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mg hs in white

บทความที่เกี่ยวข้อง mg hs in white

2021 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV เปิดตัวใหม่จะท้าชน MG HS PHEV ได้ไหม?

Outlander PHEV (มิตซูบิชิ เอาท์แลนเดอร์ พีเอชอีวี) รุ่นใหม่ล่าสุดเมื่อปลายปี 2020 โดยเป็นรถ SUV Plug-in

MG HS กับสิ่งที่ต้องปรับปรุง มีข้อเสียแต่ยังแซ่บ ไม่ต้องสงสัย ทำไมขายดี

MG HS เอสยูวีที่สร้างกระแสขายดีชนะแบรนด์ญี่ปุ่นที่ทำตลาดมานาน ทำให้หลายสงสัยว่าทำไมมันขายดี บทความนี้จะจับรถที่ผ่านมือคนขับมาแล้ว

ฟันธง! 2021 Haval H6 ในไทยค่าตัวอาจถูกกว่า MG HS เห็นราคาแล้วต้องอึ้ง

2021 Haval H6 และ 2020 MG HS2021 Haval H6 (2021 ฮาวาล เอช6) จะเผยโฉมอย่างเป็นทางการในประเทศไทยในช่วงปลายเดือนมีนาคมนี้

รีวิว 2019 MG HS พิสูจน์ตำแหน่งผู้นำตลาดรถคอมแพ็กต์เอสยูวี มีดีที่ความคุ้มค่า?

เอ็มจี บริษัทรถยนต์ลูกครึ่งอังกฤษ-จีน นำเสนอ 2019 เอ็มจี เอชเอส (2019 MG HS) รถอเนกประสงค์เอสยูวีออกทำตลาดประเทศไทยทั้งหมด

2020 MG HS PHEV คาดไทยได้สเปคแบบอังกฤษ ในราคาต่ำกว่า 1.4 ล้านบาท

2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) รุ่นปลั๊กอินไฮบริดเตรียมเปิดตัวในวันที่ 27 ตุลาคมนี้ มาแบบนำเข้าชิ้นส่วนจากจีน

ไขข้อสงสัยข้อดีข้อเสียก่อนซื้อ MG HS

หลังจาก MG HS รถสไตล์รถครอบครัวจากแบรนด์จีนเปิดตัวก็ได้รับความสนใจล้นหลาม และก็กลายเป็น Compact SUV ที่มียอดขายดีในกลุ่มได้อย่างรวดเร็วด้วยชื่อ

2020 MG HS PHEV เทียบ MG HS 1.5X เจาะออพชั่นต่างกันทุกด้าน เพิ่มเงินแค่ 240,000 บาท

HS PHEV MG HS 1.5 X ระยะห่างล้อคู่หลัง 1,593 มม. 1,584 มม.

2020 NEW MG HS PHEV เปิดตัวรุ่นใหม่จะชิงส่วนแบ่งตลาดจาก Honda CR-V ได้หรือไม่?

เมื่อไม่นานมานี้ MG เปิดตัวรถ Compact SUV ทางเลือกใหม่ Plug-in Hybrid ในชื่อ 2020-2021 NEW MG HS PHEV

MG HS PHEV รวม 3 เรื่องใหญ่ของไฮบริด ที่ลูกค้าควรรู้ก่อนซื้อ คาดราคา 1.4 ล้านบาท

MG HS PHEV เป็นรถพลังไฮบริดพื้นฐานจากรุ่น HS ที่ยังคงใช้สเปคเครื่องเดิม มาพ่วงมอเตอร์ไฟฟ้าเข้าไปเพิ่ม

รวม 5 จุดเด่น MG HS PHEV ที่ทำให้คุณต้องซื้อในราคา 1,359,000 บาท

2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว เคาะราคาที่ 1,359,000 บาท โดยจะเป็นรถปลั้กอินไฮบริดรุ่นแรกของ

ดูเพิ่มเติม

ส่อง 5 จุดเด่น MG HS ก่อนซื้อ

Compact SUV ที่สร้างยอดขายได้อย่างสวยหรูหลังจากที่ MG HS ได้ถูกพูดถึงมากมาย แล้วก็มียอดขายแรง AutoFun

สวยกว่าเดิม! 2021 MG HS PHEV จีนกำลังจะได้หน้าใหม่ คนไทยจะรอไหม

2021 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) ปลั้กอินไฮบริดจากเอ็มจี พึ่งเปิดตัวในบ้านเราไปเมื่อเดือนตุลาคม

MG HS อาจจะปรับโฉมเร็วๆนี้ เผยหน้าใหม่ ที่มีโค้งเว้าเค้าโครงใหม่หมดจรด

MG HS (เอ็มจี เฮชเอส) เอสยูวีที่เปิดตัวตั้งแต่ปี 2018 และยังไม่มีการไมเนอร์เชนจ์ใดๆ ล่าสุดนี้มีการปล่อยภาพจากทาง

Toyota Corolla Cross หรือ MG HS ในงบ 1.2 ล้านบาท คุณเหมาะกับรถอะไรมากกว่ากัน

HS 1.5XMG HS ถูกกว่าMG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) แม้จะเป็นรุ่นท็อปสุด 1.5X แล้วก็ตาม ยังตั้งราคาเพียง 1,119,000

2021 MG HS ราคาเริ่มต้น 9.19 แสนบาทพร้อมเครื่องยนต์เบนซินเทอร์โบขนาด 1.5 ลิตรที่ออกแบบเพื่อครอบครัว

HS ตารางราคา 2020 MG HS รุ่นรถ ราคา​ (บาท) MG HS รุ่น C 919,000 MG HS รุ่น

MG HS VS Mazda CX-30 คันไหนใช่โดนใจคุณ....

MG HS 2019 มี 3 รุ่นให้เลือก ได้แก่ รุ่น C อยู่ที่ 919,000 บาท รุ่น D อยู่ที่ 1,019,000 บาท และรุ่นตัวท็อปอย่างรุ่น

หน้าตาคุ้น ๆ BYD SS Summer ขายแล้วในจีน ในราคาที่ซื้อ MG HS PHEV ได้ 2 คัน

เสริมด้วยล้ออะไหล่ที่ติดตั้งไว้บริเวณประตูท้ายคล้ายกับรถเอสยูวียุคก่อนเหมาะสำหรับการออกไปกางเตนท์แคมป์ปิ้ง เสริมด้วยล้ออะไหล่ที่ด้านท้ายคล้ายกับรถในสมัยก่อนเครื่องยนต์จาก BYDติดตั้งขุมพลัง Plug-in

2020 MG HS PHEV ปะทะ Honda CR-V คุณจะเลือกชื่อชั้นแบรนด์หรือคุณสมบัติตัวรถ?

2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการด้วยราคาที่เรียกเสียงฮือในงานแถลงข่าวที่

เทียบสเปก 2021 Haval H6 Hybrid อ็อปชั่นสุดแรงแต่ราคาแพงกว่า MG HS PHEV แน่นอน

2021 Haval H6 Hybrid และ MG HS PHEV2021 Haval H6 (2021 ฮาวาล เอช6) คือหนึ่งในรถเอสยูวีที่หลายคนรอคอยมากที่สุดในช่วงครึ่งแรกของปีนี้

Owner Review:ก่อนที่เป็นเจ้าของรถ MG HS X 2020 ควรเตรียมใจรับกับเรื่องอะไรบ้าง

**บทความนี้เป็นประสบการณ์ส่วนตัวของเจ้าของ MG HS X 2020 และไม่จำเป็นต้องสะท้อนถึงมุมมองของ AutoFun เจ้าของรถ

Haval H6 โฉมไมเนอร์เชนจ์ เปิดราคาขายในจีนแล้ว เริ่มต้นไม่ถึงล้านบาท คู่แข่งสำคัญของ MG HS

Wall ในไทย (ขยายเพิ่มต่อจากโรงงานเชพโรเล็ต) และรุ่นนี้ก็มีรูปทรงกับออพชั่นพอฟัดเหวี่ยงกับคู่แข่งอย่าง MG

ทำงี้ได้ไง MG HS โปรใหม่ไม่มีฝาท้ายไฟฟ้า มีแต่เครื่องฟอกอากาศแทน

ในงาน BIG Motor Sale 2020 ค่ายรถยนต์ MG ได้จัดโปรโมชั่นน่าสนใจให้กับรถ SUV ZS และ HS มาแล้ว ล่าสุด MG

แบงค์บอกต่อ Nissan Almera และ MG HS กับ Extender พร้อมแคมเปญดี ๆ ก่อนสิ้นปีนี้

แบงค์บอกต่อ นำเสนอโปรโมชั่นดี ๆ สำหรับซิตี้คาร์ Nissan Almera (นิสสัน อัลเมร่า) MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส)

วัดมวยปลั๊กอินไฮบริด! เมื่อ MG HS PHEV จะเปิดตัวปาดหน้า Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV

2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) รุ่นปลั๊กอินไฮบริดเตรียมเปิดตัวในวันที่ 27 ตุลาคมนี้ ตัดหน้า

คุณกัสคาดการณ์ : Haval H6 ราคาถูกกว่า MG HS เริ่ม 889,000 บาท เพราะอะไร? จะคำนวนจริงให้ดู

MG HSเจ้าของ MG HS อาจจะไม่พอใจย่อหน้านี้ เพราะคุณกัสจะบอกเหตุผลว่าทำไมถึงเอา Haval H6 มาเทียบกับ MG

2020 MG HS PHEV กับคำถามที่พบบ่อยของระบบปลั้กอินไฮบริด อ่านก่อนคิดจะซื้อ

2021 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวกันไปแล้วในวันที่ 26 ตุลาคม พ.ศ.2563 ปลั้กอินไฮบริดตัวแรกของเอ็มจีที่จะนำเข้ามาขายในไทย

เปิดตัว MG5 EV และ MG HS Plug-in ก่อนในอังกฤษ ไทยจะตามมาสิ้นปี

และใช้งานได้จริง เพื่อมาเคียงข้างกับ MG ZS EV ให้กับประเทศอังกฤษ คือรถ MG5 EV และ MG HS Plug-in ซึ่งทางเอ็มจีหวังว่าจะช่วยเพิ่มยอดขายให้ได้มากกว่าเดิม

7 เรื่องควรรู้ก่อนซื้อ MG HS 2019

.MG HS ในไทยมีให้เลือก 3 รุ่นMG HS 2019 แต่ละประเทศนั้นแตกต่างกัน ในเวอร์ชั่นไทยมีให้เลือก 3 รุ่นได้แก่

เปิดตัว 2020 MG HS PHEV โวลั่นแรงเหนือคู่แข่ง-ประหยัด 65 กม.ต่อลิตร เคาะค่าตัวถล่ม Toyota Corolla Cross

2020 MG HS PHEV (เอ็มจี เอชเอส พีเอชอีวี) เปิดตัวอย่างเป็นทางการแล้ว มาพร้อมระบบขับเคลื่อนปลั๊กอินไฮบริดเจ้าแรกในกลุ่มเอสยูวี-ซี

รู้ข้อดีข้อด้อยก่อนซื้อ MG HS ตัวท็อป

MG HS (เอ็มจี เอชเอส) ถือเป็นรถอเนกประสงค์อีกรุ่นที่ได้รับความนิยมไม่แพ้ MG ZS ของค่ายเอ็มจีเลย ด้วยความโดดเด่นในด้านเทคโนโลยี

รูปภาพที่เกี่ยวข้อง mg hs in white

วิดีโอรถยนต์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง mg hs in white

mg hs in white-mg hs in white-The All New TATA SAFARI is here | नजर ना लगे

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รีวิวโพสต์ mg hs in white

So we've just bought this dazzling MG HS Plug-in Hybrid in Pearl White and we're very excited for her to arrive with us! Buy this basically brand new car with us and save a whopping £5000 Unit 9, Mochdre Industrial Estate, Newtown, Powys, SY16 4LE 0800 689 4733

Left or Right? On the left is the All New MG ZS EV finished in Pimlico Blue and on the right in the All New MG HS Artic White. Let us know in the comments below. #ZSEV #HS

NEW IN STORE White MG HS Hatchback PHEV! This beauty is reliable and a joy to ride! Just waiting preparation, and then it can be yours @Electric_Wales @rideelectrified

@JAfridi10I booked my MG HS White with red interior at MG Khyber as soon as they started taking bookings. I was given tentative month " Feb " and now when Feb shipment is here, they are saying ur vehicle is not in this shipment. They basically think we are fools. 1/3

With apologies to one Debbie Bartlett, who was on '80s DH before she became a 'mermaid' this from tonight's MG/HS Hour, which I filled in: "Have you heard about the new sleazy version of "Dream House?" On this version the contestants try to win a (White) House?"

MG HS 2021Zero MererWhite With BeigePer Month: 97,000/-30%Demand: 37 LacDelivery IN SHA ALLAH 10th April 202103214167225

รีวิว Q&A mg hs in white

What's something that your doctor or nurse did to you that you won't ever forgive?

I was hammered by a pair of rare autoimmune diseases in January of 2004. I went from being a dedicated business owner, Father, bass tournament fisherman and powerlifter….. I had recently achieved my lifetime goal of bench pressing OVER 425 lbs and squatting over 900 lbs (100% drug & supplement free!) the preceding November…. to being physically incapacitated, unable to stand or walk within few short months. I didn’t feel very well for most of December, but nothing bad enough to make me go to the Dr’s or anything like that. Fast forward to January 18 or 19 of 2004…. I was watching my favorite NHL team (Colorado Avalanche) and being on the east coast that meant I was up past midnight watching the game. I had the chills and what felt like a minor fever…..but nothing horrific. Out of the blue I woke up in AGONY at 3:30 AM (I have a clock in my man cave, I was in my basement so I wouldn’t disturb my wife and our 5.5 year old and 2.5 year old) and I had jack-hammer like, uncontrollable chills, the WORST ( headache I had ever encountered to that point of my life. This pain is truly INDESCRIBABLE, but feels as if something is pressing my eyeballs out of my skull from behind. The pain emanates between my temples and a very narrow band from the middle of my eyes and forehead. ***I had these identical issues 2–3 days after receiving all of the mandatory vaccinations and/or immunizations that as an enlistee in the US ARMY I had no choice but to have, in July 1990 . My records have been “lost since first filing for them in early ‘92! I have ZERO military medical records related to ANY hospitalizations, and I had 3 of them though only one was for multiple days/over a week.*** I also had horribly painful, swollen joints, my throat was swollen to the point I could hardly breath let alone make any audible noises and my throat was KILLING me! I was panicking for what seemed like an eternity when I was finally able to tap on the wall. We had a 90 lb Shepherd mix named “Boomer”, who on top of being an awesome dog overall, NO ONE, including me, could lay a hand on my kids, and no one could get anywhere near my yard unless I was there with the dog. I’ve always let my dogs stay in the basement at night, which may have saved my life as he went ballistic once I started to knock on the wall (even though with all of the strength my body possessed I could hardly muster taps on the wall)… With my dog going nuts, my wife woke up and came downstairs to see what was going on. The look on her face scared me, and she said I was a dark purple and had a rash of some sort all over my chest and parts of my upper torso. She took my temp and it pegged the thermometer @ 106! I was rushed to the hospital and within an hour they gave me some incredibly potent pain med (turns out it was Dilaudid as they tried 2 doses of morphine which didn’t seem to phase me) and my fever went down to 102.4. Within 2 hours my fever was under 100 and I started to feel more like myself, but incredibly stiff, sore and my head was still POUNDING! I was discharged with a couple of prescriptions and told to follow up with my family Dr. I never had the chance as 3 days later the same exact thing occurred, except this time my fever wouldn’t go below 105 & change and I was admitted. I stayed there for 12 days and left with no diagnosis. Two weeks to the day I was discharged, I was readmitted again and saw infectious disease again, had my 2nd spinal tap and spent almost 3 weeks in the hospital. I left with a tentative diagnosis of a very rare autoimmune disease. No one had ANY CLUE as to the source/cause of the headaches and the only medication that provided me with short term relief to date is Dilaudid…..not exactly something I ever wanted to be on periodically, let alone every few hours at least! Well, that 1st year I was convinced I was dying! I had a piece of shit rheumatologist so I went searching for a good one….I wound up with hospitalizations at University of Penn in Philly, 3 different local hospitals (Philly is 100 miles away from me), Johns Hopkins, Hershey Medical center etc…. There are at least 2 or 3 I can’t even recall. I spent more time in the hospital that year than out. My 5′7″ 232 lb built like a “tank” body began to look like total shit as Prednisone was the ONLY drug that kept me stable (I couldn’t get under 20 mg/day) and Dilaudid was the only pain med that would phase my headache, as in singular, never has left since my onset (this is true to this day!), and I wound up on very high dosages of Prednisone for years, having osteoporosis by age 37..it took me until 2015 to FINALLY taper off of Prednisone completely. Compounding the Osteoporosis in my spine, my hip and forearm bone density wasn’t anywhere near as bad as my spine…..but my teeth literally crumbled apart or outright exploded….especially when my headache level would exceed my pain threshold I have a habit of clenching my jaw, which has shattered every tooth in my mouth…..(Numerous physicians have mentioned my pain threshold is through the roof)… What truly PISSES ME OFF about my dental issues are that I can not get a nickle’s worth of assistance. I have the most critical shatter tooth extracted one by one as i can afford to pay for it……no military medical records, can’t get a nickle for MASSIVE dental issues where every tooth is at least partially broken. Two broke down to the gumline and my gums have grown back over them, but I can’t afford to pay for the surgery necessary to extract those two as I don’t have the $1400.00! I did find an AWESOME Rheumatologist in Lebanon, Pa (Dr Thomas Kantor) on advice from a fellow out of UPMC (Pittsburgh) who told me he was 95% certain on my initial diagnosis but knew pieces were missing as I had an indescribable headache 24/7/365(still do almost 16 yrs later, though now I have the necessary meds on hand to help keep me out of the hospital as often. My Rheumy recommended me to the Jefferson Headache Center in Philly, where I was seeing Dr William Young (AMAZING DR!) ….. I had been on maximum dosages of over 30 different migraine meds, psychotropics, and countless “other” (over 100 with ease) meds that were supposed to stop the headaches…all to no avail. The ONLY 2 things that will back the headache down to where my eyes aren’t swollen totally closed were radically high doses of Prednisone in conjunction with 2mg/dilaudid every 2 hours!!, my eyes felt as if they were being driven out of my skull from behind (I had already seen 3 “Neuro-ophthalmologists” who all swore the issue had nothing to do with my eyes, though I get severe double vision (diplopia, eyes go out of alignment) and some other medical jargon I can’t recall…. My headache is NOT a migraine….I’m never sensitive to sound, light etc and actually prefer my music to be “kicking me in the chest” type of LOUD as it helps take my mind off of the pain a tiny bit… I’m also never sick to my stomach, migraine meds have never affected this headache and it has been constant since my onset. the only variations I experience is that it is as moderate as it gets when it is as hot & humid as possible and instant cold fronts, cool-cold-freezing weather are triggers to make it spike higher and higher. I saw Dr Young 2 or 3 times when my headache got past my threshold for taking the pain (trust me, I promise my threshold for pain is far beyond the average man!) and I was admitted at the Jefferson Headache Center and stayed for 19 days. Dr Young ran every possible test imaginable, thinking I may have been misdiagnosed. I had my 9th or 10th spinal tap there (all show white blood cells indicating some sort of infection within my CSF fluid) yet NOTHING every grows from the “sample”…..Dr Young refused to use dilaudid, instead trying every possible thing he could think of. After 19 days,my headache finally backed off to “tolerable”, and by that I mean it became tolerable though still extremely painful. I followed up with Dr. Young a few mores times, but I was out of money and couldn’t even afford the gas/tolls/parking to go see him any longer. My diagnosis from Jefferson is “New Daily Persistent Headache”…… too bad there seems to be ZERO answer, and to date I’ve been on OVER 100 migraine and other associated medications with zero benefit and loads of negative side effects. He still is a part of my medical “team” (long story, but I FOUGHT to get a great group of non associated Dr’s to communicate/work together with each other on my case, and it took me a few years to get it to where I am happy with who I have) but even now seeing Dr Young on a regular basis is simply not in my budget. I had to sell my shop which made me want to eat a bullet as I built that business from the ground up to the highest rated repair facility in the valley…..truth be told the ONLY reason I still draw breath today is I could not imagine my sons without a Father! The best way I can describe this headache is this: I was in such total AGONY that one day I figured I’d run into the block walls in my basement head-first as hard as I possibly could as I’d knock myself out….and when unconscious I’d be oblivious to the pain…. I must have smashed my head off of the wall as hard as I possibly could well over a dozen times and didn’t hear the door open upstairs to warn me my wife & kids were home. She walked into the basement to see me sprint headfirst into the wall, covered in blood, blood all over the wall and floor and freaked out. I had to convince my Dr’s I wasn’t insane…I knew exactly what I was doing. Unfortunately, I learned why no one could ever hurt me in a fight growing up as my head refuses to acknowledge “THAT” kind of pain! I had to promise my wife & Dr’s I’d never try to knock myself out again, which I’ve honored. Now Prednisone is a last resort medication for me as I had osteoporosis at 37 and 18 months of Forteo brought that back up to osteopenia. I’d literally MURDER 500 people for my “LOST” military medical records” that I’ve been fighting for since 1991/92, and that includes enlisting the help of countless state representatives, senators, military veterans associations etc.. I have every record available from being in the Pa National Guard, but ZERO medical files from active duty. My records are inaccurate as they do not reflect I first filed for a copy of my medical file in the early ‘90’s on the advice of my Company Clerk (who physically filed the records himself), that I again filed for them right before my enlistment ended on 19Nov95, they have a record of my filing for them in 2004 after this all flared up for good but lack my State reps filing in ‘09, lack a Lt Col who works IN the VA (I have all of the corresponding emails with his staff) when I again tried to get my records again in ’14 and I just finished going through my US Senator, Robert Casey. His staff was great and did everything they could for me, but now the ARMY says my records would have been destroyed due to how much time has passed, so I’m fucked. I NEED a veteran’s advocate who knows how to play these fucking games as I had to sell a business I helped my Dad build from the ground up to where we constantly won the newspaper’s reader’s poll of “BEST GARAGE” all 18 years they had the poll, and the new owner started with me as a 16 year old who I trained myself and took to countless school with me who is without a doubt in the top 1& of technicians on the planet today (I know I’m still in the top 2–4%, just need my body to cooperate!) as I am just as interested in my field as I was a a teen. I GUARANTEE I have close to double the education of what is required for a Bachelor’s degree…..but because we’re “only” “mechanics”….we’re only supposed to make a pittance. Those days are GONE, at least they are if the shop you go to is up to date with equipment and training! A labor rate of $120/hour today is affordable…when I began $28.00/hour was the norm! Back to my living hell…..by October of ’04 I could no longer stand or walk. My back was destroyed by destructive arthritis, mainly my Facet joints, but also my Sacroiliac joints, my Coccyx and massive degenerative disc disease. Add to that fun I started “wetting the bed” out of nowhere (let me tell you, if I didn’t learn to laugh at myself I’d have been buried a long time ago)….and I wound up with a morphine pump implant in May of ‘05. In March of ’05, on the recommendation of my PCP, I tried the one local hospital who has a “nationally renowned reputation in Bloomsburg, Pa” as once again I was in agony, indescribable headache, fever, chills..the whole 9 yards…. I was there 1 full day when this Indian Dr walks in and asks me a number of questions, questions I’d been asked so many times I could recite the answers in my sleep. Then, he comes right out and says “I’m sending you home, you are only here to suck up all of my drugs”……I was stunned, and beyond ENRAGED! I inclined my bed and asked him what he had just said to me and he gets right in my face and repeats himself. I don’t feel even a little sorry for him. I was still stronger than 95% of all men and growing up had wrestled for years and was still an active coach up until these issues hammered me… and had been in more full blown fist fights than I can ever recall, so I grabbed his shirt with my left hand and drilled him with my right. His blood literally exploded in every direction, even reaching the ceiling. If that bastards legs wouldn’t have given out AND I could have got out of bed I would have continued to hammer the ever living whit out of him. First, allow me to emphatically state that I had NEVER in my life done illegal drugs, period. I’m about as anti-drug as one can get!. The only drug I’ll even allow around me is pot, mainly because I don’t consider that a drug, but again, it isn’t my thing….even with the medicinal versions, I haven’t had much benefit from it. If I had ever done drugs, even experimented, I couldn’t justify my stance on this, but to this day I REFUSE to allow ANYONE, especially a medical professional, to accuse me of being a drug seeker. I know they see them every single day of their lives, and I do feel they deserve a certain amount of leeway because of that….but when you have a guy who can’t stand/walk who can’t even control his urine and has t wear a ******* diaper you would have to think that maybe, just maybe this person really is sick, REALLY IS SCARED! I lied back with a huge shit eating grin on my face as it felt that one punch took 10 tons of stress off of my shoulders! I was just awaiting the police….but an hour goes by…nothing…another 20 minutes and I needed a nurse so I rang my buzzer. The nurse walked in, all professional as 95% of the nurses I’ve ever dealt with have been and asked what I needed. Well, I knew it was time to get changed now or change the entire bed in 20 minutes and I was due for my pain meds. She said she’d be right back to take care of me….but before she got out the door I had to ask what was going on with me, and she had no idea what I was talking about. I explained what the asshole Dr said and what I did and she started jumping up & down smiling and laughing! I was floored! Turned out virtually every nurse there despised that son-of-a-bitch and gave me a great big hug for being the reason he had 3″ worth of bandages all over his face and had to leave for the day. I never was treated like royalty before that in my life, but every nurse, whether my nurse or not was thrilled someone finally did something to him! They sent down a patient’s advocate to take my statements of exactly what he did….I explained how he berated me for being in a diaper and then not once, but twice, including being almost nose to nose with me told me the only reason I was in “his” hospital was to suck up all of “his” drugs! I wound up there for 5 more days, and the nurses were bringing me in coffee from Dunkin’ Donuts, ice cream “flurries” etc etc etc….. I never saw that mother ******* again, and he apparently got himself into a whole bunch of trouble as he had countless complaints about him from both patients & nurses for his total lack of proper bedside manner. Thanks to my AMAZING Rheumatologist in Lebanon, Pa and my AWESOME PCP with almost as much responsibility from my neurosurgeon (Dr, Carlo DeLuna out of Penn State Hershey with a satellite office right down the road from me in Wilkes-Barre, Pa) & my Pain Management Dr’s (Dr Usoh out of the Saxton Ctr in Edwardsville, Pa replaced the now retired Dr Satyam) I’m dong far better today than I ever thought I’d be, especially after the 1st year of this misery. Dr Kantor (Rheumy) is brilliant and he;s the ne who got me off of the insurance company standard drugs of Methotrexate & other shit that did more harm than good to me and got me on Kineret despite an epic battle between hm and the ins company!, my pain management Dr recommended I not have surgery due to the risks being far too high especially with the fevers of unknown origin, white blood cells in every CSF sample from the 10 or so spinal taps I had in my 1st 12–18 months and my Neurosurgeon who advised me to go with a morphine pump as it was the “safe” bet….. I had to have that pump replaced in May or ‘12, which had to be almost immediately removed due to a massive staph infection….and my PCP stepped in and got me on oral pain meds (which is now another war as the insurance company insists I’m on far too much narcotic pain medication!!! All of this because of the people who NEVER had a legitimate need for OxyContin or similarly potent pain meds getting their hands on them, abusing them and then becoming “addicted”…I CAN”T tell you how bad I want to smash my TV when those commercials come on that insist “addiction IS a disease”!!! If I was going to abuse these meds or become a junkie, I think I would have done it a LONG time ago as I’m still in tremendous amounts of pain more than half of the time but ESPECIALLY whenever a cold front rolls in and all throughout the cold weather months (mid October through early/mid May here)and now I no longer have a morphine pump and can get around with a cane MOST of the time…..though I still have a walker and a wheelchair for when I f lare. My PCP is also the reason I have dilaudid (pill form) on hand. Since I’ve had a prescription for that, I’ve only had 2 hospitalizations in the past 3 years…this compared to 47 or 48 in the previous 12! Now, with all of that “BRIEF HISTORY” (the entire history would take me a year to write!) I’ve encountered 3 ASSHOLE Dr’s in the ER who have hinted at or outright stated they thought I was a drug seeker. I go to the same hospital all of the time now that I’ve been up * down the east coast and even quite a bit west * and I’ve been “nice”….. I’ve asked them to please review my entire chart and to seriously “rethink” the “drug seeker” idea and get it out of their ****** heads. One couldn’t take a hint when I asked him to get the idea out of his head while making “quotation” symbols with my fingers, so I essentially spelled it out for him….he came back with 3 security guards and told me I had to leave. I called a patient advocate I know personally (she was a long time customer of mine, and we became friends over the years being she got to see so much of me in the hospital) and handed this idiot the phone……..I could hear her screaming at this punk, and he couldn’t apologize enough afterwards. He asked if I was serious when I told him I’d literally “KNOCK THE IDEA OF ME BEING A DRUG SEEKER OUT OF MY HEAD” and I told him about what I did to a colleague of hs years earlier. He thought he was cute and asked me what I’d do about the 3 security guards…and I told him they wouldn’t matter to me once I got him on the ground (remember, I wrestled for years and coached for many more on top of that) that they could d what they felt, but he’d bleed, I’d guarantee it! It got to the point with the ER Dr’s being so bombarded with literal drug seekers that they unfairly treat anyone who knows what works for them is “seeking a high”…..but that’s not my fault, nor my problem….what it did cause me is many nights of agony as I will no longer go to any ER unless my PCP calls ahead and explains my background & situation….otherwise, one of these times when I am in agony, ready to literally drive my head through a block wall (I tried that before in a failed attempt to knock myself out the pain was so ******* bad!!!,more than once!) that one of these assholes in a bad mood is going to get in my face and say the magic two words and I’m going to try to beat the shit out of him until someone stops me or my own body stops me. I know those of us who TRULY deal with TRUE CHRONIC PAIN are all being looked down upon by almost everyone these days…..but I have this as a response; GIVE ME BACK MY HEALTH AND I’LL NEVER TOUCH ANOTHER NARCOTIC PAIN MED AGAIN!!!! I’ll be THRILLED to be able to trade my very beat up body for one of “equal value” but in good health in a heartbeat, and give you all of the pain meds I have and I’ll even pay for your 1st refill (I’d offer to pay more, but being disabled for almost 15 years left me struggling to survive!)…… If you can give me a medication or medications THAT WORK AS WELL OR BETTER than the narcotic pain meds I need just to be able to live a “semblance” of a normale life I’ll give up all of the narcotics in a heartbeat! Jesus, I seriously PRAY, OFTEN, that more Dr’s would LISTEN to those of us who LIVE WITH INDESCRIBABLE PAIN 24/7/365 and AT THE VERY LEAST give us the benefit of the doubt when you come across us! Hell, my medical records (I have my own copy of every single record since this began for me in January of 2004 current to June 2016, and there are at least 4–5000 pages of records, countless MRI/MRA/CT/X-Rays etc etc etc in there…..PLEASE, just look at our records before assuming we’re “drug seekers”! I’ve seen firsthand what drug addiction has done to many of the guys I grew up with….many are dead, the rest all live better than me now as they get everything for free! I made too much money when I worked and now because of that hard work I’m being punished because my SSDI (which by rights should be a full military disability,. but no lawyer will touch it as there’s no money in it for them!)puts me just over, by the skin of my teeth, the maximum one can make to qualify for “assistance”……….this is wrong on oh so many F****** levels it is making my headache worse thinking about it…I have to sign off on this now!

Have you ever felt sick for so long you just don't remember what "normal" even feels like? How did you deal with that?

How do you not? Let’s see, back in 1976–7 I started having occasional knee pain. By my senior year (graduated ‘79) I sometimes had to put ace bandages to make it up to the balcony at church. The next year, between having classes all in second and third floors and PE class, my pain was so bad that my mom took me to an orthopedist. He took X-rays, told us my knees were slipping to the side, gave me a note for the university stating my accommodations (no PE using knees and use of elevators) and said to come back when the pain was so bad I couldn’t stand it. Fast forward to 1987. I was working at a bookstore, walking 1.5 miles to and from work and taking Wing Chun (damn I miss that!). Pain got so bad I couldn’t stand it and occasionally my knees gave out. He does a bilateral arthroscopic ligament release and gives me 300 mg of Dolobid three times a day for pain. Initially I didn’t need it. I had one or two weeks of NO pain!! I was so excited. Then the pain came back worse than before. As in I almost fell when both knees gave out at the same time. As in I couldn’t sit nor stand for more than half an hour without crying while taking the prescription he’d given me as prescribed. Work tried putting me on a sit down job but I couldn’t even do that. When I went back he sneered at me and said he could do nothing until my kneecaps dislocated. I was devastated. I called Vocational Rehabilitation. Nope. Gotta go to social security disability first. While I was waiting for them to get back to me (remember I couldn’t sit or stand without crying for more than half an hour & had to quit the job I adored) someone told me to try Voc Rehab again. They sent me to another orthopedist who was astonished at what the last one had said and told me he’d have to do one at a time but could tie the ligament off to hold my kneecaps (sitting on the outside of my knees by this point) in place. First surgery August 1988. It reduced the pain in that knee down to a 2!!! Second surgery August 1989. Same result. With a TENs and pain meds I could do things. Yay! But I still hadn’t had a pain free day since October 1987. Go along a few years. Had a daughter in 1993. Had a son in 1996. By this time my knees are getting bad again and I’m having to spend much of my time in bed. New orthopedist. He does a bilateral arthroscopic surgery and takes out bone spurs. That’s four so far. By 2003 knees are bad again and I feel guilty because I’m not the kind of mom I wanted/expected to be. New orthopedist does a Fulkerson’s osteotomy distal tibia realignment. First one knee, then the other and then removed hardware bilaterally. We’re up to seven surgeries. In 2006 I began having extreme abdominal pain just under my right rib cage. My pcp sent me to an internist who did lots of negative testing and decided I was a pill seeker. No. I wanted to know WHY the pain was there so we could fix it! Went to my well woman visit and my gyn notices a cyst on my left ovary. He takes out a 2.5 cm cyst along with the ovary (we expected that). Pain goes away in abdomen. Mind you, I still haven’t had a pain free day. Occasionally down to a two after surgeries but never gone. Every. Single. Day. In 2010 my knees are so bad I’m having trouble walking again. New orthopedist!! He replaced my knees (up to ten surgeries now not counting dental). Nope. Pain still there. During this time I was officially diagnosed with fibromyalgia (pcp had suspected it for years and put me on lyrica). So bad the Vanderbilt rheumatologist was surprised. She also told my then husband (who asked FIVE times) that the only exercise I could safely do was walk in chest high water that’s at least 85F for no more than fifteen minutes a day. True because when I tried doing that at a pool two blocks from my house I had trouble driving home. So of course my husband walked out on me. About two months later I was diagnosed with chronic fatigue. Oh and all along I had chronic migraines (started in HS), IBS (30s), Bipolar Disorder (also 30s) and PTSD (from childhood). Now I spend 99% of my time in bed doing isometrics, breathing and aromatherapy and reading. I can’t clean my apartment which depresses me. My pain clinic PA decided I was faking because I could “walk from your (electric) wheelchair to your driver’s door”. There are times I wish I could die. Between the pain, the exhaustion and not being able to work (anyone need a copy editor? I catch typos like no tomorrow!) I only stick around for my family and my ESA cat Sir Merlin Fuzzybutt. 30+ years of daily pain bites. Edit to add: some time around 2009–10 I was diagnosed with sleep apnea. I *should* have a cpap but when my family packed me up from my ex’s house to this apartment parts got lost. No money means no cpap. I was on Medicaid along with Medicaid (finally got SSDI in 2009) but the former got dropped when I failed to get paperwork I didn’t know about in on time and they’ve changed my insurance company for the latter. I don’t even have a card so I haven’t gone to a doc in a year and no longer have my thyroid or other meds. Wheeeee! I want single payer because there’s no white knight out there to scoop me up and build that dream CatVetCommunity of mine! LOL Edit part deux! I forgot my emergency appendectomy a year and a half ago! Fortunately they were able to do it laparoscopicly (as was my cyst & ovary removal). My poor belly button!! Add that to the others and the wisdom teeth (I was totally out) and the eleven teeth the other oral surgeons took out when I was eleven (I think that’s how many, there were a lot and not all baby teeth!) before I got braces, that makes 13 surgeries. And two colonoscopies. And I always wake up early except for the two dental surgeries oddly enough. The oral surgeon who did my wisdom teeth timed my waking with him packing the holes and did the same for everyone I know who used him.

What are common medical abbreviations?

*Common Medical Abbreviations* >*Pt* = Patient >*K/c/o* = known case of >* C/o* = complaint of >* ∆ *= diagnosis > *Rx* = Treatment > *Hx* = History > *Dx* = Diagnosis > *q* = Every > *qd* = Every day > *qod* = Every other day > *qh* = Every Hour > *S* = without > *SS* = One & half > *C* = With > *SOS* = If needed > *AC* = Before Meals > *PC* = After meals > *BID* = Twice a Day > *TID* = Thrice a Day > *QID* = Four times a day > *OD* = Once a Day > *BT* = Bed Time > *hs* = Bed Time > *BBF* = Before Breakfast > *BD* = Before Dinner > *Tw* = Twice a week > *SQ* = sub cutaneous > *IM* = Intramuscular > *ID* = Intradermal > *IV* = Intravenous > *Q4H* = (every 4 hours) > *QOD* = (every other day) > *HS* = (at bedtime) > *PRN* = (as needed) > *PO or "per os"* (by mouth) > *Mg* = (milligrams) > *Mcg/ug* = (micrograms) > *G or Gm* = (grams) > *1TSP* (Teaspoon) = 5 ml > *1 Tablespoonful* =15ml ~ *DDx* =differential Diagnosis *Tx* =Treatment *RTx* =Radiotherapy *CTx* =Chemotherapy *R/O* =rule out *s.p* =status post *PMH(x)* =post medical history *Px* =Prognosis *Ix* =Indication *CIx* =contraindication *Bx* =biopsy *Cx* =complication... *Knowledge About Blood* 1. Which is known as ‘River of Life’? *Answer: Blood* 2. Blood circulation was discovered by? *Answer: William Harvey* 3. The total blood volume in an adult? *Answer: 5-6 Litres* 4. The pH value of Human blood? *Answer: 7.35-7.45* 5. The normal blood cholesterol level? *Answer: 150-250 mg/100 ml* 6. The fluid part of blood? *Answer: Plasma* 7. Plasma protein fibrinogen has an active role in? *Answer: Clotting of blood* 8. Plasma protein globulins functions as? *Answer: Antibodies* 9. Plasma proteins maintain the blood pH? *Answer: Albumins* 10. Biconcave discs shaped blood cell? *Answer: RBC* (Erythrocytes) *11. Non nucleated blood cell?* *Answer: RBC* (Erythrocytes) 12. Respiratory pigments present in RBC? *Answer: Haemoglobin* 13. Red pigment present in RBC? *Answer: Haemoglobin* 14. RBC produced in the? *Answer: Bone marrow* 15. Iron containing pigment of Haemoglobin? *Answer: Haem* 16. Protein containing pigment of Haemoglobin? *Answer: Globin* 17. Graveyard of RBC? *Answer: Spleen* 18. Blood bank in the body? *Answer: Spleen* 19. Life span of RBC? *Answer: 120 Days* 20. Total count is measured by an instrument known as? *Answer: Haemocytometer* 21. A decrease in RBC count is known as? *Answer: Anemia* 22. An increase in RBC count is known as? *Answer: Polycythemia* 23. A high concentration of bilirubin in the blood causes? *Answer: Jaundice* 24. The disease resistant blood cell? *Answer: WBC (leucocytes)* 25. Which WBC is known as soldiers of the body? *Answer: Neutrophils* 26. Largest WBC? *Answer: Monocyes* 27. Smallest WBC? *Answer: Lymphocytes* 28. Antibodies producing WBC? *Answer: Lymphocytes* 29. Life span of WBC? *Answer: 10-15 days* 30. Blood cell performs an important role in blood clotting? *Answer: Thrombocytes (Platelets)* 31. Vessels is called? *Answer: Thrombus* 32. Anticoagulant present in Blood? *Answer: Heparin* 33. A hereditary bleeding disease? *Answer: Haemophilia* 34. Bleeder’s disease? *Answer: Haemophilia* 35. Christmas disease? *Answer: Haemophilia* 36. A type of Anemia with sickle shaped RBC? *Answer: Sickle cell anemia* 37. Viscosity of Blood? *Answer: 4.5 to 5.5* 38. Instrument used to measure haemoglobin? *Answer: Haemoglobinometer* 39. Who demonstrated blood groups? *Answer: Karl Landsteiner* 40. Who demonstrated Rh factor? *Answer: Karl Landsteiner* 41. Blood group which is called Universal donor? *Answer: O* 42. Blood group which is called Universal recipient? *Answer: AB* 43. Blood group is most common among the Asians? *Answer: B* *MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY* Everybody should know the basic functioning of Human Body and its main parts in order to express and explain their ailment to the Doctor and at the same time one should be able to understand the diagnosis expressed by the Doctor in the medical terminology. For easy recognition of the Compounded Words used in the Medical Terminology for naming the disease, Suffixes are added to Prefixes. For this hereunder giving you a few such prefixes for your ready reference and understanding. Prefix - Meaning *1. Adeno* - Glandular *2. An* - Not *3. Anti* - Against *4. Aorto* - Aorta *5. Artho* - joint *6. Bleph* - Eyelid *7. Broncho* - Bronchi *8. Cardio* - Heart *9. Cephal* - Head *10. Cerebro* - Brain *11. Cervico* - Cervix *12. Cholecysto* - Gall Bladder *13. Coli* - Bowel *14. Colpo* - Vagina *15. Entero* - Intestine *16. Gastro* - Stomach *17. Glosso* - Tongue *18. Haema* - Blood *19. Hepa* - Liver *20. Hystero* - Uterus *21. Laryngo* - Larynx *22. Leuco* - White *23. Metro* - Uterus *24. Myelo* - Spinal cord *25. Myo* - Muscle *26. Nephro* - Kidney *27. Neuro* - Nerve *28. Odonto* - Tooth *29. Orchido* - Testis *30. Osteo* - Bone *31. Oto* - Ear *32. Pharyngo* - Pharynx *33. Pio* - Pus *34. Pneumo* - Lung *35. Ren* - Kidney *36. Rhin* - Nose *37. Spleno* - Spleen *38. Thyro* - Thyroid Gland *39. Urethro* - Urethra *40. Vesico* – Bladder *Here are the suffixes used in Medical terminology. Check out!Suffix - Meaning* *1. -aemia* : Blood *2. -algia* : Pain *3. -derm* : skin *4. -dynia* : pain *5. -ectomy* : removal *6. -Itis* : inflammation *7. -lithiasis* : Presence of Stone *8. -malacia* : softening *9. -oma* : tumour *10. -opia* : eye *11. -osis* : Condition,excess *12. -otomy* : incision of *13. -phobia* : fear *14. -plasty* : surgery *15. -plegia* : peralysis *16. -ptosis* : falling *17. -rhoea* : excessive discharge *18. -rhage* : to burst forth *19. -rhythmia* : rhythm. *20. -stasis* : stoppage of movement *21. -sthenia* : weakness *22. -stomy* : outlet *23. -tomy* : removal *24. -trophy* : nourishment *25. -uria* : urine *Compounded Words - Meaning* *1. Anaemia* - Deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood *2. Analgesic* - Medicine which alleviates pain *3. Arthralgia* - Pain in a joint *4. Cephalalgia* - Headache *5. Nephralgia* - Pain in the kidney *6. Neuralgia* - Nerve pain *7. Myalgia* - Muscle pain *8. Otalgia* - Ear ache *9. Gastralgia* - Pain in the stomach *10. Pyoderma* - Skin infection with pus formation *11. Leucoderma* - Defective skin pigmentaion *12. Hysterodynia* - Pain in the uterus *13. Hysterectomy* - Excision of the uterus *14. Nephrectomy* - Excision of a kidney *15. Adenectomy* - Excision of a gland *16. Cholecystectomy* - Excision of gall bladder *17. Thyroidectomy* - Excision of thyroid gland *18. Arthritis* - Inflammation of a joint *19. Bronchitis* - Inflammation of the bronchi *20. Carditis* - Inflammation of the heart *21. Cervicitis* - Inflammation of the cervix *22. Colitis* - Inflammation of the colon *23. Colpitis* - Inflammation of the vagina *24. Cystitis* - Inflammation of the urinary bladder *25. Enteritis* - Inflammation of the intestines *26. Gastritis* - Inflammation of the stomach *27. Glossitis* - Inflammation of the tongue *28. Hepatitis* - Inflammation of the liver *29. Laryngitis* - Inflammation of the larynx *30. Metritis* - Inflammation of the uterus *31. Myelitis* - Inflammation of the spinal cord *32. Nephritis* - Inflammation of the kidney *33. Pharyngitis* - Inflammation of the pharynx *34. Blepharitis* - Inflammation of the eyelids *35. Cholelithiasis* - Stone in the gall bladder *36. Nephrolithiasis* - Stone in the kidney *37. Osteomalacia* - Softening of bones through deficiency of calcium or D vitamin *38. Adenoma* -Benign tumour of glandular tissue *39. Myoma* - Tumour of muscle *40. Diplopia* - Double vision *41. Thrombosis* - Formation of a blood clot *42. Pyloromyotomy* - Incision of pyloric sphincter muscle *43. Hedrophobia* - Fear of water(Rabies in humans) *44. Neuroplasty* - Surgical repair of nerves *45. Pyloraplasty* - Incision of plastic pylorus to widen passage *46. Hemiplegia* - Paralysis of one side of the body *47. Nephroptosis* - Downward displacement of the kidney *48. Amenorrhoea* - Absence of menstrual discharge *49. Dysmenorrhoea* - Painful menstruation *50. Leucorrhoea* - Whitish vaginal discharge *51. Menorrhoea* - Menstrual bleeding *52. Haemorrhage* - Escape of blood from a vessel *53. Arrhythmia* - Any deviation of normal rhythm of heart *54. Cholestasis* - Diminution in the flow of bile *55. Haemostatis* - Arrest of bleeding *56. Neurasthenia* - Nervous debility *57. Cystostomy* - Surgical opening made into the bladder *58. Cystotomy* - Incision into the urinary bladder *59. Hypertrophy* - Increase in the size of tissues *60. Haematuria* - Blood in the urine *61. Glycosuria* - Presence of sugar in the urine *62. Albuminuria* - Presence of albumin in the urine P.S = Finally I found the lost note of 1st year ward rotations! Thank you!

Can I take vitamin K2 and blood thinner (aspirin) at the same time?

There are many who INCORRECTLY think that Vitamin K2 does not affect blood clotting time. THIS IS NOT THE CASE. Read below: “ Vitamin K and Blood Clotting ~Several proteins involved in blood clotting depend on vitamin K to get their job done. Blood clotting may sound like a bad thing, and sometimes it is. Yet without it, you could bleed excessively and end up dying from even a minor injury. Some people have blood clotting disorders and take a medication called warfarin to prevent the blood from clotting too easily. If you take this medication, you should keep your vitamin K intake consistent due to its powerful effects on blood clotting. Although most of the attention in this area focuses on food sources of vitamin K1, it may also be important to monitor vitamin K2 intake. One study showed that a single serving of natto rich in vitamin K2 altered measures of blood clotting for up to four days. This was a much larger effect than foods high in vitamin K1. Therefore, it is probably a good idea to monitor foods high in vitamin K1 as well as vitamin K2 if you are on the blood-thinning medication warfarin,” ​Vitamin K1 vs K2: What’s the Difference? . - - - The Emerging Role of Vitamin K2 Manouchehr Saljoughian, PharmD, PhD Department of Pharmacy, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, California, ~ US Pharm. 2012;37(1):HS-12-HS-14. Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins with similar chemical structures that are needed for blood coagulation. Research over the last few decades has shown a new and emerging role for this vitamin in treating osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Other new and exciting applications for this vitamin have been found in treating Alzheimer’s disease, skin aging, and a variety of cancers. This vitamin was discovered in the 1920s and was called “K” for koagulation due to its role in blood coagulation. Unfortunately, many people are not aware of the health benefits of vitamin K. The K vitamins have been underrated and misunderstood until very recently by both the scientific community and the general public. Although the effect of magnesium and vitamin D3 on calcium metabolism was previously known, the importance of vitamin K in regulating the healthy function of calcium has only recently been recognized. Vitamin K has now been found to have a role in putting calcium in the right places in the body, such as in the bones and blood, and preventing pathologic calcification of the vessels and soft tissues. There are three different types of vitamin K: K1, which is found in plants; K2, which is made by bacteria or fermentation; and K3, which is synthetic and, because of the generation of free radicals, is considered toxic. All members of the vitamin K group share a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure and vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position. Although these vitamins share a major physiological role, each has other distinct physiological properties. Interestingly, the body is able to convert vitamin K1 to the more active K2. 2. Unlike other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), the body does not store vitamin K. It is recycled by the body but not in significant amounts, and therefore deficiencies are common. 3. This is probably due to inadequate dietary intake, lack of cofactors, prescription drugs, and environmental stressors that place high demands on the body’s vitamin K reserves. Vitamin K Vitamers Vitamin K1 Phytonadione: This vitamin is the natural form of vitamin K, which is found in plants and provides the primary source of vitamin K to humans through dietary consumption. Vitamin K1 is a yellow, viscous oil and is soluble in vegetable oils. Vitamin K1 is also called phylloquinone since it is an indirect product of photosynthesis in plant leaves, where it occurs in chloroplasts and participates in the overall photosynthetic process. Interestingly, vitamin K1 is sensitive to sunlight (destroyed after 1 hour). It is unaffected by diluted acids but is destroyed by basic solution and transformed by reducing agents. The absorption of vitamin K1 from servings of green vegetables ranging from 200 to 400 g without added fat is only between 5% and 10%. The oral recommended dietary allowance ranges from 90 to 120 mcg/day. The oral bone preservation dose is 10 mg/day. Although the oral route is the safest way to use this vitamin, subcutaneous use is the preferred parenteral route. The intramuscular (IM) route should be avoided due to the risk of hematoma formation, and the IV route should be reserved for emergency use only. The American College of Chest Physicians recommends the IV route in patients with serious or life-threatening bleeding secondary to the use of vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone): By far the most important form of vitamin K is Vitamin K2 has several isoforms or analogues called MK-4 to MK-10. Mammals can synthesize K2 MK-4 from K1 to some degree, so dietary K1and other forms of vitamin K may contribute to K2MK-4 status. K2 MK-4 is the most active isoform. This vitamin provides major protection from osteoporosis and pathologic calcification. Calcification of the arteries and soft tissues is a major known consequence of aging. Vitamin K2 is found in animals and bacteria, including beneficial probiotic bacteria from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antibiotics interfere with normal growth of healthy bacteria and impact vitamin K2 production. It is generally believed that humans require preformed K2 in the diet to obtain optimal health. This is also supported by feeding experiments. The absorption of vitamin K2 from natto, a fermented soy food, is nearly complete. In a Japanese research study, vitamin K2 was found to decrease the risk of the development of liver cancer in female patients with viral cirrhosis, possibly by delaying the onset of the cancer. The researchers believe that a substance called geranyl-geraniol (a byproduct of vitamin K2) induces cell death in tumor cells, suggesting that it may play an important role in cell-growth inhibition. The study indicated that vitamin K2 decreased the risk of liver cancer to about 20% compared to the control group. Vitamin K supplementation delays postmenopausal bone loss. High doses of Vitamin K2 (45-90 mg/day) in combination with vitamin D3 (320 IU/day) and calcium (500 mg/day) in postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years reduced bone loss at the femoral neck by 35% to 40% compared to a control group. This happened in a period of 3 years. It is stated that if these effects continued over decades, lifelong supplementation could postpone fractures by up to 10 years. The combined supplementation of vitamin K2 and D3 and calcium at dietary relevant levels also improved bone mass density at the trabecular bone and indicated that the equivalent supplementation in patients with osteoporosis may be beneficial. The oral osteoporosis treatment dose is 45 mg of vitamin K2 daily. Although vitamin D3 has been known as the bone vitamin because it puts the osteocalcin gene into action and acts swiftly on bones, the slower acting vitamin K2 has been recognized as being just as important for bone maintenance. The human skeleton is fully replaced every 8 to 10 years with good, dense bones, and these two vitamins have a big role in the process. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a disorder related to leukemia, but unlike leukemia, MDS cells can be induced to develop into mature normal cells, and that is where vitamin K shows its role. Vitamin K treatment of bone marrow cells from patients with MDS strongly induces apoptosis of the diseased cells. Vitamin K2 also induces MDS cells to differentiate into healthy white blood cells, even when full-blown leukemia has developed. The combination of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 achieved good differentiation in a laboratory study of leukemic cells, suggesting that it might be an effective therapy for both MDS and leukemia. The oral dose for MDS is 45 to 90 mg of vitamin K2 analog MK-4 daily. Vitamin K3 (Menadione): Vitamin K3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2, which are essential for blood clotting. Menadione is a synthetic chemical compound sometimes used as a nutritional supplement because of its vitamin K activity. Despite the fact that it can serve as a precursor to various types of vitamin K, menadione is generally not used as a nutritional supplement in economically developed countries. Menadione for human use at pharmaceutical strength is available in some countries with large lower-income populations. Large doses of menadione have been reported to cause adverse outcomes including hemolytic anemia due to deficiency of the G6PD enzyme, neonatal brain or liver damage, or neonatal death in some rare cases. In the United States, menadione supplements are banned by the FDA because of their potential toxicity. Conversion of Vitamin K1 to K2 The ability to convert vitamin K1 to K2 varies widely between species and breeds of animals. Vitamins K1 and K2 chemically share a common ring-structured nucleus but possess different types of side chains. The first step in the conversion of K1 to K2 appears to be the cleavage of its side chain in either the liver or the GI tract, yielding vitamin K3 or menadione; much of this metabolite is detoxified by the liver and excreted in the urine, while the remaining portion can be used to synthesize K2 in tissues. Humans require dietary preformed vitamin K2 for optimal health, due to its superiority over K1. Vitamin K2 is at least three times more effective than vitamin K1at activating proteins related to skeletal metabolism. While intake of vitamin K2 is inversely associated with heart disease in humans, the intake of vitamin K1 is not. This nutritional superiority makes it clear why it is important to use food rich in vitamin K2 like the organs and fats of grass-fed animals and the deeply colored orange butter from animals grazing on rich pastures. Mode of Action Vitamin K is necessary for the normal clotting of blood in humans. Specifically, vitamin K is required for the liver to make several factors that are necessary for blood to properly clot. Vitamin K2 works by acting as a cofactor in the carboxylation of glutamic acid via an enzyme (gamma glutamyl carboxylate) to form a modified form of glutamic acid called gamma carboxyglutamic acid (GCGA) in a variety of critical plasma proteins. Without this step, the regulation of calcium concentration will be affected in various tissues. There are a number of different forms of GCGA proteins: osteocalcin is the most abundant GCGA protein and is synthesized in bones; the blood-clotting factors are synthesized in the liver, and the matrix proteins are synthesized in the cartilage and in the vessel walls of arteries. Without vitamin K, these proteins are inactive for their intended functions. These four organs (bones, liver, cartilage, and arterial walls) are able to pull vitamin K from the blood. However, the liver will uptake more vitamin K than the other organs to make clotting factors and leave cartilage and bones with inadequate levels of GCGA proteins. To keep the vasculature clear of accumulating calcium and the bones well supplied with calcium, supplemental vitamin K is necessary. It has been identified that enzymes without the GCGA component are unable to mobilize calcium and place it into the bone where it belongs. The subclinical vitamin K deficiency in a large portion of the population will lead to symptoms of osteoporosis and acute coronary disease. The FDA’s current recommendations for vitamin K dosage are based solely on the liver’s requirement alone. The requirements of vitamin K range from 5 mcg for infants up to 120 mcg for adult males and 90 mcg for adult females per day. Several research projects have demonstrated that vitamin K1, and especially vitamin K2, may provide some of the best protection against calcification of the arteries and osteoporosis. A unique mechanism of vitamin K’s activity is so-called oncosis, a form of stress-activated ischemic cell death to which tumor cells are particularly susceptible. Because of their high growth rate, tumor cells consume large amounts of glucose. They then quickly outgrow their blood supplies and, due to this high metabolism, use up oxygen rapidly, leaving them especially vulnerable to oxidative stress. Vitamin K2 targets tumor cells for destruction by stimulating oxidative stress, without toxicity to healthy tissues. Antagonists Warfarin is a blood-thinning drug that functions by inhibiting vitamin K–dependent clotting factors. Warfarin is prescribed for people with various heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, artificial heart valves, clotting disorders (hypercoagulability), or placement of indwelling catheters/ports. Usually, blood tests must be done regularly to evaluate the extent of blood thinning, using a test for prothrombin time (PT) or international normalized ratio (INR). Vitamin K can decrease the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and will therefore lower the PT or INR value. This may increase the risk of clotting. People taking warfarin are usually warned to avoid foods with high vitamin K1 content (such as green leafy vegetables) and to avoid vitamin K1 supplements. Conversely, vitamin K1 is used to treat overdoses or excess anticoagulant effects of warfarin and to reverse the effects of warfarin prior to surgery or other procedures. Because the effects of warfarin on anticoagulation are usually delayed by several days, the PT/INR may not increase immediately at the time of overdose. If a patient’s blood becomes too thin, the person should be placed under strict medical supervision and may use oral or injected vitamin K1 to help reverse the effects of warfarin. The anticoagulation reversal dose is one dose of 2.5 mg of vitamin K1 followed by immediate reevaluation ”, The Emerging Role of Vitamin K2 .

What is your opinion on automated cars?

Hi there Andre, pal. Thanks for the A2A. [NB to you techies out there. Much of this is supposed to be funny, and only kind of critical. So don’t get your underdraws in a twist.] I’m going to turn off the comments on this one because I’m an ancient old bat, and not even my daughter agrees with me on this. It doesn’t help she’s dating a robotics engineer. The first time I met him he got this glazed look of bliss on his face when he described self-driving cars. He looked very much like my patients who were on methadone, about 30 minutes after med time. My best brother was a year younger than I. Our favorite activity at grandma’s was standing in front of the window the overlooked our tiny town and one big street. We’d pick what cars we wanted to BE, nevermind which ones were our favorites. I wanted to be a ’63 impala. He wanted to be some kind of Chrysler. He bought his first car, a ’62 Rambler, when he was 12. for $5. Imagine my mother’s delight when he parked it in our front yard, the first of many cars to reside there. This is one in PERFECT condition. His was $5 worth of metal. Just what every Italian family and neighborhood wants as a lawn ornament. Like those yards off Hylan Blvd. on SI, where the grass is stunningly green, and looks trimmed with manicure scissors. Second was a white MG, also $5, which had ABSOLUTELY NONE, NO FLOOR AT ALL. We drove it by putting a board across the frame. For a long time, no matter how depressed, sad, happy, gleeful, fun loving, existential, or whatever I felt, my mood improved if I went out for a drive. I’ve had my license for 50 years, and got 2 moving violations. When I was 17, and leaving HS for the day to go to work, I rolled thru a stop sign. The officer, who had been dating my pretty aunt until two months prior, pulled me over and gave me a ticket for “failure to come to a complete stop.” I was sobbing so hard I’m pretty sure he regretted it afterwards. He used to take my brother and me fishing, and was always nice to us. My aunt found him a little too dull and we had to pay the price. The second one was 24 years later, on the day I returned to work, AFTER BEING OUT ON MATERNITY LEAVE. At the time, I drove a 10 year old Volvo, one of those really boxy, heavy, 4 cylinder ones. It was in like new condition. Like this: This picture doesn’t do it justice. It had a 2 liter engine, and weighed close to 3,000 lbs. It wasn’t capable of speeding. I got a “driving faster than ramp speed” (40 in a 35 mph zone) getting off the highway. Again, I burst into tears, this time with a cute state trooper I didn’t know. It wasn’t for effect. “But officer, I JUST HAD A BABY!!!” I sobbed. It was lovely day in spring, I was wearing a flattering green dress, and thanks to my daughter, who’d given me heartburn the last four months of pregnancy (and not for the last time), I had only put on pregnancy weight. I was kind of a cutie myself. I think that’s mostly why I got stopped. I can’t turn on the tears for something like this, but it did seem unfair. He reduced the fine from $160 to $45. Anyone who’s driven these gorgeous old Volvos will know what I mean when I said I couldn’t speed in it. It’s been 25 years since then, and knock wood, no more moving violations. As much as I love NYC, me and NYC don’t do so good on parking violations. I’m tawkin’ outerboro NYC. I’m perfectly capable of getting my own tickets, but once my daughter parked my car in a no parking 7A - 7P area in Rego Park, didn’t look at the signs, and next day, when I walked to get the car as she directed me, voila! No car, not mine, not any. The neighbor told me to call impound at College Point. College Point sounds like it might be part of Yale campus, no? Green, perfectly attended Gothic architecture, on the water? It’s actually the land of junkyards, hideous, without a scrap of grass, and the only building was the trailer in the impound lot. You can see the people flying out of LaGuardia picking their noses, that’s how close it is to the runways. We had to take 3 buses on the hottest day of August, including one packed bus in Flushing where the elderly rule was completely forgotten. Impound already told me I’d better have a current license, proof of insurance, and $400+ with me. That was just the impound fee. The fines were another $150. But when I saw my mom-mobile, the 2003 Pilot I’d driven for years, I nearly cried with relief. My daughter grew up in that car. Other reasons to drive: This isn’t MY car, but similar. I would never buy the turbo. Mine was the 2004 with sports handling and a five speed. I had never owned such a reliable, safe, fast, fun to drive, luxurious car before, and probably never will again. It got nearly 30 mpg, and did 80 without breaking a sweat. It stuck to curves like glue. And when I was younger, sportier, and less practical, I bought 2 of these (the first was stolen): Again, not my car, but very similar. There weren’t digital cameras for the public in the early 70’s. It’s a 1966 british racing green MGB. I had the nicer wood steering wheel. There was never a less reliable car on earth. But on a sunny day, I’d take the top down at the State Capitol parking lot, which was on my route home, and feel like a million dollars. I drove it to Halifax, Nova Scotia when I was 20. The Transcanadian wasn’t finished at the time. As I entered city limits, the low slung muffler hit a rock, and was torn off at the engine head. Imagine the fun of driving 800 miles without a muffler. Approximately 100 decibels. That doesn’t even take into account the CO factor. When I put the roof up, as the day turned into night on the unfinished Transcanadian, I was in instant CO chamber. But to this day, if you ask me about the MGB, I’ll only sigh like I was in love. What do you do with all the time you’re in a self driving car? Look at the scenery (often boring) Read (I spend an excessive amount of time reading already) For the young and more hormone driven, activities I don’t need to tell you about (because I can’t remember) Watch TV? (I’m sure I won’t get TCM, and since the demise of beloved Robert Osborne, even THAT’s not so good any more). I don’t like the idea of the car being the boss. It’s like F***ing GPS. Sure, I’d never have found my daughter’s apartment in Queens without it. But there are days it takes me through the weirdest routes imaginable, because IT people designed it. I don’t want to be in a vehicle that had any inheritance from Steven Jobs, Jeff Bezos, or countless Silicon Valley or NYC IT “geniuses.” My son in law to be possibly is a sweetheart, a simple boy from Texas, and he loves his supercomputer, Anton, and my daughter. In that order. Most IT nerds don’t understand the thrill of driving. Even those that make big money and buy expensive cars couldn’t have a relationship like I had with my MGB, my various Volvos, and even my Pilot. Some drive them to announce to the world, “I am NOT a nerd.” OK, well, then, why not stop wearing cargo shorts to the company picnic? Why not stop tucking in your striped polo shirt to your pleated chinos? Don’t argue with me about this. I was married for decades to the person now the senior bridge designer in my state. His father designed NASA prototype space suits. HIS father designed parts of the NYC subway and reservoir systems. His maternal grandfather was the Commissioner of Roads for the state of Virginia until his bipolar disorder got the best of him. He drew the dining room doors shut and blew his brains out with his heirloom shotgun. IF THERE’S ANYTHING I KNOW, IT’S HOW ENGINEERS THINK. Which isn’t to say I don’t love ya guys. Who can resist a guy whose smoothest pick up line is telling you how antennae work (the kind on old radios), which both my son in law and ex- used? Worse, my daughter & BF are close enough so that she spent a week in Texas with him over the holidays. He’s the biggest fan of self-driving cars I know, which pains me terribly. What did they do for fun? His father, a senior engineer for Dell, and BF took her out for a ride in father’s hopped up Tesla. Speed limits are real high in TX, and unlike NYC, there’s not a camera on every cactus or corner. In places, you couldn’t find a corner to save your life. Living in the northeast all my life, I cannot even understand what it would be like to drive on a road that had a sightline longer than a mile. Roads are built to conform to the terrain, which is not flat, endless desert. His father, even a bigger flirt than his son, hit the red button on the Tesla. 90 mph, no problem! Please spare me the sight of self-driven cars. I plan to be alive for another 20 years or so, and to keep my vision to the end. After that, knock yourself out.

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