แบงค์บอกต่อ นำเสนอโปรโมชั่นดี ๆ สำหรับซิตี้คาร์ Nissan Almera (นิสสัน อัลเมร่า) MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส)
MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) ถือเป็นรถอเนกประสงค์อีกรุ่นที่ได้รับความนิยมไม่แพ้ MG ZS ของค่ายเอ็มจีเลย ด้วยความโดดเด่นในด้านเทคโนโลยี
Compact SUV ที่สร้างยอดขายได้อย่างสวยหรูหลังจากที่ MG HS ได้ถูกพูดถึงมากมาย แล้วก็มียอดขายแรง AutoFun
เมื่อไม่นานมานี้ MG เปิดตัวรถ Compact SUV ทางเลือกใหม่ Plug-in Hybrid ในชื่อ 2020-2021 NEW MG HS PHEV
MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) รถยนต์เอนกประสงค์ที่มาพร้อมระบบไฮบริดแบบเสียบปลั๊กคันแรกที่ไม่ได้มาจากค่ายรถยุโรปในประเทศไทย
MG HS 2019 มี 3 รุ่นให้เลือก ได้แก่ รุ่น C อยู่ที่ 919,000 บาท รุ่น D อยู่ที่ 1,019,000 บาท และรุ่นตัวท็อปอย่างรุ่น
MG HS (เอ็มจี เฮชเอส) เอสยูวีที่เปิดตัวตั้งแต่ปี 2018 และยังไม่มีการไมเนอร์เชนจ์ใดๆ ล่าสุดนี้มีการปล่อยภาพจากทาง
2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) รุ่นปลั๊กอินไฮบริดเตรียมเปิดตัวในวันที่ 27 ตุลาคมนี้ ตัดหน้า
HS ตารางราคา 2020 MG HS รุ่นรถ ราคา (บาท) MG HS รุ่น C 919,000 MG HS รุ่น
เอ็มจี บริษัทรถยนต์ลูกครึ่งอังกฤษ-จีน นำเสนอ 2019 เอ็มจี เอชเอส (2019 MG HS) รถอเนกประสงค์เอสยูวีออกทำตลาดประเทศไทยทั้งหมด
2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) รุ่นปลั๊กอินไฮบริดเตรียมเปิดตัวในวันที่ 27 ตุลาคมนี้ มาแบบนำเข้าชิ้นส่วนจากจีน
MG HS PHEV เป็นรถพลังไฮบริดพื้นฐานจากรุ่น HS ที่ยังคงใช้สเปคเครื่องเดิม มาพ่วงมอเตอร์ไฟฟ้าเข้าไปเพิ่ม
2021 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) ปลั้กอินไฮบริดจากเอ็มจี พึ่งเปิดตัวในบ้านเราไปเมื่อเดือนตุลาคม
และใช้งานได้จริง เพื่อมาเคียงข้างกับ MG ZS EV ให้กับประเทศอังกฤษ คือรถ MG5 EV และ MG HS Plug-in ซึ่งทางเอ็มจีหวังว่าจะช่วยเพิ่มยอดขายให้ได้มากกว่าเดิม
HS PHEV MG HS 1.5 X ระยะห่างล้อคู่หลัง 1,593 มม. 1,584 มม.
Wall ในไทย (ขยายเพิ่มต่อจากโรงงานเชพโรเล็ต) และรุ่นนี้ก็มีรูปทรงกับออพชั่นพอฟัดเหวี่ยงกับคู่แข่งอย่าง MG
ในงาน BIG Motor Sale 2020 ค่ายรถยนต์ MG ได้จัดโปรโมชั่นน่าสนใจให้กับรถ SUV ZS และ HS มาแล้ว ล่าสุด MG
2021 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวกันไปแล้วในวันที่ 26 ตุลาคม พ.ศ.2563 ปลั้กอินไฮบริดตัวแรกของเอ็มจีที่จะนำเข้ามาขายในไทย
2021 Haval H6 และ 2020 MG HS2021 Haval H6 (2021 ฮาวาล เอช6) จะเผยโฉมอย่างเป็นทางการในประเทศไทยในช่วงปลายเดือนมีนาคมนี้
แบงค์บอกต่อสัปดาห์นี้ นำโปรโมชั่นดี ๆ สำหรับรถเปิดตัวใหม่ 2 คัน คือ รถปลั๊กอินไฮบริดสุดประหยัด สมรรถนะดี MG
HS 1.5XMG HS ถูกกว่าMG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) แม้จะเป็นรุ่นท็อปสุด 1.5X แล้วก็ตาม ยังตั้งราคาเพียง 1,119,000
หลังจาก MG HS รถสไตล์รถครอบครัวจากแบรนด์จีนเปิดตัวก็ได้รับความสนใจล้นหลาม และก็กลายเป็น Compact SUV ที่มียอดขายดีในกลุ่มได้อย่างรวดเร็วด้วยชื่อ
MG HS เอสยูวีที่สร้างกระแสขายดีชนะแบรนด์ญี่ปุ่นที่ทำตลาดมานาน ทำให้หลายสงสัยว่าทำไมมันขายดี บทความนี้จะจับรถที่ผ่านมือคนขับมาแล้ว
**บทความนี้เป็นประสบการณ์ส่วนตัวของเจ้าของ MG HS X 2020 และไม่จำเป็นต้องสะท้อนถึงมุมมองของ AutoFun เจ้าของรถ
2021 Haval H6 Hybrid และ MG HS PHEV2021 Haval H6 (2021 ฮาวาล เอช6) คือหนึ่งในรถเอสยูวีที่หลายคนรอคอยมากที่สุดในช่วงครึ่งแรกของปีนี้
2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว เคาะราคาที่ 1,359,000 บาท โดยจะเป็นรถปลั้กอินไฮบริดรุ่นแรกของ
ครั้งที่ 42 เมื่อเดือนมีนาคมที่ผ่านมา ส่วนราคาและการเริ่มวางจำหน่ายจะประกาศในช่วงครึ่งหลังของปีนี้ All
2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการด้วยราคาที่เรียกเสียงฮือในงานแถลงข่าวที่
.MG HS ในไทยมีให้เลือก 3 รุ่นMG HS 2019 แต่ละประเทศนั้นแตกต่างกัน ในเวอร์ชั่นไทยมีให้เลือก 3 รุ่นได้แก่
MG HSเจ้าของ MG HS อาจจะไม่พอใจย่อหน้านี้ เพราะคุณกัสจะบอกเหตุผลว่าทำไมถึงเอา Haval H6 มาเทียบกับ MG
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The IK-3 is a rather interesting machine, and one that is often neglected and forgotten. I have a lot of interest and affection to it, as towards all design coming from nation the world has forgotten when it comes to aviation. That being said, if you are looking for a short and laconic answer to the question, I will deliver it: By the time it enterred mass-production and service, the IK-3 was outclassed by its German and British equivalents. This, of, course, does not mean it does not have an interesting story, which I will try to tell, as well as potential for future improvements. The Yugoslav aircraft industry was created in 1923, producing at first just training planes and seaplanes. Two factory existed, one called “Ikarus” in Novi Sad (the capital of the Serbian region of Vojvodina and second largest Serbian city), and another “Rorozarski in Yugoslavia’s largest city & capital, Belgrade. Those factories’s focus on training planes started to change after aspiring aircraft engineers of the Balkanic kingdom had been sent to its most important ally at the time, France, to study aircraft design there in the late 20s. In the early 30s, Yugoslav engineers would designed the Ikarus IK-1 and IK-2, two high-wing monoplanes inspired by French design and using mostly French equipment: an Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs 860hp in-line engine combined with a 20mm HS-9 20mm autocannon, and two Darne 7.5mm machine-guns (which were eventually replaced by two 7.92mm FN Browning). Twelve IK-2 ended up being produced and put in service in the Yugoslav air force, though they were only operationnal by 1939: by that time, high-wing monoplanes had become obsolete, and with a maximum speed of just 435 km/h, the plane was outclassed by designs such as the German BF 109, British Hurricane & Spitfire and French MB.151/152 & D.520. A Royal Yugoslav air force IK-2; just twelve were built, with eight being serviceable by 1941. The IK-3’s design process had started much earlier though. The two lead engineers of the IK-2, Ljubomir Ilić and Kosta Sivčev, before submitting the concept of the IK-2, had already studied the possibility of designing a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a retractable landing gear. They eventually ended up with a gull, high-wing design that was more in line with the concepts of the era, but with the success of the Soviet I-16 in the months that followed, it suddenly appeared that cantilever-wing monoplanes may just be the design of the near future: work on the basic concept Ilić and Sivčev had considered resumed. By 1936, they were testing the basic airframe in the wind tunnel illustrious French engineer Gustave Eiffel had constructed in Paris back in 1912, and had recruited a third lead engineer, Slobodan Zrnić. The airframe they had come up with was short, with just 8 meters (The BF-109E was 8.76 meters long, the Hurricane about 9.80, the MB.152 9.10), and had smaller wings than the Hurricane; its wingspan was of 10.3m, with a wingload higher than the British design’s 145kg/cm2 and comparable to the MB.152’s 155kg/cm2, with 159kg/cm2., though it remained a lot lower than on the BF-109. The purpose of this short lenght and small wings was to produce a design that would preferably be faster than Hawker’s Hurricane or the French Morane-Saulnier 405/106 And Bloch MB.150/151/152, while remaining more manoeuvrable than the German BF-109. The design kept much of the IK-2’s mostly French equipment, with a largely upgraded model of the Hispano-Suiza 12Y powering the plane, A V12 12Y-29 producing 980hp. All of the armament was mounted in the fuselage, which was rather innovative at the time: it consisted in a 20mm HS-9 autocannon firing through the propeller hub, and two 7.7mm Darna machine-gun firing from the cowling. The IK-3 prototype. The design was first approved by the Yugoslav air force in mid-1936, but the order for a prototype would have to wait until March of 1937; ordered from Rogožarski in Belgrade, the first prototype was flown for the first time in May of 1938, and, in the following months, was regularly flown by test pilots and military officers. The aircraft was mostly appreciated, and was noted to have very sensitive controls. The prototype crashed on the 19th of January 1939, in what was eventually concluced to have been an human error. Twelve IK-3 had already been ordered in November of 1938, though the serial-produced model was to include a number of modifications. First, the French armament of the IK-3 was to be replaced: The HS-9 would be replaced by a Swiss Oerlikon 20mm FF autocannon, and, as it had been done on the IK-2, the Darne machine-guns gave way to Belgian 7.92mm FN Browning. The 12Y-29 was also replaced by a somewhat older 12Ycrs, producing just 860hp, and manufacted by Avia in Czechoslovakia. The fuselage was partially re-shaped behind the pilot’s canopy, which used straight plexiglas panels instead of curved one - the curved panels of the prototype having been the caused of visual distorsion. With those extensive modifications, the first IK-3 only started rolling out of the Rogožarski factory in the spring of 1940. Out of the twelve IK-3, one, n°6, was lost in September of 1940, and another, n°7, was used to study the second series of IK-3 that was to be significantly improved, leaving the air force with just ten aircraft - four of which would be in maintenance by the German invasion of April 1941. The serial-produced IK-3 in the 51st squadron’s colors, summer of 1940 The IK-3 was reported to have a maximum speed a little shy of 530km/h, a range of 785km, a ceilling of 9,400m, and to be able to reach 5,000 meters in 7 minutes. Those were not necessarly bad statistics for a fighter of the 1939–1940 era, but the German BF-109E was about 40km/h faster and outclimbed the Yugoslav IK-3; while the Balkanic design was better at turning, the German fighter, with an higher maximum speed and altitude most of the time, would be able to dictate the terms of the engagement. Not only that, but by the time the IK-3 started to be truly in operational conditions, in early 1941, German squadrons started to receive the BF 109F-1, which neared 630km/h at its maximum speed - about 100km/h faster than the IK-3. While an upgraded model of the IK-3 was intended to be delivered in 1941–1942, tests on the IK-3 n°7 had concluded that this second series would only be 15 to 20 km/h faster than the first; not only that, but just 48 were to be delivered in total over 1941 and 1942. While evolutions of the IK-3 using other engines had been considered - eitheir a more powerful Hispano-Suiza 12Y, is possible the 12Y-51 which just started production by the fall of France, a German DB601 or a British Roll-Royces Merlin - work on such an aircraft was just beginning by the spring of 1941. Pilots of the 51st Squadron in front of one of their IK-3, Belgrade, April of 1941 While the six operational IK-3 of the 51st operational fighter group were able to score several victories, the Yugoslav aviation was vastly unable to stop the much larger Luftwaffe; the three operational aircrafts which were not shot down were destroyed by their crews to avoid capture. Two serviceable IK-3 were seemingly captured, and were to be put into service of Germany’s Croatian puppet state, but apparently, the Yugoslav resistance was able to use the general disorder following the invasion of the Soviet Union to move the fence that separated aircrafts that were to be kept and those to be scrapped, resulting in the scrapping of the two remaining IK-3s. I personnally find this story rather unrealistic though, as we do have photos of an IK-3 in Luftwaffe colors, most likely used to test its performances. However, while I may have been a bit harsh towards the IK-3’s comparison with German designs in this answer, I do not particularly think it was a bad design - if anything, it was a very decent one when first planned, but considering Yugoslavia’s small and fairly unexperienced military industry, it just couldn’t be produced in time to be truly competitive. That being said, it did certainly not lack evolutionary potential, as the Yugoslavs were already considering fitting a better engine on the plane - which often is the best thing to do if you have an underwhelming fighter (After all, Italian designerds of Fiat and Macchi were able to produce fighters that were formidable by 1943 standars, the Fiat G.55 and Macchi C.205, based on the aiframes of the G.50 and C.200 which were average to very mediocre aircraft in 1940 - i’d pick the IK-3 over any of those two anyday). While German invasion cut those plans short, the IK-3 did end up being upgraded after the war, in the form of the Ikarus S-49. Ikarus S-49A in the early 50s: the influence of Yakovlev fighter designs is rather obvious, though the S-49A incorporated many elements from other nations as well. The S-49 was the first combat aircraft produced in post-WW2 Yugoslavia. Designed by a team that included two of the three lead engineers of the IK-3, Kosta Sivčev and Slobodan Zrnić, as well as a new face, Svetozar K. Popovic, the Ikarus S-49 was directly based on the airframe of the IK-3 - while none of the first modern Yugoslav fighter survived the war, technical documents remained. The original Hispano-Suiza was replaced by a Soviet VK-105 1,260hp engine, which, funnily enough, was a derivate of the long-lived Hispano-Suiza 12Y, notably used in Yakovlev fighters. The fighter’s armament consisted in a German MG 151 20mm autocannon firing through the propeller hub and two 12.7mm Browning machine-guns in the upper cowling, with racks for eitheir two 50kg bombs or four HVAR rockets: the new Yugoslav aircraft ended up being a mixture of old, pre-invasion Yugoslav engineering, French-based Soviet powerplant, German autocannons and American machine-guns and rockets - a truly international fighter if there ever was one. The first S-49 had its flight in June of 1949, with the first of the first model, the S-49A, enterring service in 1950. Supplies of Soviet engines had been cut since 1948 though, as Tito choosed to pursue a policy independent from Stalin, and in the end, Yugoslavia would once again turn to France to acquire Hispano-Suiza 12Z-17 engines for the latter series of S-49, designated S-49C: 45 S-49A and 119 S-49C ended up being built, those fighters being retired in the early 60s. While already far outdated by new jets when they enterred service in the early 50s, the S-49s pioneered the return of a Yugoslav aircraft industry, and demonstrated the evolution potential of the old but reliable IK-3. The Ikarus S-49C’s Hispano-Suiza engine was not only easier to acquire, but also more powerful than the Soviet one, with 1,500hp against 1,260 for the Soviet Klimov: as a result, the S-49C would reach almost 630km/h, whereas the S-49A was limited to mere 555. The Soviet-powered aircraft was apparently better at climbing though, with about 1025 meters by minute against 880 for the French-powered one. Another gorgeous photo of S-49Cs on a runway. While vastly outclassed by the 1950s, had it been there in WW2, the S-49, or a comparable IK-3 aircraft, would have been a potent low-altitude dogfighter the likes of the Yakovlev series. At least the rather late retirement of the S-49 for a prop using WW2 technologies mean we have some very pretty color photos of it !
Starting at age five I was separated from both parents for a prolonged period. I was also separated from my 3 siblings. I can sill remember it like it was today. I developed trust and abandonment issues at a young age. That event would shape the rest of my life. That inner child suffered for 54 years. Writing a book about my life I realized just how complex and unstable my life had been. I did not do well in school but I passed. I was a good athlete and cheerleader, gymnast and it was the only reason I went to school. When I was returned to my parents a year later my mother was abusive. I never felt loved or nurtured. I was a problem child and the black sheep. My dad was an alcoholic and my uncle that lived with us was too. I started drinking at age 15. I was addicted with my first drink and drinking to black out. In high school I dated a guy that was very wealthy. I grew up poor and all the shame and embarrassment you deal with in poverty. My family was financially secure by the time I was in high school. That did not change how I felt about myself. Always thought I was ugly. I was shy and insecure. The guy I dated was involved in organized crime. (mafia) I did not know at the time they made a lot of money during the coal boom in the 70’s. His father was the sheriff and also involved in the mafia. My aunt was in organized crime also. I was not allowed to associate with her growing up. I heard them talking about all the crimes she was involved in but that seemed normal to me. A life of total chaos and dysfunction. Drunk men trying to kiss me and locking myself in the bedroom to protect myself. Be up all night and try to go to school the next day. My sister and I both have ESP. I was tested in counseling and they said we developed it as a protective mechanism. I was tested at Duke University. I do have insight to a lot of events to come. I don’t like to talk about it. I thought this was how life was suppose to be. I had planned to marry my boyfriend after high school graduation. He got caught for buying stolen equipment. He had an airplane and I had made many trips with him from age 15–18 when he was purchasing the stolen equipment. I was so naïve and had no idea. He airplane was also stolen. The charges against him and his dad all went away. He enabled me to continue and drink. He was of age and could buy the alcohol. I had also bought over the counter alcohol at age 16. It was not difficult to do. His dad and my aunt were involved in a murder together. They never got caught. She printed counterfeit money on government paper. They could not prove it was counterfeit. She eventually took a rap for the sheriff. A lawyer who was also a partner flew into the federal penitentiary in his private jet and posed as a federal agent. They released her to him and she was flown to freedom. These stories go on and on. I trained to be a practical nurse my senior year of HS. I did well in nursing. I had an instructor who was the first person to ever believe in me. We became best friends and I would drink with her too. Lived on my own at age 18 and worked in an outpatient clinic. My house was the party house. We smoked weed and would drink every night. Other drugs were around too. The doctors at the clinic wrote Rx. for amphetamines as often as you ask. I would do amphetamines to work and to drink more. Kept my friends high also. Stay up and party. I married a functional alcoholic. I had a drug free baby 2 years later. Went back to college and got my nursing degree. Graduated with honors. Stayed clean and sober for about 2 years. Delivered my son the day after I graduated. I had serious complications and died twice. I was in a coma for a week. Another long story. Divorced and started binge drinking. I was able to be a functional alcoholic and exceled at my job being a director at age 23. That was stressful as hell. I was a good mother. Very involved in my sons life. Sent him to private school. I loved him more than anything in the world. My life revolved around him. Being a mother was the greatest thing that ever happened to me. I took it seriously. I did not want to be the kind of mother my mother had been. I was nothing like her. When my son was 12 my father died. My son and my dad were the 2 most important people in the world to me. I had taken care of him most of my life. We were very close and he spent a lot of time with my son. They were very close to. I was devastated and suffered from PTSD. My friend found me at his grave I had been there in the rain all night. I had to get help. The doctors put me on Xanax and antidepressants with a lot of counseling. My life continued to spiral out of control. I lost custody of my son. I had become disabled with arthritis after the death of my dad also. I lost my career. I had liberal visitation with my son but he was very angry with me. He did not understand and did not want to leave me. I was sleeping all the time. He was alone a lot. His dad knew I was not doing well. He had every right to be mad at me. My heart was crushed and I was just a dead woman walking. I detoxed the Xanax but was also on opiates for pain. During detox they put me on methadone. I detoxed to try and get my son back. I missed him so bad I could not stand the pain. Missing my dad too. My world as I knew it was over. Needless to say I did not get him back. He was angry with me for a long time. I still went to his school activites all drugged out. Just to get to look at him helped. He would watch to see if I was there and speak to me briefly. I would cry all the way home. I am crying now just trying to tell my story. I was in denial that I had a drug problem. The doctors ordered the drugs and I just crawled into a pill bottle and stayed there. I overdosed twice trying to commit suicide. The last attempt I almost did not make it. That did not change me one bit. I went home and used more. I paid my child support since I had disability the money went to him. My son and I reconciled when he was in college to be a pharmacist. He did not know how severe my addiction to drugs became. He still did not know much. I hide it well. He said he knew I was struggling and taking a lot of pills. That was all he knew. My best friend and I were high at his doctoral graduation. My mother had died a week before. He came home for the funeral. I was so glad when she died. I was relieved that she could not hurt me anymore. I was good to her but I hated her. I had cared for her at home. My sister helped me. She died of cancer. I have now wasted about 22 years of my life. I was had been on methadone (synthetic heroin) for 13. 5 years. I lived the typical lifestyle of a drug addict. The difference was I always had money. It was easy to stay in my addiction. My nephew and I were drug buddies and my best friend. I had a very big drug business going. I would do fake MRI’s and change the dates. I got massive amounts of opiates from doctors who did mail order in different names. I set up a fake trailer court and had the names of each fake person living in the fake trailers or mobile homes. My nephew and his wife helped me. He was good at making deals and sales. I paid the UPS delivery man off with cash to let me meet him and pick them all up at one time. Also could manipulate the doctors to writing Rx. for me. I got clean needles by getting a Rx. for B12. This story goes on and on. My nephew is in prison for making meth. I oversold my drugs and could got to sick to get any. I was also the main drug dealer in a small town. There were not many drugs unless I had them. I had to go cold turkey and almost died. I decided I was not living in that methadone clinic any longer. My counselor was fired and she would do very dishonest things to help me pass drug screens. She would let me decide when to do a bottle count. It was supposed to be unannounced. I knew with my nephew in jail and my counselor and partner in crime fired. I was going to have a hard time. My nephew could have snitched on me and walked. He would not do it. I knew the cops were watching me and I had no fear. I thought I was invisible. I would have gotten caught soon. It took 7 months to detox. I had to go back on methadone. I was so delusional I didn’t know the year. I could not drive. I went out of state to detox. My family had to leave me in another state and alone. My son stayed the first week. After he left I took a cab to the clinic each morning. I would have hung myself if I could find a rope. I tried but was to sick and weak. Did not have enough drugs to do it. I suffered in withdrawal everyday. I lost 60lbs. I could not remember to eat. My sister would call and ask me if I had eaten. I could not remember. She would have me look and see if there were dirty dishes. That is how she tried to keep up with me eating. She was good to me and was my support and my strength. I was living in her second home during my detox. My progression was slow and pure hell. I had a man form the clinic follow me home and try to rape me. There were carpenters working on her house. They heard me screaming and rescued me. I still don’t like to talk about it. I totaled my car going home after 7 months of detox. I had gone cold turkey on 120mg. I started back at 30 and would not go back up. The doctor at the clinic tried to get me to go up. It was so traumatic for my brain. I should have gone back up but I was to stubborn. I had gotten down to 24 mgs. and so sick I was willing to go back up 3 mg. after Christmas. It should have taken years if I had listened to doctors. People rarely detox a 13.5 year methadone addiction. They die in their addiction. In the loneliness and darkness of that 7 months I learned a lot. I taped the curtains together and put towels over them not to see the light. I had an iPad that I could barley use and a phone. My best friend died of brain cancer. She was a wealthy cocaine addict. The cocaine had eaten the myelin sheath in her brain causing the cancer. We had been inseparable for 43 years. I was inpatient when she died. I was inpatient for misdiagnosis of bipolar. I had not felt emotion in over 13 years and I was low low or high high. I liked the high mania. I hit a nurse and security guard that day. The cops took me from the hospital to a behavioral health facility and committed me by court order. They had me on Alzheimer and bipolar meds. and I was not bipolar. They made me crazy. Long story short 5 admissions for misdiagnosis of bipolar. Because I was labeled violent. The last one when I was committed by court order. They wanted to send me to a state mental institution for life. My sister refused to agree. She told them she would put me in a private institution if she needed too. They released me to her care. This occurred after completion of my detox. My sister and son never gave up on me. They called and visited and loved me through my darkest days. I thought those days would never end. I never though life would be any better. I would just isolate in darkness and suffer. My sister was a strong Christian woman. She prayed and prayed for me. I was so desperate to feel better I would get on my knees and beg to God to get me off those drugs. I detoxed 2 of the hardest drugs at one time. The benzos I did the detox myself the doctors would not agree to detox 2 drugs at one time. Benzodiazepine detox is life threatening and dangerous. I was in and out of critical care for high blood pressure and complications. I eventually got my car. It was a new Honda CVR I had bought. My sister wanted me to come home for Christmas 2016 and I was so sick. I had been up all night. Insomnia was my worst detox symptom. I did not sleep. Maybe 1–2 hours a day. I told her I was really sleepy and did not feel like coming home. She said she would come 200 miles to get me. I told her I would just drive. I was driving home she called and said to pull over she was on her way to get me. I was so sleepy. I said I was ok. I had about 70 miles and I would be there. 15 minutes later I fell asleep and totaled my car. All air bags deployed and I hit a metal post fence. I was transported by ambulance to the hospital. I had multiple injuries. I refused to stay and went home. The state trooper knew I was on methadone. I was screaming at the scene “get my methadone.” Typical addict more concerned about my drugs than my life. I consented to drug analysis and told him I was getting clean. He waited for the results to decide if he would charge me. The levels were low and I was not charged. I went inpatient the day after Christmas and finished the detox. The only reason I stayed was because they held me on restraining orders. I was out of control. Strapped down every night and was combative, restless leg driving me crazy. Fast forward. I got clean and sober it has been over 2 years now. I got great relationships with my son and family. I am healthy and I feel great. I earned my license back and trained as a drug counselor. I work recovery everyday. I am in love for the first time in my life. I spend a lot of time traveling on a Harley trike with my boyfriend 28 years in recovery. I love life and I feel great. I feel emotions so much stronger and deeper. I laugh a lot and make others laugh also. I am a public speaker and work as a recovery coach in my recovery program. I have written a book about my life from a child to recovery. It will soon be published. On the back of the Harley it has written “Enjoyin’ the journey,” I am enjoying the journey. I am definitely full of life, love and compassion. I am working on my bucket list and my legacy. I want my legacy to be that I cared. That will be enough. There was a multitude of events that have shaped my deep inner self. I have a unique portrayal of life itself. I believe God uses the broken to help the broken. Broken crayons still color. I am a much better person now. I do not take anything for granted. I am not a materialist person anymore. I have found peace and serenity at its best. I refuse to let fear hold me back. I feed off of fear and it makes me more determined. I tell my mountains about my God. I give God all the glory. I do not have one regret. I would have committed suicide if I had not been on drugs. They served a purpose in my life. I have forgiven my mother in her grave. She did the best she knew how. I would not change one thing about my life. I do not feel sorry for myself. I had choice and I made bad choices. I did not chose to become a drug addict, it is a disease. I did make the choice to get clean. I retrained my brain and my perception of how I looked at life. I had the best of rehab. I listen now and I learn a lot. I get to see miracles like mine everyday. I help people to get better and watch them soar. I don’t care if people like me or not. I learned to love myself and all my imperfections. This is my story that God gave only to me to share. Everything in life happens for a reason. I think about what I learned from each event and how it made me stronger. My story is the most powerful tool I have to help others. This was the way my life was meant to unfold. Nothing happens by chance. I think I was predestined and had a family curse. I have been broken. I am restored and unbroken. I am so grateful for the air that I breathe, sunshine on my face, to feel the wind blowing. Watching the sun rise and set. Keeping my life simple and balanced. The name of my book Un-Broken. If you read this to the end. Thank you I am deeply touched and you are part of my continued recovery. I love you and you are not alone. God Bless You. Daniel Dudgeon, I debated taking on your question. I could not resist the challenge. Thank you.
A2A 3 The most wanted car in my HS ERA was one of three. 1— was a 1957 Chevy. It it still highly sought after. 2— 1965 Ford Mustang for obvious reasons. Still highly sought after and very pricey. 3— 1953 Dodge Coronet with the high chrome grill. Prefer6in the Dove Grey color. I happened to have been the owner of all three. We found the 57 in a field that had been used for target practice. My dad paid the guy $75 to move it to our house. We overhauled the engine. I got the rings too tight. We were able to get it started with the help of two batteries. I had to redo it. I was the only girl in auto shop. I was also the only one to pass with an A++. The Mustang we bought outright for $1,500. It ran like what we use to vulgarly say"It runs like a striped arsed ape through the jungle with a pride of cats on it's arse". I won so many pink slips that my dad banned me from racing the guys who thought they could bet her cause she's a girl". The Dodge Coronet we found at a salvage yard. It had been hit on the back driver's side quarter panel and the paint went down to the metal and was rusting under the paint. We were able to grind it off to the metal and using a jerk tool and a wooden block and hammer beat the dent out. We reset the fender, matched the paint, filled the jerked holes, painted it to match then buffed the whole thing out. It was dubbed “The Beast". Dad bought champagne, the whole nine yards. I gifted it to my dad on graduating and my dad had it until he died in 2016. My son got my Mustang when he turned 16. My 57 Chevy was auctioned in 2012 for $32,000. Right after my husband died. My “baby" now is a 1971 and a half MG Midget Ragtop in nearly mint condition. It is used mostly during summer months. It is also trailered when my now significant other and I go to Harley Davidson rallies and cross country events like Sturgis. In 2020 we are planning to ride the Great Divide from Mexico to Canada on our Harley’s using the MG at night after we make our miles. I am looking forward for the adventure in the next 8 months. We plan to hit several great rallies including Sturgis again next year.
It depends on you, as individual. We all learn different things, in different ways, and how fast is largely variable. I digress however. I learned the periodic table fairly fast, and this is the way, I, as individual, learned it. Note About Other Answers at the Bottom. There are four main ways I found for remembering the chemical symbols. And the one very obvious step: Knowing the Element Exists: This one is straight forward; If you don’t know that Hydrogen is an element, how can you possibly know that H represents Hydrogen? This is true of all symbol/ element pairs. So, familiarize yourself with chemical elements, and don’t worry about memorizing their symbols just yet. Learn the Obvious Ones First: If you’ve done the above, certain symbol and element combinations will start to become obvious. C for Carbon, H for Hydrogen, and Ne for Neon, to list a few examples. Symbols where the first letter or two correspond to the first letter or two of the chemical element, are, the most common type of symbol. These you can pretty much learn by learning the element names. I give a more detailed explanation (as well as least these) these below. Less Obvious but not too Obfuscated: These are harder to remember than the first group, because the 2nd letter of the symbol does not coincide with the 2nd letter of the element. I’ve explained these patterns in excessive-excruciatingly-unnecessary detail below. When things aren’t Obvious, Learn the Root Words: There are 11 elements where the symbol is based off of an archaic, or non-English word for the element. One that you will come across often is Na, for Natrium, aka, Sodium, for example. These are the most useful to go out of your way to learn/ memorize, because they are the least intuitive to recognize when you see them, and recall when you need to. When things Aren’t Obvious, but where Etymology is Useful: Like the above, these are based on archaic or non-English names, with a slight twist. In these cases, it’s not like Aurum the latin word for gold, meaning only gold; It’s where the root word refers to the element, and has another meaning. For example, the symbol for lead is Pb, derived from the Greek word Plumbum. Notice how close Plumbum sounds to and is spelled to Plumbing? It’s no coincidence: The primary use of lead in the ancient world was Plumbing, so lead became known as Plumbum. The only other example of this kind of symbol is Hg, Hydrargyrum for Mercury, which I explain below. The Case of Similar Symbols: These are situations where the elements are easily confused, so they need extra care to remember. Many of these can be more easily remembered in the context of chemistry (ie, a reaction), and or a 1,3 rule I discovered. They are chemicals, like Radon and Radium, elements number 86 and 88, with the similar chemical symbols Rn and Ra. I’m sure you can see why these are easily confused. I learned these two by breaking them down is a sort of truth-table-esque way. The letters R and a, for the symbol Ra, for Radium are also found in the chemical name Radon. However, R and n together, are only found in Radon, not Radium. Essentially, I had to logically deduce this each time I wrote the symbols, and eventually, I remembered them outright. I’ve explained my reasoning for how I learned and categorized the symbols above. Below, I’m actually categorizing the entire periodic table according to these rules, listing them by ascending atomic number (except for section 4). Here are the lists, with useful notes on memorization: Consecutive Letters: The symbols for all of these elements are the first letter or two of each element’s name. There is no fancy trick for learning these. If you know these elements, then you pretty much know their symbols. If you see one of these symbols, and you try to sound it out, you’ll probably recall the chemical. This grouping is the largest, and the easiest to memorize, because it’s the most intuitive. Hydrogen H; Helium He; Lithium Li; Beryllium Be; Boron B; Carbon C; Nitrogen N; Oxygen O; Fluorine F; Neon Ne; Aluminum Al; Silicon Si; Phosphorus P; Sulfur S; Argon Ar; Calcium Ca; Scandium Sc; Titanium Ti; Vanadium V; Cobalt Co; Nickel Ni; Copper(u) Cu*; Gallium Ga; Germanium Ge; Selenium Se; Bromine Br; Krypton Kr; Strontium Sr; Yttrium Y; Molybednum Mo; Ruthenium Ru; Rhodium Rh; Cadmium Cd; Indium In; Tellurium Te; Iodine I; Xenon Xe; Barium Ba; Lanthanum La; Cerium Ce; Praseodymium Pr; Promethium Pm; Europium Eu; Terbium Tb; Dysprosium Dy; Holmium Ho; Erbium Er; Ytterbium Yb; Lutetium Lu; Hafnium Hf; Tantalum Ta; Osmium Os; Iridium Ir; Platinum Pt; Bismuth Bi; Polonium Po; Astatine At; Francium Fr; Radium Ra; Actinium Ac; Thorium Th; Uranium U; Americium Am; Nobelium No; Rutherfordium Rf; Flerovium Fl; Oganesson Og *I included Copper (Cu) in this least, though it technically belongs in the Root Word Category. I thought it was sufficiently close enough to the English word, for Copper (Cu) that it made memorizing it within this list easier. Consonant Pairs General: With many of the symbols, the letters are chosen based on the first two consonant sounds, which often fall on the 3rd, or 4th letter. Another commonality, is that the 2nd letter of the symbol, is the start of the 2nd or 3rd syllable of the element. This means for most of them, by trying to “sound out” a symbol, you can take a good stab at the element (especially with context). Knowing what aren’t chemical symbols is essential here, as well as what chemical symbols are taken by the above elements, since the letters are not consecutive. Note: I’ve sorted the elements into sub-lists based on how intuitive or unintuitive their symbols are. This means, for most people, the symbols at the bottom will probably be the hardest to memorize. However, they are easier to memorize, if you already have memorized the ones at the top. 1,3 Consonant Pairs: These are a list of chemical symbols, where the 1st letter of the symbol corresponds to the 1st letter of the element, and 2nd letter in the symbol, corresponds to the 3rd letter in the chemical. It’s an oddly specific, yet common pattern. Like above, you need to know the chemical elements name’s, and generally what aren’t chemical symbols. If you know this, pairing a chemical with it’s symbol is as simple as trying to sound it out. Sidenote: Besides consective letter symbols, 1,3 consonant pairs are most common. So if you must guess, take the 1st and 3rd letter of the element, and see if looks right. happen to be the most common kind of non-consecutive symbol pair. Magnesium Mg; Chlorine Cl; Chromium Cr; Zinc Zn; Arsenic As; Rubidium Rb; Strontium Sr; Zirconium Zr; Technetium Tc; Cadmium Cd; Cesium Cs; Samarium Sm; Gadolinium Gd; Yb; Hafnium Hf; Rhenium; Re; Astatine At; Neptunium Np; Plutonium Pu; Dubnium Db; Bohrium Bh; Hassium Hs; Nihonium Nh; Livermorium Lv Other Consonant Pairs: These are more varied and harder to classify. The first letter of the symbol corresponds to the first letter of the element. In general, the 2nd letter corresponds 4th letter of element name, or the 1st letter of the 2nd or 3rd syllable of the element. Making note of patterns like this can be beneficial for recall. Niobium Nb; Palladium Pd; Neodymium Nd; Promethium Pm; Terbium Tb; Ytterbium Yb; Platinum Pt; Thallium Tl; Protactinium Pa; Berkelium Bk; Californium Cf; Einsteinium Es; Fermium Fm; Mendelevium Md; Lawrencium Lr; Rutherfordium Rf; Seaborgium Sg; Meitnerium Mt; Roentgenium Rg; Moscovium Mc Train/Caboose Pairs: The following are the only 3 elements, where the first and last letters, correspond to the 1st and 2nd letters of their symbols. These can be tricky to remember. For example, for Thulium, if you take its first two letters, you get the symbol for Thorium, Th. For Radon, if you take it’s first two letters, you get the symbol for Radium, Ra. Lastly, for Curium, if you take it’s first two letters, you Cu, the symbol for Copper, Cu. This is why I thought these three deserve their own special list. Thulium Tm; Radon Rn; Curium Cm; Etymology and Root Words: These elements symbol’s names are derived from non-English names for these elements (usually Latin or Greek). As such, they are worth memorizing separately. Root Words: Here, I’ve listed the English word, the root word, and the chemicals symbol. These chemicals follow the same symbol patterns as above. Sodium, Natrium Na; Potassium, Kalium K; Iron, Ferrum Fe; Copper, Cuprum Cu; Silver, Argentum Ag; Tin, Stannum Sn; Antimony, Stibium Sb; Tungsten, Wolfram W; Gold, Aurum Au; Mercury, Hydrargyrum Hg; Lead, Plumbum Pb. Two Etymological Cases: Like the above, these are based on archaic or non-English names, but with a slight twist. In these cases, it’s not like Aurum, the latin word for gold, meaning only gold; It’s where the root word, refers to the element, and something else. Lead, Plumbum, Pb: The symbol for lead, Pb, is derived from the Greek word for lead, Plumbum. Since lead was used almost exclusively used for Plumbing, the words for lead and Plumbing became synonymous. Mercury, Hydrargyrum Hg: The Latin for liquid was hydr(a), with the Latin word for silver being Argentum. Combining these words together according to Latin grammar, and you Hydrargyrum, or, liquid silver. This roughly is translated into English, as quicksilver. Side Note: The g in Mercury, Hg, and the g in silver, Ag come from the same root word, Argentum. This can be helpful for memorizing and distinguishing them. Easily Confused Symbols: This should go without much explanation needed. Elements that share a first letter in their symbols, and the 2nd letter is contained in both the elements names, are easy to confuse. Many of these are 1,3 consonant pairs, so if you assume they are, you can usually guess accurately their symbol, more often than not. Additionally, knowing that these pairs exist, is helpful for not confusing them. Radon Rn and Radium Ra: They are both close in atomic mass, are radioactive, and start with the 3 same letters. I’m sure you can see why these are easily confused. I learned these two by breaking them down in a sort of truth-table-esque way. The letters R and a, for the symbol Ra, for Radium are also found in the chemical name Radon. However, R and n together, are only found in Radon, not Radium. Essentially, I had to logically deduce this each time I wrote the symbols, and eventually, I remembered them outright. Magnesium Mg ; Manganese Mn ; Molybdenum Mo: For these three elements, they all start with an M, and all have an n. Since Molybdenum has the unique letter o, it makes it easier remember it’s symbol compared to the other two. Since Magnesium and Manganese are examples of 1,3 consonant pairs, all know that Ml is not a chemical symbol, and you can remember them. Rhenium Re; Rhodium Rh; Ruthenium Ru: These 3 elements are part of the Platinum group metals (also including Iridium and Osmium). They have similar colors, appearances, and properties. What makes these three difficult to remember is that h, is a common denominator among all 3, with e being a common denominator between Rhenium and Ruthenium. I don’t have a good trick to remembering these, just that, Rhenium is slightly less intuitive than the other two. Zinc Zn; Zirconium Zr: Again, it’s fairly simple to apply the 1,3 rule, and see if it feels right. If it’s not a consecutive letter symbol, chances are it will. Honorable Mentions; Boron B; Carbon C; Fluorine F; Hydrogen H; Iodine I; Potassium K; Nitrogen N; Oxygen O; Phosphorus P; Sulfur S: Why these? Well, these are all of the chemical elements with single letter symbols, where that letter is the first letter of other symbols. If you memorize this set in particular, you’ll know when you need a 2 letter symbol; That case being, any symbol that isn’t one of these. This should decrease confusion, and increase ease of memorization. Note: Uranium U; Vanadium V; Tungsten W, are the other elements with single letter symbols, however, no other elements have U, V, Or W in their symbols. Other Notes; For Learning the ENTIRE Periodic Table; Learn First what you See Most: In general, what you need to initially know (say in a highschool chem course) are most early chemicals in p-block and s-block, the first row of d-block to the right of Chromium and a few other notable d-block elements (Ag, Au, Hg, Pt, W) . F-block, however, is largely unused for many domains of chemistry (though exceedingly useful in electronics, for example), so they are less important to learn than the other aforementioned chemical groups. Radioactive chemicals are used even less used (unless you’re in field like nuclear physics). So the last period of d-block, and much of f-block, as well as period 7, in general, are rarely used. In short: If you can’t learn them all, learn the ones you are likely to encounter most often, and branch out from there. If you have a field you want to go into, pay special attention to the most important chemicals for your field. I’ve made my personal list of the most often encountered elements (sorted by block, column, and or row) below. These are the elements I came across most often in my undergraduate studies, and are among the most useful to know off hand. I don’t mean to diminish the importance of other elements, like the rare earths, but this list isn’t about usefulness, but rather, the how commonly they are encountered (in books/ college/ etc). s-block: Alkaline metals + H: Hydrogen H; Lithium; Sodium Na; Potassium K p-block: Column 13: Boron B; Aluminum Al Column 14: Carbon C; Silicon Si; Tin Sn; Lead Pb Column 15: Nitrogen N; Phosphorous P; Arsenic As; Antimony Sb; Bismuth Bi Column 16: Oxygen O; Sulfur S Column 17: Fluorine F; Chlorine Cl; Bromine Br; Iodine I; Column 18: Helium He; Neon Ne; Argon Ar; Krypton Kr; Xenon Xe d-block: Period 4: Titanium Ti; Chromium Cr; Iron Fe; Cobalt Co; Nickel Ni; Copper Cu; Zinc Zn Period 5: Silver Ag; Cadmium Cd Period 6: Tungsten W; Platinum Pt; Gold Au; Mercury Hg Period 7: Unimportant for most fields. f-block: Neodymium Nd; Thorium Th; Uranium U; Neptunium Np; Plutonium Pu Single Symbol Elements tend to have Early Discoveries: In cases where there are two symbols X or Xx, element X tends to have been discovered before element Xx. For example, Carbon, C, was discovered before Cobalt, Co. Elements discovered early on, tended to have had a combination of one or more of these traits: Were common; not a gas; if gas, not too noble or too reactive; and if a metal, not too reactive. There’s many reasons as too why this tends to be true, but it’s beyond the scope of the answer, haha. For example, Hydrogen, H, was named before Helium, because Helium (and other noble gases) are found in low quantities on earth, whereas H Hydrogen is exceedingly common. In the case of Nitrogen, N, or Neon Ne, Nitrogen was discovered before Neon because is in short, Nitrogen is far less noble than Neon. Nonradioactive Element Naming: Most elements symbols are derived from their ancient names, which are still used (Arsenic, As), or not used (Gold, Au Aurum), a Latin/Greek/ or Other word for their a distinctive property (Chromium, Cr, being Chroma, Latin for color, thanks to it’s many vividly colored salts), or a combination of the above (Mercury, Hg, Hydrargyrum, latin for liquid silver*, aka quicksilver in English). Radioactive Element Naming: Most radioactive elements are named after people, such as, Ernest Lawrence (Lawrencium Lr); or countries, such America (Americium, Am); or places, such as California (Californium, Cf); or by discoverer, such as UCLA Berkly, (Berkelium, Bk). As an American, I can’t help but be smarmy to note, we’re the only country with elements named after our country (America, Americium, Am), a state within our country (California, Californium, Cf), and a lab within that state within our country (UCLA Berkeley, Berkelium, Bk), and the person who founded that Lab (Ernest Lawrence, Lawrencium Lr). It’s pretty amusing to me. Honorable mentions in this regard go to, Madam Curie(m) of Poland (and wife to a French man) who has an element named after her (Curium, Cm) and after her country of Poland (Polonium, Po). With France having one named after itself (Francium, Fr) and one of it’s rivers, the Rhine (Rhenium, Re), where Rhenium was first found. And Russia: Russian has a large number of elements named after Russian scientists, and a few after parts/ areas/ discovers of the elements that are of Russian origin. Note: I’ve emboldened the chemical symbols at every mention, as well as emboldened the letters in the element where the symbol got them from. If the letters weren’t present in it’s common spoken form, I added them following the word. For example, Atimony, Sb. Logic tells me this should help someone start to pick out these symbols, and make memorization easier. Also note: This is obviously not standard practice, and is meant only as a learning aid. Note About Other Answers/ To Answerers: The questioner did not ask “Do I need to memorize the symbols” but rather asked “How do I memorize the symbols quickly”. It is best practice to first answer the question as asked, and then explain your misgivings with the question, ie, your beliefs that it’s not useful to memorize* them. While it may not be necessary to learn the chemical symbols by rote, it is far more useful than useless. Stopping to looking up a chemical symbol when researching gets quite tedious. Additionally, there are many simple patterns for symbol designation, as described above. As such, if you know the patterns, remembering the symbols is easy. On Memorizing the Table: Additionally, you don’t know the motivation of the questioner. Maybe this individual enjoys trivia, or simply wants the satisfaction of knowing they memorized all the symbols, or maybe they are in a highly competitive environment, where this could be beneficial. It doesn’t matter why, simply, that you don’t know why they want to know. As such, you shouldn’t alter the question to fit your presuppositions. Answer it as given, then add an addendum if need be. That’s about all. Haha. Addendum: Oh, and writing this answer; That’s a useful way to memorize the symbols.
Avoid taking addicive stimulants. You can have some coffee in moderatiin. Caffeine imoroves attention and concentration in dises of no more than 200 mg a day. Take up meditation. That activity will help you quiet your mind and learn to concentrate on one thing. Get the book “Meditation for Dummies” to learn how to meditate Join a meditation or yoga group. Read Zen books. They teach the Art of Focusing, paying attention and mindfulness. Avoid multitasking. Practice mindfulness. Do One thing at a time. Do this in Every activity you do. Remind yourself to stay in the present moment. Attention and concentration improve with training. Excercise. Aerobic exercise improves brain oxigenation, mood, attention and concentration. Get in the habit of reading. Concentrate on the subjects you love. Take frequent breaks (every 20 minutes) and stretch or walk for 5 minutes. Keep your room cool. Eat a high protein low bad carbd diet that includes fish three times a week. Drink Green tea. It contains Theanine. This is an aminoacid that produces calmness and improves attention. Do the jobs that require the most attention in the morning. Take a refreshing power nap in the afternoon to recharge your batteries before resuming attentional activities. Sleep a minimum of 8 hs and avoid staying awake at night. Lose weight if you are overweight and eat healthy with plenty of vegetables and fruits of all colors. Finally, take a good multivitamin with minerals tablet and a supplement called PS 300 twice a day.