in fact rather sad for a country swimming in North Sea oil and indeed topping all and every computer-generated ranking or international index on this very planet for all that is good and true and great and fine. The scale of misery does not contain extra levels which only kick in for impoverished countries like Madagascar, Eritrea or Guinea. Misery is misery, depression is depression, suicide is suicide. A poor person in Norway may suffer just as much as an African living in a slum. And where there is misery, there can be no dignity. For a poor person in Norway it is completely and utterly irrelevant and indeed inconsequential if somebody in Madagascar is more poor than he or she is. Starvation aside, poor is poor, and poor is always a relative concept. Although, admittedly, there are more than enough countries which treat their poor worse than Norway does, far worse. But until every child born in Norway have equal opportunities in life at its beginning, I will reserve myself the right to call poverty the great shame of 2018 Norway. If you can use Google Translate or can read Norwegian, here is some research, including some discussion: Fattigdom i Norge - Samfunnsfag - NDLA For FACTS about Norway, check out my Quora blog: NORWAY EXPLAINED: Your guide to Norway and Norwegians by Morten Jørgensen.

What should everyone know about chocolate?

In the 18th century, the noted nosologist (disease classificationist) Carl Linnaeus named the cacao tree, ‘Theobroma cacao’—meaning “food of the gods”. Among England's chief chocoholics was the physician Henry Stubbs. His 1662 book, The Indian Nectar; or, A Discourse Concerning Chocolata, was designed to help the English reading public overcome common misconceptions about the strength and frequency of using chocolate as a medicine. For example, rather than merely repeating claims of chocolate's ability to enhance the vital, sacred quality of the blood—Stubbs reported cases of seemingly respectable witnesses to rhetorically convince physicians and the public of chocolate's perceived benefits…. Alongside such positive accounts, others noted that some regular chocolate drinkers just got a bit larger over time… [1] Cacao comes from a fruit tree— it's made from the seeds of the cocoa pods. Drying and fermentation of these seeds yields cacao beans, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter can be extracted. Cacao has existed for millions and millions of years and is regarded as one of the oldest products on earth. The early cultivators of cacao beans used it as currency— considering it worth more than gold dust. For example, a turkey could be traded for twenty cacao beans, while a hundred were needed to buy a slave, and the services of a prostitute, eight to ten “according to how they agree,”...[2] In fact, the value of cacao as currency allowed for a thriving counterfeit cocoa bean underground network, in which the interior of the beans were hollowed and re-filled with a suitable substitute such as sand, clay or mud. The high valuation of these beans partially rested on the inherent difficulties in growing and harvesting cacao trees, as well as its low yield. (Does money grow on trees? ^^) Traditionally, cacao is thought to have been first domesticated in Mesoamerica (North-America, approx. from central Mexico down to and northern Costa Rica). However, more recently, genomic research has shown that cacao’s greatest diversity is in the upper Amazon region of northwest South America, which points to this region as the centre of its origin (:Ecuador by 5,450–5,300 cal. yr [3] [4] ). The selective breeding of cacao by its early cultivators seem to have shifted its flavour and increased its theobromine (similar to caffeine) content, over the generations. This increased cacaos susceptibility to disease as well, leading to its ever-increasing rarity. The earliest preparation of cocoa beans involved the fermentation of the sweet pulp of the cocoa fruits, to produce alcoholic beverages! This alcoholic beverage was later replaced (by 700 A.D.) by nonalcoholic, frothed cocoa made up of ground cocoa beans, water, and chīlli. From the time “chocolate” was introduced to Europe in the 17th century via the Spanish court until the 19th century, the cocoa beverage remained a spicy‐bitter drink. Later, Europeans learned to use sugar (Old World) and vanilla (another import from the New World) to create a “softened” cocoa version, and soon this version of “chocolate” spread throughout Europe. —The Impact of Society and Science on the Fermentation of Cocoa Beans Commonly, there are three basic chocolate types: White chocolate : Cocoa butter, Vanilla, Sugar and Dairy. Milk chocolate, : Cocoa butter, Cocoa solids, Dairy, Sugar, and may contain Vanilla and other Flavourings. Dark chocolate : Cocoa Butter, Cocoa Solids, but may also contain Sugar and Flavourings. The international trade in chocolate is valued at USD 103 billon per annum (Zion Market Research 2018 ). Alarming: Chocolate Under Threat from Old and New Cacao Diseases ** The cacao industry has been devastated in recent years due to the widespread, rampant decline and death of trees affected by emerging diseases. Production has only kept pace through unsustainable rain forest clearing and new plantings. ** Some time back, news circulated that we may run out of chocolate in the near future, due to rising temperatures, which, as it would reduce the amount of land suitable for cacao production, would then in turn "speed up the spread of disease”, —and while all this may be true, it is likely not to the point of extinction. Worldwide, cacao production is a major source of income for millions of small farmers. However, up to forty percent of the annual global cacao harvest is lost due to diseases. Human activities, whether intentional or accidental, seem to pose the largest threat for the spread of these pathogens. Furthermore, threats that are currently localised or have minor impacts may worsen with changing climate or new environments. To illustrate, cacao trees in Central America have been devastated by a fungal disease called ‘Witch’s Broom’, and there are fears that this disease may spread to affect cocoa trees in other countries. The claim that the world may run out of chocolate was spread from a Climate Change study, which suggested that under a "business as usual" scenario, the world's leading chocolate producers located in West-Africa, might experience a high enough temperature raise by 2050 to make them unable to cultivate cacao. This is notable, as over half of world's chocolate supply is grown in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, however..luckily, cacao is also produced in the Caribbean, India and Australia.. meaning that it is rather unlikely that we will face a total chocolate extinction. [5] Hazelnuts in Nutella is linked to child labour On cocoa farms, a tenth of child labourers in Ghana and just under half in the Ivory Coast, do not attend school, which is in direct violation of the International Labour Organisation's: USA: Class action lawsuit filed against Nestle for child slavery on cocoa harvest in West African farms | The atrocities surrounding child exploitation on cacao farms were globally exposed through documentaries. Whilst it may be argued that child labour may, in some circumstances, be better than available alternatives, it does provoke a rather striking scene: children toiling away in the heat, so that those who can afford, will widen their girth, for momentary sweetness—Santa with dementia, perhaps. This may have stimulated research into the positive effects of cocoa, based in part on the (now discredited) observation that the French have better cardiovascular health in spite/because of their diet rich in wine, cheese, fish, oil and chocolate?…with special research focus on flavonoids. [6] Some say the industry poured money into science at this time to divert attention away from west Africa. “Efforts by many of the large chocolate companies to demonstrate health effects started side by side with the outcry over the use of child labour and slavery,” says Michael Coe, a retired anthropologist formerly of Yale University, co-author of The True History of Chocolate . “Some of it was legitimate science, but it was stimulated, at least in part, by the need to say something positive about chocolate.” [7] The virtues of chocolate Chocolate is associated with goodness, tenderness, romance, indulgence and seduction. The Christmas period, Valentine’s Day and even Easter can expect to show rises in the sale of chocolates. And with the advent of marketing studies into its putative health benefits, it is now looking to become a staple of a ‘healthy, balanced diet’. Yet, it should be stressed, that cacaos’ reputation as a cure-all dates back over 2,000 years— the myths surrounding cacao spread from the ancient Olmecs, Mayans and Aztecs into Europe of the 16th century through the Spanish conquistadors. So, over hundreds of years, the seeds of the Theobroma cacao tree have been esteemed as cures and therapies for more than a hundred diseases and conditions. In present times, it seems to be merely the continuation of this time-old tradition, in that the food industry is indulging in the creation of rich narratives on various foodstuff, such as Acai berries, various spices and of course, chocolate.. And this blossoming mythology on the healing properties of ‘natural’ foods, and eating trends, may be contributing to the growing(?) mistrust of experts and science in the public: the funding and marketing, or better, the ‘study saturation (with ever-changing dietary advice)’—just like the uncertainty around global warming, disease, pollution etc., is strategically used— with growth in: fad diets, alternative medicine, travel packages, and other; as well as paranoia e.g. ‘evil pharma’→ ‘anti-vaccine’, or ‘artificial diseases’ & other conspiracy theories —feeding the hopeful, the sceptics, the misfits and the downright deranged.. —in no particular order: [8][9] [10] [11][12] [13][14] [15] [16] [17] [18][19][20] .. Chocolate manufacturers have also used the classic corporate strategy of using third-party lobbyists to manufacture artificial scientific controversy. Science is, by its nature, about evidence-based probabilities not absolute certainties. The exaggeration of uncertainty was perfected by the tobacco companies in the 1950s, and later copied by the asbestos and oil industries. Sales of milk chocolate are stagnating as consumers become more health-conscious. Manufacturers have responded with a growing range of premium products promoted with such words as organic, natural, cacao-rich and single-origin. The packets don’t say so, but the message we’re supposed to swallow is clear: this new, improved chocolate, especially if it is dark, is good for your health. Many people have swallowed the idea that it’s a “super-food”. Except it isn’t. Its foundations lie in chocolate manufacturers having poured huge sums into funding nutrition science that has been carefully framed, interpreted and selectively reported to cast their products in a positive light over the last 20 years. Critics have accused Mars in particular of using nutritional science to cast its products in a good light. Through its scientific arm, Mars Symbioscience , it has published more than 140 peer-reviewed scientific papers on cocoa flavanols and health since 2005. Such studies have generated hundreds of media reports that exaggerate their findings, and omit key details and caveats. Crucially, most recent research has used much higher levels of flavanols than are available in commercial snack products. For example, the blood pressure study involved participants getting an average of 670mg of flavanols. Someone would need to consume about 12 standard 100g bars of dark chocolate or about 50 of milk chocolate per day to get that much. The European Food Safety Authority has approved one rather modest chocolate-related health claim – that some specially processed dark chocolate, cocoa extracts and drinks containing 200mg of flavanols “contribute to normal blood circulation ” by helping to maintain blood vessel elasticity. Source: The dark truth about chocolate Future: Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids ; Maybe? Flavanols have been suggested to help lower blood pressure, improve blood flow to the brain and heart, prevent blood clots, as well as fight cell damage. Studies suggest that cocoa products and chocolate show neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions in humans, as they are rich flavonoids (mainly flavanols). The neurobiological actions of flavanols are believed to occur in two major ways: via direct interactions with cellular cascades resulting in expression of neuroprotective and neuromodulatory proteins that promote neurogenesis, neuronal function and brain connectivity, and via blood-flow improvement and angiogenesis in the brain and sensory systems. Source: Chocolate and the brain: Neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior The best way of getting cocoa flavanols is through cocoa powder that is as natural as possible and has not been processed through the Dutch method, which reduces the content of flavanols. Such cocoa powder will be bitter, though. According to USDA databases, 100 g of dark chocolate contains ∼100 mg of flavanols, an amount that doubles in the case of unsweetened baking chocolate and can reach up to 250 mg in 100 g of unsweetened cocoa powder that has not been processed with alkali. Cocoa flavanols and cognition: regaining chocolate in old age? “The benefits of cocoa flavanols on cardiovascular health are well established, and for the general population a daily intake of 200 mg of cocoa flavanols is starting to emerge as a potential target within the context of a balanced diet,” — Dr. Alonso-Alonso. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cocoa-sweet-treat-brain-201502057676 It’s good to keep in mind though, that according to Heart.org , flavanols present in dark chocolate were not found to have any significant effects in reducing heart disease risk, in lab studies. So unless calories need to be reduced, or there is lactose intolerance, it probably won’t make much of a difference in sticking with personal preferences. The truth about chocolate: does it really contain flavonoids? allergic to chocolate? Oh cruel fate… Chocolate with Nuts —”I was born with glass bones and paper skin. Every morning I break my legs, and every afternoon I break my arms. At night, I lie awake in agony until my heart attacks put me to sleep.” —Con man . [21] Due to the notorious inaccuracy in self-reported food allergies, the incidence of chocolate allergies as reported in the general population is commonly disregarded, with most empirically defined chocolate and cocoa allergies chalked up to cross-contamination from common allergens, including peanut, tree nuts, or milk —(btw: prevalence of self-reported chocolate/cocoa allergy, 0.5% to 0.7% in select populations). Dark chocolates is not supposed to contain milk, yet it is high risk for people with milk allergies as “milk” may not be disclosed as an ingredient , if it finds its way into the product via contamination. Moreover, lactose-free chocolates are not necessarily free of milk. Since the absence of lactose does not guarantee the absence of milk proteins such as casein ... . Moreover, in rare instances, chocolate has been thought to cause symptoms that resemble allergy symptoms (like skin itchiness) in people taking the common medication Prozac (fluoxetine). A recent study (goes on to/inaccessible*) presents, for the first time, a case series of oral food challenge- confirmed, IgE-mediated chocolate/cocoa allergy: Although challenge-proven IgE-mediated allergy to chocolate/ cocoa has not been previously reported, there have been reports of allergic symptoms in individuals sensitized to chocolate/cocoa via occupational exposure. Specifically, chocolate confectionery workers show a high level of cocoa sensitization (31% of a group of 71 confectionery workers), and there is increased prevalence of asthma and dyspnea in sensitized versus non-sensitized workers… The presence of theobromine and caffeine in chocolate may also be responsible for pseudoallergic symptoms that can be reported as allergic symptoms… For more—Not so sweet: True chocolate and cocoa allergy *paywall Orthorexia: cultural obsession with clean eating— inner purity expressed via aesthetics. We are not the only generation to have looked in disgust at an unhealthy food environment and wished that we could replace it with nutrients that were perfectly safe to eat. In the 1850s, a British chemist called Arthur Hill Hassall became convinced that the whole food supply of London was riddled with toxins and fakery. What’s more, he was right. Hassall had done a series of investigations for the medical journal the Lancet, and found that much of what was for sale as food and drink was not what it seemed: “coffee” made from burnt sugar and chicory; pickles dyed green with poisonous copper colourings. Food, drink and drugs are tested for contamination before being circulated for public purchase. However due to the large-scale nature, mistakes happen. In addition, it can’t really be known in advance what level of what type of contaminant may be contributing to long-term health problems, or be part of yet-to-be identified ‘cascade-effects’. Ooof: FDA food testing finds contamination by 'forever chemicals' There has been some renewed interest in contamination profiles of food, with some studies suggesting that certain chocolate products exceed the European Union and Chinese Maximum Contaminant Level and may pose risk. Umm?: Killing at source: How to avoid cadmium and lead in chocolate Dietary exposure assessment of aluminium and cadmium from cocoa in relation to cocoa origin Exposures and risks of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in cocoa beans and cocoa-based foods: a systematic review Understanding Mycotoxin Contamination Across the Food Chain in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities Chocolate appears to be a minor source of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in the diet. However, the increase of chocolate consumption with high levels of cocoa in recent years could elevate exposure to these food contaminants, as products with a high cocoa content tend to have the higher concentrations of mycotoxins. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: From farm to chocolate Cont. …Years of exposing the toxic deceptions all around him seems to have driven Hassall to a state of paranoia. He started to see poison everywhere, and decided that the answer was to create a set of totally uncontaminated food products. Does this sound familiar? In 1881, he set up his own firm— The Pure Food Company, which would only use ingredients of unimpeachable quality ... For more: Why we fell for clean eating like a box of chocolates, you never know.. French narrator: "Yes they're all idiots, aren't they?" [22] How chocolate helped expose our vulnerability to pseudoscience : “I was just really ashamed for my colleagues,” says Bohannon. “These are people who regurgitate whole chunks of press releases and almost never call on outside sources. In my book, that’s not even journalism. It’s just an extension of PR.” I Fooled Millions Into Thinking Chocolate Helps Weight Loss. Here's How. Footnotes [1] Centuries of seeking chocolate's medicinal benefits [2] The True History of Chocolate [3] The use and domestication of Theobroma cacao during the mid-Holocene in the upper Amazon [4] The Indians of the Ecuadorian Amazon were using cocoa 5,300 years ago [5] No, we won't run out of chocolate by 2050 | DW | 05.01.2018 [6] Is red wine actually good for your heart? - Harvard Health Blog [7] The dark truth about chocolate [8] A Guide to 17 Anti-Vaccination Celebrities [9] I thought all anti-vaxxers were idiots. Then I married one. [10] Cashing In on Climate Change [11] The naturopath whistleblower: ‘It is surprisingly easy to sell snake oil’ [12] Pseudo-Spiritual Travellers [13] Pseudoscience, snake oil, and indoor air quality [14] 'Gwyneth glows like a radioactive swan' – my day at the Goop festival [15] Eric Husher's answer to Who do you believe in the science world is telling the truth on global warming? [16] Drug Experts on Jordan Peterson Seeking Treatment in Russia for Benzo Dependence [17] A History Of 'Snake Oil Salesmen' [18] I can't tell if Gwyneth Paltrow's new Goop wellness summit is a satire project [19] In 19th century, Clark Stanley patented snake oil and advertised it as a painkiller, saying he had studied its wonders with the Hopi healers [20] Skepticism takes many forms [21] The Cunning Con Man! 😈 Bikini Bottom Mysteries S2 Ep. 8 | #SpongeBobSaturdays [22] Nasty Patty

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