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บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง new mg extender gc

เสียงวิจารณ์โลกโซเชียลไม่ระคาย ทำไม MG ทำยอดขายผงาดผู้นำ

ความสำเร็จของรถอเนกประสงค์ค่าย MG ทั้ง MG ZS (เอ็มจี แซดเอส) และ MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) แสดงให้เห็นว่าค่ายรถยนต์น้องใหม่สามารถโค่นแบรนด์ยักษ์อันเก่าแก่ลงได้หากเดินถูกทางยอดขายสะสมของรถอเนกประสงค์ขนาดซับคอมแพ็กต์อย่าง

2020 NEW MG HS PHEV เปิดตัวรุ่นใหม่จะชิงส่วนแบ่งตลาดจาก Honda CR-V ได้หรือไม่?

เมื่อไม่นานมานี้ MG เปิดตัวรถ Compact SUV ทางเลือกใหม่ Plug-in Hybrid ในชื่อ 2020-2021 NEW MG HS PHEV

MG สร้างจุดขายใหม่ให้ Extender หวังเจาะเอสเอ็มอีหนุนตลาดโต

MG (เอ็มจี) ผู้นำตลาดเอสยูวีในประเทศไทยในช่วงครึ่งปีแรก เริ่มแผนการสำหรับการผลักดันตลาดอื่น ๆ โดยเล็งไปที่ตลาดรถปิกอัพขนาด

หลุดภาพ All-New 2021 MG 5 เจนเนอเรชั่นใหม่ สวยสปอร์ตด้วยเอกลักษณ์ดีไซน์ใหม่ล่าสุด

เชื่อมต่อกับสันขอบซุ้มล้อไปจนถึงบั้นท้ายที่มีสปอยเลอร์ขนาดพอเหมาะ ส่วนท่อไอเสียเป็นแบบคู่ดีไซน์ทรงเหลี่ยมแยกซ้าย-ขวารายงานข่าวระบุว่ามิติตัวถังและฐานล้อของ All-New

ส่องสเปค 2020 New MG ZS สมาร์ทเอสยูวีโฉมใหม่ ด้วยราคาเริ่มต้น 6.89 แสนบาท

MG (เอ็มจี) ค่ายรถยนต์น้องใหม่ที่เพิ่งเข้าไทยไม่นาน ล่าสุดได้ส่ง 2020 New MG ZS (2020 เอ็มจี แซดเอส)

2021 MG Extender ไมเนอร์เชนจ์ ประกาศราคาสุดเย้ายวน เริ่มต้น 559,000 บาท

2021 MG Extender2021 MG Extender (2021 เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) รถกระบะโฉมใหม่ได้รับการประกาศราคาจำหน่ายอย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว

ส่องข้อดี-ข้อเสียก่อนซื้อ New 2020 MG ZS

เอ็มจี (MG) แบรนด์รถเชื้อชาติจีน สัญชาติอังกฤษ ที่เปิดตัวในประเทศไทยมาอย่างต่อเนื่องด้วยการทำราคาที่ดุดัน

2021 MG Extender เตรียมตกรุ่นแล้ว Maxus T90 เปิดโฉมไมเนอร์เชนจ์ใหม่ มาไทยเดือนนี้

2021 MG Extender อาจจะมีหน้าตาแบบนี้MG Extender (เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) รถกระบะรุ่นนี้เปิดตัวในประเทศไทยได้เพียง

2020 New MG ZS รถเอสยูวีฟังก์ชั่นครบราคาไม่ถึง 8 แสน รุ่นย่อยไหนใช่สำหรับคุณ

MG ZS กลายเป็นที่ต้องการของเหล่าคนรุ่นใหม่ได้ไม่ยากตารางราคา 2020 New MG ZS 2020 New MG ZS

5 รุ่นกระบะแต่ง เอาใจคนสายโม ในงาน Motor Expo 2020

ฝากระโปรงหน้าและแผ่นตัวถังบางชิ้นก็ถูกเปลี่ยนไปเป็นแบบวัสดุคาร์บอนเคฟล่าน้ำหนักเบา อีกทั้งยังมีสติ๊กเกอร์ของ ECU Shop Monster ซึ่งเคยร่วมมือกับ Toyota ออกรุ่นพิเศษมาแล้วIsuzu All New

ดูเพิ่มเติม

2020 New MG ZS เอสยูวีที่ตอบโจทย์ไลฟ์คนรุ่นใหม่ ด้วยราคาเริ่มต้น 6.89 แสนบาท

MG (เอ็มจี) ค่ายรถยนต์น้องใหม่ในไทยส่ง 2020 New MG ZS (2020 เอ็มจี แซดเอส) Smart SUV ที่มาพร้อมเทคโนโลยีอัจฉริยะ

เทียบสเปกรถกระบะ 4 ประตู ขุมพลัง 2.0 ลิตร 2019 MG Extender วัดมวย 2019 Ford Ranger

2019 MG Extender (เอ็มจี เอ็กซ์เทนเดอร์) เปิดตัวพร้อมแนวคิดรถกระบะพันธุ์ยักษ์ ด้วยสัดส่วนตัวถังที่มีขนาดใหญ่โตที่สุดรุ่นหนึ่งในระดับเดียวกัน

แบงค์บอกต่อ กระบะราคาดีทั้ง Ford และ Mg ส่วนลดเริ่มต้นที่ 200,000 บาท

มีโปรดี ๆ มาบอกต่อกันกับ Ford Ranger กับ Everest และ MG Extender ที่นำรถมาลดราคากันกระหน่ำFord Everest

MG คว้ารางวัลแบรนด์รถยนต์คุ้มค่ายอดเยี่ยม – MG ZS EV รับรางวัลรถใหม่คุ้มค่าสูงสุด

MG (เอ็มจี) ได้รับรางวัลแบรนด์รถยนต์ที่ความคุ้มค่ายอดเยี่ยม (Best Value Brand 2020) จากการประกาศผลรางวัล

คิดดีแล้วหรือ? รวม 5 รถกระบะ EV ที่แปลกจนเราต้องแอบพูดว่า เอ๊ะ?

รถไฟฟ้าในปัจจุบัน ส่วนมากจะมีอยู่ 2 ชนิด ถ้าหากไม่ใช่รถยนต์ทั่วไปสำหรับการเดินทางบนถนนดำ เช่น MG EP (

2019 New MG Extender กระบะพันธุ์ยักษ์ ทางเลือกใหม่สำหรับคนต้องการความครบครัน

หากถามรถกระบะรุ่นไหนใหญ่ที่สุดในท้องตลาดเวลานี้ หนึ่งในคำตอบนั้นย่อมหนีไม่พ้น นิว เอ็มจี เอ็กซ์เทนเดอร์ 2019 - 2020 (New

เผยสเปก 2020 MG Gloster รถพีพีวีบนพื้นฐาน Extender โอกาสทำตลาดเมืองไทยมากน้อยแค่ไหน?

หลังจาก 2020 MG Gloster (เอ็มจี กลอสเตอร์) ได้รับการเผยโฉมรุ่นต้นแบบโปรโตไทพ์ในอินเดียไปตั้งแต่เดือนกุมภาพันธ์ที่ผ่านมา

2019 New MG Extender  DC 4WD 6AT กับ 4 เหตุผลที่คุณควรซื้อ 

2019 New MG Extender (เอ็มจี เอ็กซ์เทนเดอร์ )DC 4WD 6AT คือรถกระบะน้องใหม่ในตลาดรถกระบะเมืองไทย ที่เปิดตัวด้วยความใหญ่โตของตัวถัง

2021 New MG EP กับค่าตัว 988,000 บาท มีรถพลังงานทางเลือกรุ่นอื่นใดอีกบ้าง?

รถพลังงานไฟฟ้า New 2021 MG EP (2021 เอ็มจี อีพี) มาพร้อมกับราคาค่าตัวที่ 988,000 บาท คำถามคือเงินก้อนประมาณ

All New Haval H6 เตรียมลุยตลาดเอสยูวีไฮบริดพร้อมท้าสู้คู่แข่ง MG HS

ครั้งที่ 42 เมื่อเดือนมีนาคมที่ผ่านมา ส่วนราคาและการเริ่มวางจำหน่ายจะประกาศในช่วงครึ่งหลังของปีนี้ All New

2021 NEW MG EP จะเอาชนะคู่แข่งอย่าง Nissan Kicks ในตลาดรถยนต์ไฟฟ้าล้วนได้หรือไม่?

ล่าสุด MG (เอ็มจี) ประกาศราคาจำหน่าย 2021 NEW MG EP (นิว เอ็มจี อีพี) อย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว ด้วยราคา 988,000

ตารางผ่อน-ดาวน์ 2020 New MG ZS รถเอสยูวีราคาประหยัดที่ฟังก์ชั่นครบ ผ่อนเริ่มต้นแค่หลักพัน

MG (เอ็มจี) ค่ายรถยนต์น้องใหม่ในไทยส่ง 2020 New MG ZS (2020 เอ็มจี แซดเอส) SUV ฟังก์ชั่นครบที่ตอบสนองความต้องการคนรุ่นใหม่ได้อย่างดีเยี่ยม

New 2020 MG ZS เปิดตัวแล้ว 3 รุ่นย่อย เคาะราคาเริ่มต้นต่ำกว่า 7 แสนบาท

MG (เอ็มจี) เคยสร้างเสียงฮือฮาในท้องตลาดกับการเปิดตัว MG ZS (เอ็มจี แซดเอส) ด้วยการทำราคาจำหน่ายบี-เอสยูวี

แบงค์บอกต่อ Nissan Almera และ MG HS กับ Extender พร้อมแคมเปญดี ๆ ก่อนสิ้นปีนี้

แบงค์บอกต่อ นำเสนอโปรโมชั่นดี ๆ สำหรับซิตี้คาร์ Nissan Almera (นิสสัน อัลเมร่า) MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส)

Review: MG Extender กระบะยักษ์พันธุ์แกร่ง

Extender 2020 มีรุ่นให้เลือกรวมกว่า 9 รุ่น ได้แก่- MG Extender 2.0 Giant Cab C 6MT ราคา 549,000 บาท-

Rendered : 2021 MG Extender Gundam Inspired Edition ถ้ากระบะแต่งเป็นหุ่นยนต์ จะเข้ากันมั้ย?

2021 MG Extender (2021 เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการเมื่อเกือบ 2 ปีที่แล้ว แต่ทำยอดขายไม่ดีสมใจอยาก

แบงค์บอกต่อ แคมเปญรถใหม่ Ford Ranger FX4 Max มาพร้อมของแถมฟรีหลายรายการ

2021 Ford ranger FX4 Max (ฟอร์ด เรนเจอร์ เอฟเอกซ์4 แมกซ์) ตัวแต่งใหม่ของ Ford (ฟอร์ด) ประเทศไทย รวมถึง MG

ชมคันจริง 2021 MG Extender ไมเนอร์เชนจ์ครั้งใหญ่ ขายแน่สิ้นเดือนนี้ คาดราคาทะลุล้าน

2021 MG Extender (เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) มีการปรับโฉมไมเนอร์เชนจ์แล้ว โดยทาง MG ประเทศไทยได้จัดพรีวิวรอบพิเศษ

ชมจุดเด่นและจุดด้อย 2019 MG Extender รถกระบะพันธุ์ยักษ์ ทำไมยอดขายรั้งท้าย?

2019 MG Extender (เอ็มจี เอ็กซ์เทนเดอร์) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการในช่วงเดือนสิงหาคม 2562 กลายเป็นผู้เล่นหน้าใหม่ล่าสุดในตลาดรถกระบะเมืองไทยExtender

อ่านก่อนซื้อ! MG EXTENDER มีข้อดีกับข้อเสียอย่างไร

และต้องบอกเลยว่า MG กล้าหาญชาญชัยมากที่นำรถกระบะ MG EXTENDER (เอ็มจี เอกซ์เทนเดอร์) เข้ามาขายในประเทศไทย

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รีวิว Q&A new mg extender gc

Does a newborn neuron, produced after neurogenesis in hippocampus, move where the dead neuron was? If so, how does it happen?

Neurogenesis does not replace dead neurons individually. They are translocated in a general sense. Here is an excerpt out of my honours thesis, focusing on the subventricular zone. Note PSA-NCAM is one of a few molecules that help neurons migrate. Without PSA, NCAM expressing neurons would ‘stick’ to the ventricular wall for instance and not undergo migration. Other neuronal factors also regulate the process. Introduction Historical overview of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are formed in the brain, arising from neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) (Curtis et al., 2012). Neurogenesis involves the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells, followed by their migration into the appropriate brain region, survival and differentiation into functional neurons (Ming and Song, 2005; Curtis et al., 2012). Historically, it was thought that the adult brain consisted solely of neurons formed during development and that no new neurons could be generated after birth. This view began to be challenged by experiments that suggested new neurons could be formed in the adult brain. Altman and Das (1965) used 3H thymidine, which incorporates into dividing cells during S phase, to detect mitotic cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and SVZ of adult rats, before identifying the olfactory bulb (OB) as the major target of migrating neuronal precursors from the SVZ (Altman, 1969). Neurogenesis in the adult human was first confirmed to occur in the DG using immunohistochemistry, where cells were double labelled with 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue that incorporates into dividing cells in S phase (Dean et al., 1984), and NeuN, a mature neuronal marker to indicate that the dividing cells carried a neuronal phenotype (Eriksson et al., 1998). In the postnatal human SVZ, neuroblast-like cells expressing migratory marker polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), but not glial markers, were also detected (Weickert et al., 2000), indicating immature neurons are present in this region well after birth. Functionally, neurogenesis enables replacement of granule cell neurons in the DG of the hippocampus and of interneurons in the OB (Kaplan et al., 1985). New neurons may play roles in memory and plasticity in the hippocampus, as neurogenesis is increased in mice exposed to an enriched environment (Kempermann et al., 1997). Neurogenesis is also important for song acquisition and memory in songbirds (Alvarez-Buylla et al., 1992). The addition of new neurons in the OB appears to control odour discrimination (Gheusi et al., 2000) as disrupting NPC migration to the OB impairs this ability. While it is not known whether neurogenesis has functional significance in humans during adulthood, this is inferred based on animal models. However, altered neurogenesis is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease (Curtis et al., 2012), where memory and cognition is known to be impaired. Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone The SVZ is derived embryonically from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences (Brazel et al., 2003). In both humans and rodents, the SVZ runs directly beneath the ependymal layer along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles (Sanai et al., 2004). Structurally, the adult human SVZ can be divided into four major layers, each housing particular cell types (Figure 1). The outermost layer (1) consists of ependymal cells in contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the lateral ventricles, followed by a hypocellular gap layer (2), consisting of astrocytic processes and expansions of ependymal cells (Quinones-Hinojosa et al., 2006). This layer is absent in rodents (Sanai et al., 2004). Lateral to this lies an astrocytic ribbon layer (3), aptly named because NSCs express typical astrocytic markers including glial fibrillary acidic protein (Doetsch et al., 1999), glutamate-aspartate transporter and nestin (Kriegstein and Alvarez Buylla, 2009). The NSCs, called Type B cells, are considered the primary progenitors of new neurons (Doetsch et al., 1999; Imura et al., 2003). These divide infrequently into Type C cells, known as transient amplifying progenitors (TAPs), which proliferate to form layer 4. Type C cells then give rise to Type A neuroblasts, which travel to layer 2 before undergoing tangential migration along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to reach the OB (Figure 2). This primary migratory route of neuroblasts has been characterised by Sanai et al. (2004) and Wang et al. (2011) in both the adult monkey, as well as fetal humans. Sanai et al. (2011) also identified a secondary route in humans, called the medial migratory stream, whereby neuroblasts travel to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was not observed six months after birth , suggesting migration pathways may change with age Figure 1: Layers of the SVZ and associated cell types in the adult human (Curtis et al., 2012). The SVZ can be subdivided into four layers which house particular cell types. The outermost layer (1) is comprised of ependymal cells, followed by a hypocellular gap layer (2), then an astrocytic ribbon layer (3), where Type B NSCs reside. These generate Type C TAPs in layer 4. From TAPs, Type A neuroblasts are generated which migrate to layer 2 before running through the RMS. Figure 2: Sagittal section showing the neurogenic regions (circled in red) as they occur in the adult rodent (adapted from Abrous et al. (2005)). The SVZ lines the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and is the source of proliferative cells. Neuroblasts from the SVZ undergo migration through the RMS to the OB. These neuroblasts then differentiate into OB interneurons. Neurogenesis also occurs in the SGZ of the DG. While it is established that new neurons continue to be formed postnatally, there is still controversy as to what extent neuroblast migration occurs in the adult human, if at all, based on the rarity of immature neuron marker doublecortin (DCX) expressing neurons along the RMS (Sanai et al., 2011), while Curtis et al. (2007) report neurogenesis to occur in a fully functional RMS even in adulthood. Recently, Ernst et al. (2014) reported that neuroblast migration to the OB may be diminished in adulthood in the human brain but proposed that neuroblasts could migrate to the striatum. Indeed, levels of DCX in the striatum were similar to those found in the DG and SVZ, a feature not exhibited in rodents (Ernst et al., 2014). Also DCX+ neurons with migratory morphology are present in the white matter below the prefrontal cortex of postnatal non-human primates and humans (Fung et al., 2011). The marked inter-species differences between rodent and human neurogenesis highlight the need to study neurogenesis in the adult human brain to understand the unique features of this process in humans. Maintenance of Neurogenesis by the Local Neurogenic Niche Clusters of different cell types comprise and enclose the SVZ, including astrocytes, endothelia, the vasculature, microglia and ependymal cells. Collectively, they form a microenvironment, or neurogenic niche, serving important roles in maintaining structural integrity and supporting neurogenesis. It is thought that proteins produced locally, or transported to the niche regulate neurogenesis. The role of astrocytes, ependymal cells, the vasculature and their associated proteins in regulating neurogenesis will be discussed below. Astrocytes Astrocytes are involved in fate specification and promote proliferation of NSCs. In the absence of astrocytes, DG NSCs in rodents tend towards glial fates (Song et al., 2002). Similarly, Lim and Alvarez-Buylla (1999) found that astrocytes promote proliferation of Type A neuroblasts from Type B/C cells in vitro. Although secreted factors were hypothesised to mediate this effect, astrocyte cultured medium alone did not induce neuroblast proliferation. The authors concluded that glia-derived soluble factors may be necessary, but are not sufficient for neuroblast proliferation, so cell-cell contact involving cell surface receptors or membrane bound proteins may be required. Interestingly, astrocytes transplanted from the adult rat spinal cord to neurogenic regions did not induce neurogenesis (Song et al., 2002). This could be due to the distinct gene expression profiles of astrocytes from different regions. Barkho et al. (2006) characterised neurogenesis-promoting and neurogenesis-inhibiting astrocytes in rat brains and showed that secreted factors highly expressed in hippocampal and SVZ astrocytes, such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), IL-1β and IL-6 promoted neuronal differentiation, whereas factors highly expressed in adult spinal cord astrocytes, such as decorin, had an inhibitory effect on neuronal differentiation. Thus, the effect of astrocytes on neurogenesis is a function of both cell-intrinsic properties and the local environment. Ependymal cells Ependymal cells border the lateral ventricles and interact with CSF. In particular, multiciliated processes on ependymal cells are polarised and generate CSF flow (Sawamoto et al., 2006). A gradient of Slit, a chemorepulsive factor, is also generated alongside the flow of CSF, which directs neuroblasts along the RMS to the OB. Disruption to cilia dissipates this gradient and interferes with neuroblast migration, an effect also noted in Slit mutants (Nguyen Ba-Charvet et al., 2004). Additionally, astrocytes become disorganised and invade layer 2, possibly because Slit is expressed by migrating neuroblasts, which act on Robo receptors on astrocytes (Kaneko et al., 2010). Thus neuroblasts modulate their migration by repelling astrocytes through Slit, which is further modulated by the action of ependymal cells controlling the CSF-Slit gradient. Vascular niche The SGZ and SVZ are both closely associated with a developed vascular network (Tavazoie et al., 2008; Nie et al., 2010; Sawada et al., 2014), where Type B NSCs and Type C TAPs establish direct contact with capillaries and enable tight control of the local microcirculation by altering capillary diameter and hence bloodflow (Lacar et al., 2012). Tavazoie et al. (2008) found that dividing cells lie adjacent to blood vessels by immunostaining endothelial cells with CD31 and dividing cells with Ki67. This indicates that the vascular niche may play a supportive role in neurogenesis by interacting with the NSC pool. A prime example of this occurs in songbirds, where testosterone induced release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis (Louissaint et al., 2002). Angiogenesis is associated with the production of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Leventhal et al., 1999) which in turn triggers neurogenesis (Louissaint et al., 2002). The vascular network also plays an important role as a scaffold for which neuroblasts can migrate to reach the OB (Bovetti et al., 2007; Tavazoie et al., 2008). Blood vessels may also facilitate injury-induced migration of neuroblasts (see Applications of neurogenesis to injury and Repair; Kojima et al., 2010). Thus the vascular network surrounding the SVZ is an effective means of transporting proteins and other soluble factors that can modulate neurogenesis. The neurogenic niche provides an explanation as to why neurogenesis is limited to the SVZ and SGZ. In the SGZ and SVZ, a myriad of cell types alongside proteins, both locally secreted or transported to the niche provide an environment that encourages neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, whereas ‘non-neurogenic’ regions lack this support. Indeed, transplantation of hippocampal NPCs to the SVZ, and vice versa, generates OB interneurons and granule cells respectively, whereas transplantation to other areas only generates glia (Suhonen et al., 1996). Yet NPCs are found in many diverse brain regions including the spinal cord, striatum and neocortex, and these can be induced towards neuronal fates in vitro (Palmer et al., 1995). This suggests NSC in non-neurogenic regions are ‘dormant’, but in an appropriately conducive chemical environment could exhibit neurogenic behaviour. This is supported by injury models where neurogenesis from NSCs and NPCs is upregulated following ischemic insult (Ohira et al., 2010). Thus, introducing neurochemical factors expressed in the SVZ or SGZ to non-neurogenic regions may also stimulate neurogenesis in those regions (Jin et al., 2003a). Age related changes in the SVZ While neurogenesis persists in adulthood, neurogenic potential significantly declines with age. Jin et al. (2003a) reported decreases in BrdU labelled cells of 90% and 50% in the DG and SVZ respectively, between 3 month old mice and 20 month old mice. A reduction in DCX-labelled neuroblasts also occurs in both rodents, humans (Sanai et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011), and non-human primates (Fung et al., 2011) indicating the loss of migratory neuroblasts to the OB with age . This is also reflected in preliminary data from our laboratory (Fung, unpublished) that suggests that gene expression of proliferation and immature neuron markers, Ki67 and DCX respectively, are inversely correlated with age in humans. The decline of neurogenesis in the ageing brain has been linked to structural and cellular changes in the neurogenic niche. Age-related structural changes found in rodents include stenosis of lateral ventricular walls, via the fusion of medial and lateral walls of the lateral ventricle (Shook et al., 2012), which in turn leads to shrinking of the SVZ, ventricular enlargement and thinning of the ependymal monolayer. This effectively reduces the neurogenic area, and may limit the formation of neuroblasts to the anterior dorsal SVZ (Luo et al., 2006). However, this may not apply to primates, since neurogenesis is thought to occur in the ventral aspect of the lateral ventricle, unlike rodents (Fung et al., 2011). Age-related cellular changes include a reduced pool size of proliferative NSCs and neuroblasts. This reduction is uniformly distributed along the SVZ, apart from the site of fusion, where no NSCs can be found (Shook et al., 2012). Despite a reduced NSC pool size, the percentage of actively mitotic NSCs has been found to increase in rodents with age (Shook et al., 2012). However, this is accompanied by a 1.5 fold increase in the number of cells exiting the cell cycle, as indexed by an increase in BrdU+/Ki67- cells compared to BrdU+/Ki67+ cells (Luo et al., 2006). Elevated caspase 3 activity indicates cell death is also involved in reducing NSC and NPC pools, as well as numbers of migratory neuroblasts, but only in elderly mice aged over 19 months (Luo et al., 2006). Overall, the available data suggest that age-related structural and cellular changes in the SVZ contribute to a reduced capacity for neurogenesis with age due to a decline in NSC pool size and increased cellular senescence. While these age-related changes in the SVZ have been confirmed in rodents, these changes may not necessarily be features of human neurogenesis. Therefore, further investigation must be conducted into age related changes in the SVZ and their effects on human neurogenesis. Regulation of Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain The available data suggests that the rate of neurogenesis is not fixed but may be modulated in adult life through cell-intrinsic transcription factors or extrinsic mechanisms involving growth factors, morphogens, experience and injury. This section focuses on transcription factor and growth factor regulation of neurogenesis and potential applications of NSC therapy in injury and repair. Intrinsic regulation through transcription factors A set of transcriptional programs are activated that direct actions and fates of cells in the SVZ (Hsieh, 2012). Specific transcription factors are expressed transiently during each stage of neurogenesis (Figure 3). In early stages, Sox2 influences the proliferation of TAPs, and loss of Sox2 leads to a reduction in proliferating progenitors and number of DCX+ neuroblasts (Ferri et al., 2004). In addition, FoxO3 and TLX are also expressed in NSCs and are involved in their proliferation and maintenance. FoxO3-/- mutants have depleted NSC pools, indicating that FoxO3 is required for NSC self-renewal, presumably through inhibition of the Wnt pathway (Paik et al., 2009). Later stages of neurogenesis involve Pax6, required to promote neurogenesis (Sansom et al., 2009) in place of self-renewal, but inhibits interneuron lineage, generating pyramidal neurons. Finally, a combination of NeuroD1, T-box brain gene 1 and 2 are involved in generating neuronal phenotypes of the OB (Roybon et al., 2009). In particular, Mash1 and neurogenin positive cells, as well as Gsh2 positive cells generate OB interneurons, whereas Olig2 controls neuronal versus oligodendrocyte differentiation. The proportion of cells expressing nestin, Sox2 and Gsh2 are reduced with age. Gene expression of these markers are also reduced in NSCs of aged rodents (Ahlenius et al., 2009), but their expression in humans across age remains to be elucidated. Figure 3: Time course of neurogenesis is dictated by transcriptional control (Hsieh, 2012). Neurogenesis involves distinct stages of NSC proliferation, fate specification, differentiation, survival and maturation (top panel), where Type B1 and B2 NSCs cycle into TAPs, which produce neuroblasts that migrate and mature into functional neurons. Associated with each stage is the expression of a specific set of transcription factors that regulate neurogenesis (bottom panel). Extrinsic regulation through growth factors Growth factors offer an extrinsic approach to affect cell programming and may have differential effects depending on the factor. They are involved in promoting normal development and maturation of the central nervous system (Abe et al., 2000), but also serve important neurogenic functions. In rodent models, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the number of newborn neurons reaching the OB, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances astrocyte formation (Kuhn et al., 1997). The number of BrdU+ cells can be enhanced in the both the DG and SVZ, following administration of FGF-2 or heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, HB-EGF (Jin et al., 2003a). This effect is more pronounced in aged rodents (20 months), and restores SVZ BrdU+ cells to levels comparable to untreated young 3-month rodents. In addition, BrdU+ cells colocalised with DCX (Jin et al., 2003a), demonstrating that age related declines in neurogenesis can countered by exogenous application of growth factors . Other growth factors of interest include glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GDNF acts as a chemoattractant, stimulating neuroblast migration to the OB (Paratcha et al., 2006). In the adult monkey, TrkB receptors are expressed in NPCs (Tonchev et al., 2007) and the actions of BDNF on these receptors mediate the survival of migratory neuroblasts (Bath et al., 2008). BDNF is known to have varied effects on proliferation and differentiation (Bath et al., 2012) and may also act on the p75 receptor to stimulate neuroblast production and their migration in vitro (Young et al., 2007). Given the importance of growth factors in regulating neurogenesis, it is likely that gene expression and protein levels of BDNF and other growth factors and their receptors decline with age in the human brain, contributing to reduced neurogenesis. Evidence from animal models indicate that changes in growth factor and receptor expression across age correlates with neurogenesis. In the rat hippocampus, levels of FGF-2, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and VEGF decline with age (Shetty et al., 2005). Olfactory neurogenesis and fine olfactory discrimination is reduced in 24 month old mice compared with 2 month old mice, and this is correlated with a reduced expression of EGFR (Enwere et al., 2004). Moreover, EGF infusion produces a smaller proportion of new neurons in old mice compared to young mice, which could be linked to the reduced expression of EGFR. A similar reduction in olfactory neurogenesis and olfactory discrimination can be observed in mutant mice with reduced or null expression of TGF-α (Enwere et al., 2004; Tropepe et al., 1997), which is the primary ligand of EGFR in the brain (Seroogy et al., 1993; Weickert and Blum, 1995). How levels of these growth factors and their expression change with age in the adult human is unknown and is the primary subject of this investigation. Applications of neurogenesis to injury and repair Although the injured central nervous system undergoes repair sparingly, NSC therapy is a possible treatment option, based on a large number of studies that indicate neurogenesis is upregulated following ischemic insult (reviewed in Ohira et al., 2011). SVZ-derived neuroblasts are able to migrate away from their usual route into regions adjacent to the infarct, regulated in part by a gradient of the chemokine stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) interacting with its receptor, CXCR4 (Thored et al., 2006; Robin et al., 2006), before differentiating accordingly to replace damaged neurons. This has been observed in the striatum following a middle cerebral artery occlusion (Arvidsson et al., 2002; Jin et al., 2003b), where BrdU+/NeuN+ labelling is increased 31-fold four weeks post-injury (Arvidsson et al., 2002). Progenitors are also present in the human SVZ post-ischemia (Macas et al., 2006). In the rodent neocortex, no evidence of SVZ neuroblast migration has been found, but endogenous NPCs in layer 1 can proliferate freely to form cortical interneurons, which integrate into existing circuitry (Ohira et al., 2010; Magavi et al., 2000). As in the healthy brain, neurogenesis can be increased after injury through growth factor infusion. In the DG, FGF-2 knockout mice produce fewer neurons post-injury compared to wild type homozygotes, but this can be rescued by overexpression of FGF-2 through injections of FGF-2 encoding viral vectors (Yoshimura et al., 2003). Increases in neurogenesis have been demonstrated using EGF (Ninomiya et al., 2006) acting on EGFR+ TAPs derived from the SVZ. Neuroblast formation is then induced in place of TAP proliferation by discontinuation of EGF. Similar findings have been reported by Tureyen et al. (2005) using EGF and FGF-2 in combination. 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Is there a lawsuit on the makers of opioids?

There are a large number of lawsuits filed against pharmaceutical companies which manufacturer opioid s / opiates . A few have rightfully been dismissed for lack of standing . Judge dismisses lawsuit implicating drug manufacturers in opioid epidemic New Britain Herald - Judge dismisses cities' suit against drug companies The judges are correct . The plaintiffs do not have standing to sue . Opioid / opiate medications are legal products . They are approved to be used as indicated and prescribed by the FDA . The pharmaceutical companies did not and do not hold addicts down , force the addict to crush pillow and inject or use them nasally. They do not advertise the use of schedule 2 medication . It is not allowed . No one from doctors, pharmacists ,inparticular intractable pain patients who have become the target of Andrew Kolodny and other anti opioid zealots and fanatics such as PROP the once respected CDC, and now states looking to fill empty tax coffers . These are what is known as speculative litigation . The plaintiffs are hoping for a large judgement or settlement. Which the pharmaceutical industry is rightfully fighting .After the tobacco litigation which saw hundreds of millions in find a supposedly set aside for smoking cessation and preventing people especially young people from starting .Most states used the find a asset of their general fund . This is going to make any litigation extremely difficult. There are many problems with blaming everyone and everything but addicts for choosing to abuse medication or more often illegal heroin now adulterated with various unknown fentanyl analogues . These are made in China and are all but impossible to stop from entering any country . If you watch a seaport it becomes obvious why . Just watching the waiting to cross from Mexico into a less busy state such as New Mexico should make it obvious .The the vast very difficult to patrol coastline of the U.S . has been a long time favorite of drug smugglers. In fact the coastal areas from the rest lakes to both the entire eastern and western coastline with the gulf of Mexico . Where whare much of the alcohol was smuggled in during the failure known as the Prohibition. Nixon created the DEA and passed the controlled substances act , which should have been and should be ruled unconstitutional. The government has o place in the doctor patient relationship . If we can say the government should be limited in what it can do when a woman wishes about a pregnancy using abortion as a means of birth control . Telling people do suffer from intractable pain that fire not remit or reduces person to bring debilitated often living in endless torment is much more than invading our privacy and what we choose to do with our bodies often the advice of a highly educated and skilled physician. We hear zealots such as Andrew Kolodny ranting on about Perdue settling for a pittance . The plaintiffs knew they did not have a string casec. I believe it was Kentucky and West Virginia. While Perdue engaged in illegal marketing . They did not market to Addicts . Addicts discovered brush nd and snorting Oxy Contin when their heroin was temporarily hard to find . Usually a supply shortage, rarely does the government catch enough drugs to reduce supply to have much of a effect on the market .If there is a demand for a product legal or illegal there will be someone willing to fill that demand . Currently the supplier of drugs are criminals who will do whatever they want to fill the demand . Narcotrafficos , are sociopathic, Psychopathic like organizations which have terrorized Mexico and Central America along with Countries such as Colombia , Peru and Bolivia. They must be more than ecstatic about the chaos crisis in Venezuela .Lots of desperate people , prime land to grow poppies, and coca . Plenty of people with skills to help produce the drugs , launder money and develop new and ingenious ways to smuggle the drugs into the U.S. .China would e more than happy to help .They had been allowing chemists to make fentanyl analogues which can easily bring in millions and drain the resources of the U.S. . We waste billions in tax revenue to stop people from harming themselves and enriching violent criminal organizations and possibly Islamic extremists and terrorists who will use the drug money to inflict terror in us out of hated and recruits willing to die thinking they will get ,70 virgin to have endless sex with . Another discussion in itself . He we arrest and incarcerate mid and low level dealers who steadily replaced . With litt!e hope for a career , dead end low wage service industry jobs among the place of skilled kabkrv..A refusal to use law enforcement to investigate and arrest those those hire undocumented immigrants as a source of low wage labor which will not file law suit or go to OSHA, Will work long hours with out overtime. Do not get sick time or vacation time . How does a high school graduate begin to compete with that for a job that either begins their adult life as a employee or provide enough to survive in . Figure out how to change this and create new good paying employment opportunities . Along with reversing some other self inflicted wounds that will not heal . We have tried to arrest and incarcerate our way out of this crisis which we created by criminalizing drug . The dealers might go prison .There are ten more willing to take their place . Dealing drugs is far more lucrative than working at Wal-Mart Mart a fast food restaurant or other low paying long hours little advancement job . Before OXY Contin was on the market Janssen had been successful with Duragesicic Fentanyl patches which have been changed to !she abuse even more difficult . Though a addict will find a way to abuse any thing. The patches were not !marketed as non addictive or creating tolerance and depend by which are not addiction no!after how much a anti opioid fanatics wishes this so . Two brand name extended release version of Morphine have also been on the market at the same time as Oxy Contin . Kadian and Avinsa one is no longer available as it did not sell as well as the generic often called MS Contin or Morphine ER . Addicts did not seem out either drug often.If they use prescription morphome it is out of desperation . Ironically it is heroin mebolizing into morphine which provides a the high after the initial intense high of it or nasal heroin . Which is simply diacetalmorphine. These medications were not marketed to be used with out a breakthrough medication and have been allowing tens millions to have a semblance of a life and engage in activities Those with out intractable pain cannot imagine . The opioid hysteria affects every one . The cost of litigation will push all pharmaceutical products priced up often out of reach for many . The companies which manufacture opioid a also manufacture medication such as insulin , anti psychotic medication, medication for high blood pressure, anti biotics, anti seizure medication , birth control, bloodthinners, medication for heart disease, medication for HIV , cancer , you name it they make it . There are few companies which make opioids as their only product . That drug happens to be the opioid of choice for anti opioid and pain patients Andrew Kolodny it's called Buprenophine often commonly called Suboxone when combined with Naloxone . Which untill recent!y was made by Apriss whichhad fought to keep its monopoly in the drug .Which only gives addicts a false sense of safety . Naloxone is sold at incredible profit to municipalities .They then use it to receive addicts sometimes the same junkies will be revived two or more times in one day . Why are taxpayers responsible ? Though there is intense lobbying to force it to be sold to intractable pain patients and those of us who take opioid medication so we do not live in torment everyday No yoga ,CBT , acupuncture , The best fanatical pushed Kratom . Which is,highly toxic to the liver and can cause serious problems .It is not well understood and has not been studied as a medication . Mostly due to its high liver toxicity . Thousand the fact when prescription drugs are abused they are not used as directed . Doctors will tell you not to crush the extended release medication or eat Fentanyl patches. That's just asking for trouble. Most Doctors are not paid or in anyway compensated for prescribing any .education .This a serious federal felony and a felony in all fifty states Puerto Rico , Guam and other territories. The fact many addicts who are resuscitated have been given Naloxone many times . They make up about .0001 percent of the 330million in the US. If opioid a were really as bad as anti opioid zealots and fans claim nearly every one would be a junkie . The cruel , draconian , barbaric bill of rights shredding CD C and various laws and regulations and administrative punishment called euphemistically enforcement s or civil actions .Which were by written by members of PROP and their favorite parmacu pharmaceutical companies Indivor and Apriss . CDC opioid prescribing guidlines. Which appear to custom fit the Buprenophine pushers at PROP ,a fanatical anti Opiod organization which is made up of addiction treatment industry doctors who created the newly minted disorders Opioid Use Disorder, OUDs a nonsense disorder that a unethical or greedy addiction treatment doctor or psychologist can label any one who use a opioid with. The new!y created Substance use disorder SUDs Both are garbage diagnosis intended to effect the outcome of the opioid litigation as well as full up beds In drug rehab Which until 2010 When Kolodny a addiction psychiatrist who worked for later to be CD C director Tom Frieden. The primary used detainees awaiting trial In The NYC jail system who were not in a position to refuse . Along with severely mentally ill in NYC Psychiatric facilities.A very unethical way to treat the most vulnerable .Giving jails and psychiatrist $ 10,000 to push , Suboxone and Subutex This and the fact over 20 million pain patients use opioid medication with out becoming a depraved addict is going to be a very high hurdle for any anti opioid plaintiff . The fact these same states used the tobacco strengthening as a slush fund to keep taxes low instead of preventing and tobacco ceasitation program will be brought up . The fact municiphad been missing revenue , alities did not bill addicts as they do motorists who need a EMT is also going to be a very effective defense .That's active as is,not requiring those who get help to pay off the cost of belong them often we just wake them up . They are notifying just nodding as addicts call it . I have a colleage who works in a moderate sized city maybe 800,000 or so . She sees this all the time I get overdoses about once or twice a month with the occasional transfer when a small hospital lacks space for the addict . I also am known to make sure they go from ER to jail . Which does wonders they bc me not to send them to lockup. Knowing hey cannot get thier drugs in a cell 22/7 with camera cover them making it hard to ha e a guard pass drugs . One tried . He is now a guest of the maximum security prison in Canon City and Florence. In like some places .My practice will bill the addicted then bring them to court when they inevitably refuse to pay the ,$100,00 to 1 million or on occasion even more . They then violate the courts order and we seize their assets I've yet to recover much . I do not expect it .However I am not a charity . I have a life , friends girlfriends (spinning places is essential in the current heterosexual dymanic s and doing market . I might earn a very good income. It took years of hard work . I am highly respected and want to do the best I possibly can for my patients . tHey deserve compassion ,dignity and respectful treatment . If it means I sign off on a addict being fit for incarceration instead o f coddling them with consequence free or responsibility avoids nd pain patient blaming Suboxone pushing rehab so be it . They had a better chance cleaning up unlock up while they await trial or a plea . As I work hard an d will try as best I can to measure a patient gets the right specialist . A medication or medications approved by insurance and take time to listen to them . To talk and maybe learn something that helps them and hosted I expect to be paid for my experience and expertise and time .So would everyone who works hard and does not expect something simply for showing up . I do not blame any one but addicts and their enablers such as Andrew Kolodny and his PROP or Jane Balentyne who is also a member of PROP .She has serious conflicts of interest .She was a consultant to Cohen Milstein, the law firm suing opioid manufacturers .Except Indivor which makes Suboxone . It can easily become highly addictive and is slaughtered by prison inmates , athletes who are subjected to drug tests .As Buprenophine is noground by inexpensive drug tests. Unlike less dangerous and milder hydrocodone which the Andrew Kolodny endOsCoPY lobbied Bias and Conflict of Interest in Opioid Guidelines Study “ Ballantyne is the President of PROP, the organization founded by Kolodny. At least four other board members of PROP, including Kolodny himself, served on various CDC panels that advised the agency during the drafting of the guidelines, a matter that the agency refused to disclose for several months. “ Dysfunction, Lobbying, and Conflict of Interest in the Debate Over Opioids – InsideSources “Jane Ballantyne, President of PROP. Ballantyne has served as a paid consultant to the law firm Cohen Milstein, which was profiled by the New York Times late last year for its coaxing of state attorneys general to sign contingency agreements allowing the firm to file suit against potential targets it has identified by scouring the news media and public records. In what the Times suggests is a quid pro quo arrangement, the attorneys general receive substantial campaign contributions either right before or after they sign the contingency agreements. “ This will become a serious problem in any legit court . She created what are arbitrary guidlines which but carry the force of law based on zero evidence . It is not possible to at minimum ethical test this idea. It would be little different than what the Nazis did to victims of their sick twisted so called experiments in Auschwitz Dachau, Majdank , Scachenhausen , Maunchuasen, and other concentration camps. The opioid hysteria is becoming strikingly similar to how the holocaust started .Blame a group who cannot fight back pain patients who often are living in SSDI or have limited income which is spent on their medical care. While addicts grt taxpayer funded rehab, section 8 housing.Junkies get moved ahead of disabled veterans and disabled people who worked hard often at jobs such as logging, farming , commercial fishing , construction, trash collecting and other dangerous jobs which keep the country running and you comfortable. Why are pharmaceutical companies which make medications which save lives and make your life beyyer. We love about 30 years longer-term just 100 years ago thanks to modern medicine and the medications made by pharmaceutical companies .Sure They make a profit That's capitalism and competition at work. It's not perfect but it sure is better than what China or the Former USSR call or called health care. Want to see your medications price skyrocket , ask your Attorney General to file more frivolous lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies.Which make far more drugs then opioid Which with a few exceptions are inexpensive genetics (we pay for the cost controls in Europe and a number of other nations which is I e reason a generic li!e Morphine which is,I've 200 years old ccodt about $ 60 USD for a 60 count 15 or 30 mg I R tab!yes . Hydromorphone a 80 year old medication is about the same for a 90 count 4mg tablet s . A who!e Newcastle . A!do a way to get pain relive should insurance deny extended release opioid medication as it can cost more even as a generic .. There is little profit in genetics compared to a new in patent drug Which is why Indivor Monosol product hopped Buprenophine with Naloxone. Alleged product-hopping, sham petition to delay generic suffice This article goes into more detail why these lawsuits are not sure byes and might even cost states billions . Which is possible if they are four d to be frivouous, perpetrating a fraud on the four for pecuniary gain and or a malicious prosecution .The planting is prosecuting the suit . Doing some research into law and how courts work . Hint they are nothing like the notoriously inaccurate and propaganda pieces Law and Order shows or any court drama on television. The opioid suits are also based on the premise every company did what Perdue did in its marketing scheme which was improper.I don't know any doctors who changed and wrote lots of RXs for Oct Contin based on a sales reps say so .A!so it is a felony in every state as well as federally prescribe medication in exchange for any fungible or tangible good funding or service The idea doctors are paid to prescribe us based on PROP ,PROPaganda Most likely as The spurs continue and more more information is available to the courts and the pharmaceutical industry Which i will find all it needs to defend themselves from the fabricated data and belifes they do show held addicts down and injected them with heroin adulterated with a fentanyl analogue which might be unknown to chemists .It's very easy if you have the right precursor to alter any drug and create a similar product which might or might not work . We have no idea what is in the heroin addicts choose to abuse themselves with. The cheap tests a coroner uses will not even detect fentanyl .It requires a sophisticated GC ME panel ! Only 7,000 o overdoses are due to a opioid /opiate alone . That's less thsn. 000001% of the 330million in the US . Only 15,000 or so due from using opioid s opiates/opioids combined with another drug . It is when they use a number of drugs that they fatally overdose . The Opioid Epidemic in 6 Charts Designed To Deceive You A Overdose does not equal death . Often the addiction be discharged within 12- 24 hours u Dr their own power . Those that do not have taken a numbering drugs often with cocaine , alcohol, and a combination medication such as Hydrocodone with acetaminophen. Which can cause serious liver damage .As Acetaminophen is the number one drug seen in overdoses intentional and unintentional. Often by taking multiple OCT medication with acetaminophen fto. Cold and flu relief ,( a waste of money )then just acetaminophen and cat night acetaminophen and diphenhydramine (Benadryl)to sleep. Benadryl is used asanesthetic .This abuse can lead to many complications when used as a anxiolytic .A psychiatrist who had become caught up in a PROP members anti Benzodiazepine fanatisim is facing life in prison for using diphenhydramine in the place of a new such as Seroquel .This person also used Seroquel , Thorazine and typical and atypical antipsychotic medication for anxiety and depression. This can n deadly . Addiction is a behavior that is learnt . Sit is not a disease .It is not being weak Will d . It is a human response to inesvsb!e stress and other very difficult life situations. The best predictors for addiction are ; poverty,unemployment ,underemployment, single mothers raising a child , lack of opportunity which goes hand in hand with the latter . A pill is not going to create addicts . Social media economic factors are what primed a area and it's population for addiction .Not a pill patch or lozenges which twice pain and make a pain patient able to function with out debilitating push pain Addicts behavior which is chosen causes overdoses and addiction .The dismissed by addicts and addiction treatment industry ,Rat Park experiments which have been reported only to be buried by the addiction treatment industry .Which claimed incorrectly that it would stigmatized addicts and if course cut off profits . The opioid hysteria and now litigation is history r repeating itself . We tried to prohibit alcohol in 1918 with h the repealed 18,amendment .We got organized crime and a more powerful and intrusive gobetm my and it's ever growing my list of an boxes using administrative law to restrict your freedoms that are inherent to all humans in theIr citizen ,resident even undocumented immigrants have rights I his litigation is a blatant disregard for our rights by opportunistic politicians and zealots who have a financial stake in forcing rehab and Buprenophine in the form of Suboxone on more peop or .It is exempt from the cruel inhumane and Kolodny /PROP, anti opioid fanatics CDCguidlines which are causing a humanitarian crisis . Lawsuits will fail as the hey lack merit and hopefully Kolodn y ,Val maybe and the rest of PROP ,Spend the rest of the heir apparent existence in a hard core federal prison. You can read more here The breaking down of the misleading and outright fabricated anti opioid data is very interesting and tellingly the anti opioid zealots might end up in a giveN Up 12x7 cell for the first to push Buprenophine incisions causing dividend incredible sufferCNN: Opioid Overdoses Kill More humans suffering painful conditions. Nice roundTRIP ,CD C and assorted fanatics Sen. Ron Wyden Smears Opioid Task Force. Why? Wyden gets donations from the law firms dying pharmaceutical companies. Along with the unregulated supplement industry . The people go push so called natural remedies . Though in both Viagra and Cislis were found in their “all natural Erectile dysfunction treatments “ along with Amphetamines in weight loss supplements . Something to think abput A Little State Debunks A Big Lie: The DEA's Opioid Scam. A Little State Debunks A Big Lie: The DEA's Opioid Scam.

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